ESSAYS HANDOUTCONTRIBUTED BY KHAWAJA MAZHAR IFTIKHARKey points in essay writing: 1. At ICAP exam choose a topic which you know the best and which you can write on easily. So make the right choice. 2. Prepare a mental outline. 3. Start from a new page. Write question no. Do not forget to write the title of the essay. 4. Write the introductory paragraph. This could be of half page length or even less. 5. Second paragraph should establish the topic. Discuss the main idea and than introduce supporting ideas one by one. 6. Conclusion is very important. You must conclude your essay.Do’s and don’ts: 1. Do write neatly and clearly. This will create a good impression on the examiner. 2. Do not cut or over-write. This will mar the impression of your writing. 3. Do not make headings of your essay. Write your ideas in paragraphs. One idea one paragraph. 4. Do check your grammar and vocabulary. Write simple, plain and easy to understand language. Do not use words which could make the message vague.SOME IMPORTANT ESSAYS IN POINT FORMESSAY NO 1.International Economic Crisis 1. Definition:Global recession is the sharp deterioration of economic health of the countries, namely: a plummet of manufacturing, bankruptcy of enterprises, a big rise of unemployment and finally – the decrease in the standard of living, well- being of the population. 2. Economic System cyclic form.. 3. Decrease in world gross national product, falling of a standard of living in the majority of the countries including in developed and also global chaos and depression. 4. High oil prices, food inflation, credit crises, bankruptcy, unemployment, job cuts. 5. Trade: Global trade fell by 50 %, as the credit crunch made it difficult for exporters to obtain letters of credit. 6. Inflation: global inflation in double digits. 7. Unemployment: 50 million job cuts predicted.
ESSAY NO 2IMF and Pakistan 1. Pakistan worst hit by its weak economy and global recession. 2. Foreign reserve depletion. 3. Requested friends of Pakistan for monetary assistance. 4. Went to IMF. Got bail out package of US $7.6 billion. 5. IMF conditions: eliminating all subsidies on energy, petroleum products, and fertilizer; slashing government spending, including "non-priority" development spending; and raising taxes. 6. Lending rates raised by 2 percent. 7. High interest rates damaging for local industry, business and trade. 8. Businesses will suffer, massive job cuts in the coming time. 9. Govt of Pakistan agreed to reduce budget deficit from 7.4 percent of GDP to 3.3 percent by 2010. 10. Spending to be reduced. Tax collection to be done firmly. 11. Slow growth of Pak economy due to international conditions. 12. No demand by IMF on reducing defense expenditure. 13. Need to control imbalances.ESSAY NO 3Education system in Pakistan 1. Inherited a weak education system in 1947. 2. Given low priority on national agenda. 3. 2.4 of GDP being spent on education, which is very little. 4. Over ¼, or 48 million, of the country’s 165 million people cannot read or write. 5. Due to public education failures, children sent to either madrassahs or private schools. 6. Different instruction mediums. 7. Shortage of educated and qualified teachers at school, college and university levels. 8. Weak infrastructure. 9. Co-education issues.
10. Poor examination systems. 11. Need for reforms at district, provincial and centre level. 12. Commitment and support of political governments. 13. Large allocation of budget. 14. Short, medium and long term planning required.ESSAY NO 4Environmental Pollution and ways to reduce it 1. Define environmental pollution. 2. Describe types of pollution. 3. A major concern for the world. 4. Developed and developing countries all affected. 5. Mention world most environmentally polluted countries. 6. Efforts needed at different levels to handle the problem. 7. Solar energy 8. Wind energy 9. Geothermal energy 10. Bio fuels 11. Green cars 12. Recycling 13. Awareness 14. RegulationsESSAY NO 5Economy of Pakistan 1. 25th largest economy in the world. 2. Economy suffered for decades due to internal political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. 3. Economic growth witnessed in past one decade. 6 % in 2004-6. 4. Development spending raised. 5. Fiscal deficit due to low tax collection and increased spending. 6. Inflation recorded as high as 25 %. 7. Low foreign exchange reserve. 8. Security situation led to economic instability. 9. Crash in the value of pak rupee. Dollar went up from Rs 60 to Rs 80. 10. To handle imbalances, external monetary support being sought.
