Earth Week With Lightning2


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Earth Week With Lightning2

  1. 1. EARTH WEEK With Stephen Fenech
  2. 2. FOCUS <ul><li>L.C.D. ’s </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s Right? CO 2 Cause or Effect? </li></ul><ul><li>Facts of Fragility </li></ul><ul><li>Issues & Impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul>
  3. 3. TOURISTS ON EARTH <ul><li>The Earth has been around for a very long time and we have not. Even the experts and scientists can only examine data they perceive to be pertinent and draw educated conclusions based on their perceptions. The bottom line is nobody really knows FOR SURE. </li></ul>
  4. 4. TOPICS <ul><li>ECOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>BIODIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>CLIMATE CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>CONSERVATION </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lowest Common Denominators <ul><li>Population Supply and Demand Food, Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Money Economic and Political Power </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun The Source and The Culprit?? </li></ul><ul><li>Many Other Factors </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Preconception
  7. 7. The Reality
  8. 8. Overpopulation
  9. 9. The First Step The First Step
  10. 11. Pioneering . & Learning
  11. 12. Proof is In The Pudding The Native Spirital Connection To The Land
  12. 14. Ecology –Gk (oikos -home) Science of the relationship between organisms and their environments . Draws on many different science fields. .
  13. 15. Subdivisions Of Ecology <ul><li>ORGANISM </li></ul><ul><li>Plants Animals Microbial </li></ul><ul><li>HABITAT </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial Limnology Oceanography </li></ul><ul><li>BIOMES & BIOSPHERE – the 4’th envelope </li></ul><ul><li>collections of similar organisms </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROSPHERE LITHOSPHERE ATMOSPHERE </li></ul>
  14. 16. Organism Plant
  15. 17. Organism Animal
  16. 18. Organism Microbial
  17. 19. Terrestrial Habitat
  18. 20. Limnology Habitat
  19. 21. Oceanography Habitat … all together comprise the Biomes that make up our Biosphere
  20. 22. … Life is based on cycles and begins with the SUN Water Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen
  21. 23. The Food Web (another cycle) Energy Photosynthesis Herbivores (producers) ….
  22. 24. Carnivores (consumers)
  23. 25. Decomposers (includes bacteria, fungus )
  24. 26. The Whole process can ONLY be replenished by Green Plants ’ exposure to the SUN … Eventually if undisturbed the Ecosystem or Biome goes through a process of Succession ….
  25. 27. Climax Communities Tundra
  26. 28. Grassland
  27. 29. Desert
  28. 30. Ecological Crisis Occurs when there is a loss of the adaptive capacity and resilience of the environment, species or population. They evolve in an unfavourable way OR they can’t cope with a disturbance in the Ecosystem.
  29. 31. 2 Kinds of Crisis GLOBAL – Rise in Sea Level
  30. 32. LOCAL – Oil Spill
  31. 33. Endangerment Can cause Extinction but will definitely affect quality of life of remaining individuals (reduction in air quality, living space, famine, disease ) Examples: HABITAT DESTRUCTION INTRO EXOTIC SPECIES OVEREXPLOITATION
  32. 34. Habitat Destruction Panama
  33. 35. Culprits of Habitat Destruction <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Human Activity </li></ul>
  34. 41. Introduction Of Exotic Species
  35. 42. Overexploitation Chinese Apothecary
  36. 43. EXTINCTION 1. STABLE - Cessation of a species or group reducing biodiversity Classification
  37. 44. 2. THREATENED
  38. 45. 3. CRITICAL
  39. 46. 4. EXTINCT Every species is unique and so is it’s extinction
  40. 47. 5. LAZERUS TAXON
  41. 48. EXTERPATION local extinction
  42. 49. Pseudo Extinction A daughter species survives but doesn’t carry all the original DNA
  43. 50. Causes of Extinction 1. Genetic & Demographic <ul><li>Small population </li></ul><ul><li>more vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>(cockroaches) </li></ul>
  44. 51. 2. Habitat Degradation (shock or chronic) <ul><li>Diminished resources </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul>
  45. 52. 3. Predation, Competition, Disease <ul><li>Rats escaping boat </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive alien species </li></ul><ul><li>Animals hunted to extinction </li></ul>
