Typologies of culture
HIGH AND LOW CONTEXT CULTURE (E.T.HALL) <ul><li>Low-context cultures  – information and rules are  explicit  (e.g. USA) </...
GEERT HOFSTEDE CULTURAL TYPOLOGY
Includes three broad dimensions : <ul><li>Expected Social Behavior (Individualistic or group; Low or high power distance; ...
Geert Hofstede’s cultural typology <ul><li>based upon a study of 100,000 IBM employees who work in IBM divisions throughou...
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Measures the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept the unequal distrib...
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Power distance:  country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Rank distinctions among the Japanese </li></ul>
Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance  is the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are tolerated. ...
Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance:  country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>I/C is the extent to which the self or the group constitutes the center point of ...
Individualism/Collectivism <ul><li>Individualism  exists when people define themselves as individuals.  It implies loosely...
Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>Individualism/collectivism:  country examples and organizational implications </l...
Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Refers to the extent to which traditional masculine values, like aggressiveness and a...
<ul><li>MASCULINITY measures the extent to which the dominant values in society emphasize assertiveness and acquisition of...
Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Masculinity/femininity:  country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
Long-Term Orientation (LTO) <ul><li>Confucian Dynamism (synonym) </li></ul><ul><li>Values: thrift, persistence, and tradit...
Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Country scores on Confucian dynamism (long-term orientation)
VALUE ORIENTATION
Florence Kluckhohn  and Fred Strodtbeck <ul><li>value orientations are deeply held beliefs about the way the world should ...
human nature orientation <ul><li>innate character of human nature  </li></ul><ul><li>should human beings be seen as good, ...
person-nature orientation <ul><li>the potential types of relations between humans and nature  </li></ul><ul><li>(mastery o...
relational orientation <ul><li>INDIVIDUALISM  </li></ul><ul><li>LINEALITY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLATERALLY  </li></ul>
relational orientation   individualism <ul><li>preference for individual goals and objectives over group objectives </li><...
relational orientation   lineality <ul><li>focuses on the group and group goals crucial issue is the continuity of the gro...
relational orientation   laterality <ul><li>focuses on the value of the group, group members goals but not the group exten...
activity orientation   <ul><li>Doing </li></ul><ul><li>Being </li></ul><ul><li>Being-in-becoming  ( growing )   </li></ul>
activity orientation doing <ul><li>emphasizes productivity and tangible outcomes  </li></ul>
activity orientation being <ul><li>spontaneity, emotional gratification, and personal balana с e  </li></ul>
activity orientation   final activity orientation, being-in-becoming <ul><li>concerned with who we are and places importan...
time orientation <ul><li>examines how cultures come to terms with the past, the present, and the future   </li></ul>
past orientation <ul><li>predominates in cultures placing a high value on tradition and emphasizing ancestors and strong f...
present orientation <ul><li>predominates where people see only the here and now as real   —   the past is seen as unimport...
future orientation <ul><li>highly values change and progress   </li></ul>
<ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>
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4. typologies of culture

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4. typologies of culture

  1. 1. Typologies of culture
  2. 2. HIGH AND LOW CONTEXT CULTURE (E.T.HALL) <ul><li>Low-context cultures – information and rules are explicit (e.g. USA) </li></ul><ul><li>High-context cultures – information and rules are implicit (e.g. African cultures, </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American) </li></ul>
  3. 3. GEERT HOFSTEDE CULTURAL TYPOLOGY
  4. 4. Includes three broad dimensions : <ul><li>Expected Social Behavior (Individualistic or group; Low or high power distance; masculine or feminine). </li></ul><ul><li>Man’s search for truth (high or low uncertainty avoidance). </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of time (short term or long term orientation). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Geert Hofstede’s cultural typology <ul><li>based upon a study of 100,000 IBM employees who work in IBM divisions throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions of culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism/Collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity/Femininity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Orientation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Measures the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept the unequal distribution of power </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of high PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># Org. Levels- Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># Supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage Differentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Power distance: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  8. 8. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Rank distinctions among the Japanese </li></ul>
  9. 9. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance is the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are tolerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of high UA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No risk tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualistic behavior </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  11. 11. Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>I/C is the extent to which the self or the group constitutes the center point of identification for the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual self interest is pursued individually, or as a part of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of I/C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm as “family” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarian decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group performance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Individualism/Collectivism <ul><li>Individualism exists when people define themselves as individuals. It implies loosely knit social frameworks in which people are supposed to take care only of themselves and their immediate families. </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism is characterized by tight social frameworks in which people distinguish between their own groups (i.e., relatives, organizations) and other groups. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>Individualism/collectivism: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  14. 14. Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Refers to the extent to which traditional masculine values, like aggressiveness and assertiveness, are valued. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of M/F </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Roles Minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Women In Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Skills Rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuitive Skills Rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Rewards Valued </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>MASCULINITY measures the extent to which the dominant values in society emphasize assertiveness and acquisition of money things while not particularly emphasizing concern for people. </li></ul><ul><li>FEMININITY is the extent to which dominant values in society emphasize relationships among people, concern for others, and the overall quality of life. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Masculinity/femininity: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  17. 17. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) <ul><li>Confucian Dynamism (synonym) </li></ul><ul><li>Values: thrift, persistence, and traditional respect of social obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are likely to adopt longer planning horizon, with individuals ready to delay gratification. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Country scores on Confucian dynamism (long-term orientation)
  19. 19. VALUE ORIENTATION
  20. 20. Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck <ul><li>value orientations are deeply held beliefs about the way the world should be, and not necessarily the way it is </li></ul>
  21. 21. human nature orientation <ul><li>innate character of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>should human beings be seen as good, evil, or a mixture of ? </li></ul><ul><li>are human beings capable of change (mutable) or are not able to change (immutable)? </li></ul>
  22. 22. person-nature orientation <ul><li>the potential types of relations between humans and nature </li></ul><ul><li>(mastery over nature, harmony with nature, or subjugation to nature) </li></ul>
  23. 23. relational orientation <ul><li>INDIVIDUALISM </li></ul><ul><li>LINEALITY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLATERALLY </li></ul>
  24. 24. relational orientation individualism <ul><li>preference for individual goals and objectives over group objectives </li></ul>
  25. 25. relational orientation lineality <ul><li>focuses on the group and group goals crucial issue is the continuity of the group through time </li></ul>
  26. 26. relational orientation laterality <ul><li>focuses on the value of the group, group members goals but not the group extended through time </li></ul>
  27. 27. activity orientation <ul><li>Doing </li></ul><ul><li>Being </li></ul><ul><li>Being-in-becoming ( growing ) </li></ul>
  28. 28. activity orientation doing <ul><li>emphasizes productivity and tangible outcomes </li></ul>
  29. 29. activity orientation being <ul><li>spontaneity, emotional gratification, and personal balana с e </li></ul>
  30. 30. activity orientation final activity orientation, being-in-becoming <ul><li>concerned with who we are and places importance on spiritual development </li></ul>
  31. 31. time orientation <ul><li>examines how cultures come to terms with the past, the present, and the future </li></ul>
  32. 32. past orientation <ul><li>predominates in cultures placing a high value on tradition and emphasizing ancestors and strong family ties </li></ul>
  33. 33. present orientation <ul><li>predominates where people see only the here and now as real — the past is seen as unimportant and the future is seen as vague and unpredictable </li></ul>
  34. 34. future orientation <ul><li>highly values change and progress </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>

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