11. Debts piling up. 12. Low investment due to security situation.ESSAY NO 6Indo-Pak relations 1. Hardly enjoyed cordial relations since 1947. 2. Primary reason the core issue of conflict 3. Three wars and several armed conflicts over the issue. 4. Hardened positions. Several rounds of talk but solution yet to be seen. 5. Nuclear capability acquired by India and Pakistan followed suit. 6. Both nuclear armed neighbors are the focus of world attention. 7. Covert operations carried out against one another. 8. Blame game for destabilizing the governments. 9. Pakistan blames India for promoting and sponsoring anti-Pakistan elements in FATA and Balochistan. 10. India blames Pakistan for promoting insurgency in Kashmir. 11. Talks and not war is the only solution. 12. World community needs to play a vital role. 13. Both countries face huge social problems. Can divert their resources for the welfare of their people.ESSAY NO 7Socio-economic problems of Pakistan 1. Myriad of socio-economic problems 2. Education, health, population, unemployment, inflation, corruption etc. 3. Inherited weak infrastructure. 4. No serious effort by successive governments. 5. Instability of political regimes and frequent military interventions. 6. Large part of budgets allocated to defence and debt retirement. 7. Socio-economic funds used for political gains. 8. Inconsistency in the system. Even good systems are not carried forward. 9. Weak institutions: especially judiciary and election commission of Pakistan. 10. Huge expenditure on non-developmental areas/projects. 11. Lack of political will and commitment. 12. Holistic approach needed 13. Short, medium and long term planning required.
ESSAY NO 8Terrorism 1. Is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion. At present, there is no internationally agreed definition of terrorism. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants. A person who practices terrorism is a terrorist. 2. It involves violence. 3. Psychological impact and fear is created. 4. Perpetrated for a particular goal. 5. Deliberate targeting of non combatants. 6. Disguise. 7. Terrorist groups 8. Pakistan hit by wave of terrorism especially after 9-11 9. Decision to side with US 10. Suicide bombings. 11. Combatant and non-combatants attacked. 12. Security to be immediately beefed up as step one. 13. Roots of terrorism within and outside of country should be located. 14. Long term plans to address the issue of terrorism should be drawn.ESSAY NO 9Globalization 1. Taking business beyond one’s country. 2. Air travel and internet. 3. Multi-national corporations. 4. Generate 80 % of world revenue. 5. More than 50 % of their revenues outside their own countries. 6. Offshore production and franchise system. 7. Example of McDonald’s. 8. Example of Fed Ex. 9. Example of Coke. 10. Local industry effected. 11. Global workforce.
ESSAY NO 10Role of IT 1. Most profound impact 2. Changed the way work is done 3. Speed, efficiency and effectiveness. 4. Made world a global village. 5. E- Business 6. B 2 B 7. B 2 C 8. Examples of work processes 9. Air industry 10. Office automation 11. Reduction in labor costs for organization 12. TelecommunicationESSAY NO 11Security situation in Pakistan 1. Afghan war. 2. Withdrawal of US forces. 3. Emergence of Talibaan. 4. 9-11 5. Pakistan’s decision to become a US ally 6. War on terror 7. Tribal areas in Pakistan 8. Difficulties in Balochistan 9. Armed conflict in Wana and Swat 10. Assassination of important personalities in the country 11. Suicide bombings 12. Threats from a belligerent neighbor 13. A thorough review of security required both on internal and external fronts 14. Need to engage those who are causing security situation. 15. Long term planning required.
ESSAY NO 12Role of Media in Pakistan 1. Fourth pillar of state 2. Electronic and print media 3. Electronic media viewed by a vast majority 4. 60 plus channels in less than five years 5. More coming up 6. Quality compromised 7. Channels competing 8. Misreporting and distortion 9. Psychological impact on masses 10. A tool to mould public opinion 11. Responsibility required 12. State regulationESSAY NO 13Pakistan in 2020 1. Although passing through a difficult phase Pakistan is destined to become one of the greatest countries in the world 2. Gifted with people and resources 3. Developing human resources 4. Infrastructure 5. Institutions 6. Education 7. Health 8. Environment 9. Transport 10. Others