  46. 53. 4. Co-Extinction The loss of one species may lead to the inevitable loss of another. Damming a river, the beaver creates a niche for several other animals dependant on the created lake. If the beaver is lost so too are the dependant animals or fish. Parasitic insects losing their host is another example. If Bees become extinct it is widely believed that it would precipitate our co-extinction shortly after
  47. 54. MASS EXTINCTION <ul><li>5 Major Ones in the history of life </li></ul><ul><li>K-T Extinction Event -last one wiped out the dinosaurs (65 million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists believe we are in the early stages of a human caused mass extinction called the Holocene Extinction Event </li></ul>Planned Extinction : small pox virus, malaria carrying species of mosquitoes Cloning : hypothetically possible to bring back extinct species but no success yet
  48. 55. BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>Studies the way natural systems work and how they “got that way” </li></ul><ul><li>Originates from Ecology and Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>It is the result of 4 billion years of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>So many species because no one species can be perfect trade-offs & specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities are reducing biodiversity </li></ul>
  49. 56. Benefits Of Biodiversity <ul><li>Food & Drink </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine most drugs come from biological sources </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Materials wood, rubber, adhesives </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Services sibilance, recycling of </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients (volcanoes, forest fires) </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure Cultural and Aesthetic Value </li></ul>
  50. 57. 3 Levels of Biodiversity 1. Genetic DNA are the building blocks and represent the Raw material for evolution. More diverse the DNA the more it evolves and adapts
  51. 58. 2. Species Focus because it’s easier to work with (Leopard)
  52. 59. 3. Ecosystem Very Complex -deals with species’ distribution, community, associations - examines levels on the Food chain and species on each - difficult to define Transitions Shift gradually not sharp
  53. 60. Island Biogeography <ul><li>Isolation + Evolution = Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Chance species will land on an island depends on how far it is from the mainland </li></ul>
  54. 61. Island could be a lake or an isolated patch of unique habitat Anton Valley
  55. 62. Ocelot
  56. 63. GAINING BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>MUTATION - altering genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIATION – Creation of new species through isolation, </li></ul><ul><li>competition and polyploidy </li></ul><ul><li>IMMIGRATION - entering a new area </li></ul><ul><li>SUCCESSION - process area gains and replaces species until </li></ul><ul><li>CLIMAX Community reached </li></ul>Polyploidy describes An organism or cell with more than two sets of chromosomes
  57. 64. Loch Ness Speciation
  58. 65. Galapagos Islands Immigration
  59. 66. Succession Lake Nakuru
  60. 67. LOSING BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>EXTINCTION </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>DISTURBANCES </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTLENECKS </li></ul>Competition
  61. 68. Disturbances
  62. 69. Eliminates population and keeps area at an early level of succession
  63. 70. Threats to Biodiversity Species are the Foundation to the Ecosystem.
  64. 71. Habitat Destruction Pollution
  65. 72. Human Consumption
  66. 73. Industrialization
  67. 74. ACID RAIN : an end result From Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide released into atmosphere by industry 1960 recognized 1980’s acted upon 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act 1995 43% reduction 1980 BUT… acid precipitation will continue to damage sensitive ecosystems even if all targets are met
  68. 75. Exotic Species By bringing goats to the Galapagos Islands, man introduced 2+ species that never would have met under natural circumstances
  69. 76. Man can also be the invader
  70. 77. Climate Change and Natural Changes can threaten Biodiversity
  71. 78. Conservation: 2 Types In situ setting up protected areas
  72. 79. Ex situ nurseries protecting large populations
  73. 80. Virunga Forest in the D.R.O.C .
