Pictured is the E. Coli bacteria—a pathogenic nosocomial infection.
Lymphatic and immune system
The lymphatic system Organs include: picks up excess tissue › Lymph nodes fluid, cleanses it, and › Lymphatic vessels returns it to the › Spleen circulatory system. › Thymus gland The lymphatic system › Tonsils also picks up fats that have been taken in by the digestive system. The immune system combats diseases and infections.
Image that shows potential points in a hospital room prone to carrying bacteria and viruses that cause nosocomial infections.
Nosocomial infections are acquired as aresult of hospital exposure. Subtypes of this disease are contagious (passed along between people), while others aretransmitted by a pathogenic organism—forinstance, E. coli, pictured here.
Some examples of these infections include: › Bacterial pneumonia › Legionnaires’ disease › Mycobacterium tuberculosis › Influenza Other types include: › Fungal infections—which cause 9% of nosocomial infections › Pathogenic infections—such as E. Coli and psuedomonas › Antibiotic-resistant infections—these include MRSA and VRE
Pain Fever Night Sweats Breathing difficulties Inflammation Swelling
Among hospital staff: › Wash hands—especially between patients › Avoid hand contact to the eyes or oral area In hospital environment: › Sterilize equipment › Incorporate air filtration systems
Deaths and Mortality Rates › 80,000 deaths annually (Starfield, JAMA 284(4), 2000) › Two million incidents occur (CDC/NNIS 1992) › Four percent of those incidents are attributed to death › 13.16% of selected infections resulting from medical care led to death in the US during 2000-2002 (Patient Safety in American Hospitals, Health Grades 2004)
Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause that forms fibrous lesions commonly appearing in the lymph nodes, liver, skin, lungs, spleen,eyes, and small bonesof the hands and feet. Tiny clumps ofabnormal tissue called granulomas—also known as clusters ofimmune cells—form in certain organs of the body. Sarcoidosiscommonly attacks the lungs, but can alsoattack other organs ofthe body—such as the spleen pictured here to the right.
More common in African Americans Females are usually Extreme immune more affected response to infection Disease begins High sensitivity to between the ages of environmental factors 20 and 40 Genetic factors Rare in children A person with blood relative who has sarcoidosis is five times more likely to develop the condition
The following list is only a small portion of the symptoms one can experience: › Chest pain › Dry cough › Fatigue › Fever › Weight loss › Hair loss › Scars › Seizures › Vision loss › Swelling in the upper part of the abdomen
Symptoms will often Drugs that suppress get better on their the immune system own without are sometimes treatment. needed. Patients whose eyes, Rarely, some people heart, nervous with end-stage heart system, or lungs are or lung damage involved may need may need an organ corticosteroids. transplant.
Fungal lung infections 30-50% get better with Glaucoma and treatment over the blindness course of three years Kidney stones from 20% of people whose high levels of calcium lungs are involved will Osteoporosis from develop lung damage consuming Overall death rate is corticosteroids for a less than 5% long time › Causes of death Pulmonary include: hypertension Bleeding from the lung tissue Heart damage Lung scarring (pulmonary fibrosis)
(Also called Hodgkin’s lymphoma.) Cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes. Anti- producing cells of the lymphatic cells beginto grow abnormally. It usually begins in a lymph node and gradually spreads to the lymphatic vessels. If cancer reaches the blood, it can travel to anywhere else in the body. Subtypes of Hodgkin’s disease include nodular sclerosis (pictured to the right), mixedcellularity, lymphocyte predominant,lymphocyte depleted, and unclassified.
Cause is generally unknown Some believe a combination of these factors contribute to the development of Hodgkin’s Disease: › Genetic makeup › Environmental Exposures › Infectious agents › Immune system deficiencies
Age › Often diagnoses in people ages 15-35 and Fever over 55 Weight loss Family history of lymphoma Loss of appetite Sex Fatigue › Males are more at risk to develop the disease Loss of bladder and/or People who have been bowel control exposed to Epstein-Barr Numbness in the arms and virus (mononucleosis) are legs also at risk Loss of strength Weakened immune Lymph nodes swell, often systems—especially within times pushing onto other those who suffer from structures HIV/AIDS—are at risk
Biopsies need to be performed to know for sure if the disease is present Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often the main sources of treatment for the disease If it persists or returns, bone marrow transplants could be needed
Astonishingly, this form of cancer is one of the most curable, with approximately 90% of individuals being cured through chemotherapy and/or radiation Since the disease can be broken up into FOUR stages… › 90-95% in Stages I and II have survived › 85-90% in Stage III have survived › 80% in Stage IV have survived
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkins Disease." Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer. 2002. Encyclopedia.com. 21 Feb. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Hodgkins_disease.aspx>. “Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.” 2012. Mayo Clinic. 21 Feb. 2012 <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hodgkins-disease/DS00186>. “Lymph Nodes Spleen.” 2012. Web Pathology. 21 Feb. 2012 <http://www.webpathology.com/image.asp?n=2&Case=388>. “Nosocomial Infections.” 2012. Rightdiagnosis.com. 21 Feb. 2012 <http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/n/nosocomial_infections/intro.htm> Rosen, Yale. Atlas of Granulomatous Diseases. 21 Feb. 2012 <http://granuloma.homestead.com/sarcoidosis_gross.html>. “Sarcoidosis.” U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2012. PubMed Health. 21 Feb. 2012 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001140/>.