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Measuring Performance {Lecture Notes}

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Measuring Performance {Lecture Notes}

  1. 1. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Defining Performance and Choosing aDefining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach: OverviewMeasurement Approach: Overview Defining Performance Determinants of Performance Performance Dimensions Approaches to Measuring Performance
  2. 2. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Defining PerformanceDefining Performance Performance is: • Behavior • What employees do
  3. 3. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Defining PerformanceDefining Performance Performance is NOT: • Results or Outcomes • What employees produce
  4. 4. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Behaviors labeled as Performance are:Behaviors labeled as Performance are: 1. Evaluative – Negative – Neutral – Positive 2. Multidimensional – Many different kinds of behaviors – Advance or hinder organizational goals
  5. 5. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Behaviors are Not alwaysBehaviors are Not always – Observable – Measurable
  6. 6. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Results/Consequences may be usedResults/Consequences may be used – To infer behavior – As proxy for behavioral measure
  7. 7. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Determinants of PerformanceDeterminants of Performance Performance = Declarative Knowledge X Procedural Knowledge X Motivation
  8. 8. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver A. Declarative KnowledgeA. Declarative Knowledge • Information about – Facts – Labels – Principles – Goals • Understanding of task requirements
  9. 9. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver B. Procedural KnowledgeB. Procedural Knowledge • Knowing – What to do – How to do it • Skills – Cognitive – Physical – Perceptual – Motor – Interpersonal
  10. 10. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver C. MotivationC. Motivation • Choices – Expenditure of effort – Level of effort – Persistence of effort
  11. 11. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Implications for AddressingImplications for Addressing Performance ProblemsPerformance Problems • Managers need information to accurately identify source(s) of performance problems • Performance management systems must – Measure performance AND – Provide information on SOURCE(s) of problems
  12. 12. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Factors Influencing Determinants ofFactors Influencing Determinants of Performance:Performance: • Individual characteristics – Procedural knowledge – Declarative knowledge – Motivation • HR practices • Work environment
  13. 13. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Performance Dimensions:Performance Dimensions: Types of multi-dimensional behaviors:Types of multi-dimensional behaviors: • Task performance • Contextual performance – Pro-social behaviors – Organizational citizenship
  14. 14. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Task performanceTask performance Activities that • transform raw materials • help with the transformation process – Replenishing – Distributing – Supporting
  15. 15. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Contextual performanceContextual performance Behaviors that • contribute to organization’s effectiveness and • provide a good environment in which task performance can occur
  16. 16. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Differences BetweenDifferences Between Task and Contextual PerformanceTask and Contextual Performance • Task Performance • Varies across jobs • Likely to be role prescribed • Influenced by • Abilities • Skills • Contextual Performance • Fairly similar across jobs • Not likely to be role prescribed • Influenced by • Personality
  17. 17. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Why Include Task & ContextualWhy Include Task & Contextual Performance Dimensions in PM system?Performance Dimensions in PM system? 1. Global competition 2. Teamwork 3. Customer service 4. Supervisor views
  18. 18. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Job Performance in ContextJob Performance in Context A performer (individual or team) In a given situation Engages in certain behaviors That produce various results TRAIT BEHAVIOR RESULTS
  19. 19. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Approaches to Measuring PerformanceApproaches to Measuring Performance • Trait Approach – Emphasizes individual traits of employees • Behavior Approach – Emphasizes how employees do the job • Results Approach – Emphasizes what employees produce
  20. 20. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Trait ApproachTrait Approach • Emphasis on individual • Evaluate stable traits • Cognitive abilities • Personality • Based on relationship between traits & performance
  21. 21. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Trait Approach (continued)Trait Approach (continued) • Appropriate if • Structural changes planned for organization • Disadvantages • Improvement not under individual’s control • Trait may not lead to • Desired behaviors or • Desired results
  22. 22. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Behavior ApproachBehavior Approach Appropriate if • Employees take a long time to achieve desired outcomes • Link between behaviors and results is not obvious • Outcomes occur in the distant future • Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Not appropriate if • above conditions are not present
  23. 23. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Results ApproachResults Approach Advantages: • Less time • Lower cost • Data appear objective
  24. 24. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Results Approach (continued)Results Approach (continued) Most appropriate when: • Workers skilled in necessary behaviors • Behaviors and results obviously related • Consistent improvement in results over time • Many ways to do the job right

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