  74. 84. CLIMATE CHANGE Climate: long term statistical expression of Short term weather Climate Change Change in a region’s average temperature and weather patterns or basically the expected weather
  75. 85. The Climate War <ul><li>CO 2 is causing Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans will rise when polar ice cap melts </li></ul><ul><li>Man is the chief culprit by releasing Green house gases like C0 2 and methane into the atmosphere burning fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 is 0.54% of atmosphere not the cause but an effect </li></ul><ul><li>800 year lag between temp and CO 2 levels because of deep ocean </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 ^ temp drops </li></ul><ul><li>Sunspots chief culprit as witnessed in Mini Ice Age (15’th Century) </li></ul>INCONVENIENT TRUTH ALTERNATE TRUTH
  76. 86. Common Points <ul><li>Climate is always changing </li></ul><ul><li>Noticeable shift after the Industrial Revolution 1850’s </li></ul><ul><li>There is a direct link between CO 2 levels and temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Climate has a memory </li></ul>Both sides are looking for validation or perhaps fame and they both have arguments that carry weight but the truth is they are all hypothesis and I conclude there could be any number of factors separate or combined and more research is required.
  77. 87. Feedback Loops Causal Cycles <ul><li>Positive Feedback Loops (bad) </li></ul><ul><li>reinforce the initial change </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Feedback Loops ( good) </li></ul><ul><li>counteract the initial change leading to equilibrium </li></ul>The Climate Scientist’s Math : Positive > Negative Severity of Human Induced Climate change has the potential of irreversibility
  78. 88. Positive Feedback Loop: Ice Albedo Effect (reflectivity) The Cryosphere <ul><li>If we go from a Reflective to an Absorptive surface we change the fundamental energy dynamic of the entire planet </li></ul>Atmosphere Becomes Warmer Melting Ice Lower Reflectivity Ocean Absorbs More Energy
  79. 89. CLIMATE CHANGE FACTORS <ul><li>Oceans and Ice Caps </li></ul><ul><li>Impact Of Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Forcing Salinity the Mid Atlantic Current </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s Orbit (Solar Output) </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Variations </li></ul><ul><li>Changes Within Earth’s Environment </li></ul>Day After Tomorrow
  80. 90. FACT: Glaciation <ul><li>Most sensitive indicator of Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>In the last century have not been able to regenerate ice lost in summer </li></ul>
  81. 91. Glaciers and the Ice Cap reflect light and heat back into space. Without them we can absorb more heat from the sun
  82. 92. FACT: Ocean Variability The Ocean and Atmosphere are constantly interacting exchanging energy, Co2 etc. Anomalies such as El Nino can drastically alter weather around the World.
  83. 93. FACT: Climate Memory Climate Variance can stem from the history of how it got there . Long Droughts in areas can lead to diminished rainfall for years after the drought is finished. Ethiopia
  84. 94. Non Climate Factors Driving Warming 1. Greenhouse Gases Co2 absorbed by Forests & Ocean Radiative Forcing
  85. 95. 2. Plate Tectonics
  86. 96. 3. Volcanism Part of Co2 cycle
  87. 97. <ul><li>Human Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels Aerosols Land Use </li></ul>Transition From Petroleum Age To Post Petroleum Age
  88. 98. 5. Solar Variation Sun’s getting brighter 6.Orbital Variation our orbit can lead to changes in distribution & abundance of sunlight
  89. 99. EVIDENCE OF CHANGE mostly indirect Glacial Geology Glacial Geology Moraines left Behind (Mt. Cook)
  90. 100. Ice Cores Tree Rings Glacial Retreat Sea Levels
  91. 101. Historical Records
  92. 102. The real effect Permafrost
  93. 103. Desertification
  94. 104. Effect of Climate Change on Biodiversity <ul><li>Life cycle of many plants and animals linked to season </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent species will lose synch </li></ul><ul><li>Territory lost after forced migration </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds proliferate at expense of scarcer species </li></ul>Sibilance…Sort Of If Bees disappear … we wouldn’t be far behind
  95. 105. Humanitarian Effects of Climate Change <ul><li>More competition </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security & Water supply </li></ul><ul><li>More pressure on crop yields </li></ul><ul><li>Peace and security </li></ul><ul><li>Health, epidemics sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>(malaria will occur at higher altitudes) </li></ul>Environmental migrations most predominant in Sub-Saharan countries like Mali
  96. 106. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change exaserbates the countries dire state. 40% of Mongolia’s 2.6 million people lack safe drinking water = high incidence diarrheal disease child malnutrition and mortality subsist with sheep but they need water too. wells drying up </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Mongolia
  97. 107. Other Effects Rising Sea Levels Cryosphere If all the Ice in Greenland and Antarctica melts sea levels could rise by 70 m
  98. 108. … Will cause Flooding
  99. 109. Extreme Weather
  100. 111. Extreme Weather
  101. 115. Human Health
  102. 116. REFUGEES Forced Migrations Inland
  103. 117. Crowding of Cities: Shanty Towns
  104. 118. Disease & Pestilence Pandemics Swine Flu in Mexico
  105. 119. Effect on Developing Countries Worse AIDS Orphanage in Burkina Faso
  106. 120. Remoteness Climate Change lies strictly out of the influence of the Poor
  107. 121. Political Turmoil
  108. 122. Civil Unrest
  109. 123. Severe Impact on Flora and Fauna Etosha National Park, Namibia
  110. 124. Proliferation of Invasive Species <ul><li>Pine Bark Beetles in B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>With warmer climate they are reproducing more than once and are now decimating BC’s Pine Forest and are now starting to cross the Rockies threatening the Rest of Canada’s Boreal Forest </li></ul>Climate Change Hits Home: An Ecological Crisis
  111. 125. KYOTO Protocol International Agreement designed to reduce Greenhouse Gases by 5% under 1990 levels by the year 2012. Came into effect February 2005 too conservative billion more than forecast some alarmists say G8 half <ul><li>Political Issues: U.S. want weaker legislation (LCD $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>2009 update 385 ppm CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>if exceed 450 ppm Pos Feedback Loop </li></ul>Get to Zero asap 100 yr = 33% 1000yr =20%
  112. 126. Implementing Kyoto: Developed Country OVERVIEW AUSTRALIA Renewable and non-renewable Export coal =economics Air quality pollution issues Solar, Wind, Biomass Water Crisis compared to American Dustbowl of Thitrties try implement Wave Power
  113. 127. Implementing Kyoto: Developing Countries <ul><li>OVERVIEW MADAGASCAR </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Runaway erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Political and economic woes </li></ul><ul><li>Most living in poverty </li></ul>
  114. 130. Industrializing Nations: CHINA 3 Gorges Dam + 3 more 2009 Shanghai sediment landslides 50m tsunamis deaths
  115. 131. Lesson learned or not in Lesotho
  116. 132. Industrializing Nations: INDIA
  118. 134. Different Ideology: INDONESIA
  119. 135. Changing Lifestyles: UGANDA <ul><li>Tourist Fiasco </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of new people for logging </li></ul><ul><li>affect Pygmies traditional ways </li></ul><ul><li>Hired to shoot animals with guns </li></ul>
  120. 136. EROI’s Energy Return On Investment <ul><li>How Much Energy do we get back for Energy spent to get Energy ? </li></ul>Texas 30’s 100:1 Current 17:1 Tar Sands 4:1 Ethanol 1:1 <ul><li>The more technology advances , the more energy is required to sustain it </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change will require lots of energy to address exactly at time </li></ul><ul><li>when we are transitioning from abundant cheap energy sources to scarce </li></ul><ul><li>expensive ones. Not fully understood by academic community </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Addressing Climate Change Examples Pump H20 from new wet areas to new dry areas </li></ul><ul><li>Relocate Coastal cities Desalination Pump billions tonnes of co2 underground </li></ul>Wood Now Reversing Coal 80:1 Oil Nat. Gas The Paradox A Universal Kyoto Obstacle Post Petroleum Age
  121. 137. Beacons of Hope: ANTARCTICA
  122. 138. Montreal Protocol: ... 1982 signed …1999 success The Antarctic Convergence CFC’s were killing Ozone (filters radiation) effect on microscopic marine life, skin cancer, immunity
  123. 139. Ecotourism: A mandate of IAATO
  124. 140. <ul><li>1991 Antarctic Treaty for Environmental Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Co-op with local Gov’ts and scientific foundations. Protect krill </li></ul>
  125. 141. And by protecting the krill you protect …
  126. 145. Antarctica has one of the most fragile of all ecosystems
  127. 146. Malaysia
  128. 151. Continued Research: International Polar Year From March 2007, 10 000 Scientists began conducting 2 year study of the polar regions (most sensitive) co-ordinate research initiative and inspire new scientists. They will reconvene on August 2009 to present their findings
  129. 152. Green Energy Initiatives Renewable Energy Sources that do not damage the environment
  130. 153. Brazil: Ethanol from Sugar Cane Excellent subsidies for farmers but Low EROI
  131. 154. BIOMASS Power Wood & Animal Dung FACT The potential energy wasted every year from wood and paper being thrown away by North Americans could supply 5 million people for 200 years !
  132. 155. WIND Power Enough Wind Resources to meet twice the Global Need in 2020 New Windmills Stay aloft in the Jet Stream powerful untapped resource
  133. 156. TIDE Power Lumkara in Russia Bay of Fundy in Canada
  134. 157. HYDRO Electricity
  135. 158. SOLAR Power There is enough energy generated from the Sun to meet 10 000 times our global need
  136. 159. WAVE Power BUT….. <ul><li>Harnassing the Waves </li></ul><ul><li>viable energy source </li></ul><ul><li>desalination in Oz </li></ul>Portugal … the economy
  137. 160. GEOTHERMIC Power Pingveller Iceland
  138. 163. Education: A lesson from Bhutan Their Practical Zen
  139. 165. In a recent study Kyoto and Beyond it has been proven that we can cut Greenhouse Gases in half with existing technology while maintaining our quality of life and economic growth in a business as usual policy. The Key is Motivation and Knowledge. SUSTAINABILITY Planned Cities William Macdonough
  140. 166. Some International Groups Focused on Positive Change <ul><li>WCU - World Conservation Union </li></ul><ul><li>WFN - World Wildlife Fund For Nature </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO - preserving World Heritage Sites </li></ul><ul><li>OXFAM – monitors the science and politics of Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>ICSWMO - doing the 2 year polar study </li></ul><ul><li>IAATO – Focuses on Antarctica’s Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Green Peace – working with industry & gov ’t trying to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy solutions for 2 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC – Int’l Panel on Climate Change </li></ul>
  141. 167. The Conventional / Radical Continuum (Ontario) <ul><li>Efficiency & Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Coal (With CO 2 Captured & Pumped Underground </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere CO 2 capture $$ For CO 2 entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>GeoEngineering (aerosols scary Michael Crichton) </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shift on Economic Growth (spread the wealth David Suzuki) shock to our systems: economic political </li></ul>The More We Have The More Problems We Have. Some of the Happiest People I have met live on less than 2 bucks a day CONVENTIONAL RADICAL
  142. 168. Positive Steps In Canada <ul><li>City of Calgary uses Wind power for Rapid Transit </li></ul><ul><li>Edmonton cutting fuel consumption of public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Toronto cools the air in the CBD through a marvelous network of cooling pipes out of Lake Ontario ALSO more federal funding to TTC buses. Starting to use biofuel </li></ul>
  143. 169. Ontario’s Future Initiatives . <ul><li>The province is exploring new initiatives such as a new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Work like a reverse refrigerator to wean the province off it’s heavy demand on home heating energy costs especially in Wintertime </li></ul>
  144. 170. <ul><li>Leave the Car Parked use your bicycle </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off Appliances not used </li></ul><ul><li>Eat Meat Free at least once a week </li></ul><ul><li>Eat Organic Food In Season </li></ul><ul><li>Compost </li></ul><ul><li>Thermostat Up in Summer Down Winter </li></ul><ul><li>Use your Blue Box and Green Box </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the Word </li></ul>What You Can Do… Reduce That Carbon Footprint The Water Bottle Fiasco
  145. 171. It’s All About Cycles Natural Cycles (recycling) Causal Cycles (Feedback Loops) Perpetual Motion and Getting The Ball Rolling
  146. 172. We Need To Take Serious Stewardship Of Our Planet. Natural Systems work because there Are No Design Flaws. We are Solely Responsible for introducing those flaws to the Planet. Ergo It is our Duty To Remove Them EQUILIBRIUM
  147. 173. It’s Your Future Crisis is the Impetus Of Creativity
  148. 174. The End