Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Typologies of culture
HIGH AND LOW CONTEXT CULTURE (E.T.HALL) <ul><li>Low-context cultures  – information and rules are  explicit  (e.g. USA) </...
GEERT HOFSTEDE CULTURAL TYPOLOGY
Includes three broad dimensions : <ul><li>Expected Social Behavior (Individualistic or group; Low or high power distance; ...
Geert Hofstede’s cultural typology <ul><li>based upon a study of 100,000 IBM employees who work in IBM divisions throughou...
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Measures the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept the unequal distrib...
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Power distance:  country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Rank distinctions among the Japanese </li></ul>
Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance  is the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are tolerated. ...
Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance:  country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>I/C is the extent to which the self or the group constitutes the center point of ...
Individualism/Collectivism <ul><li>Individualism  exists when people define themselves as individuals.  It implies loosely...
Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>Individualism/collectivism:  country examples and organizational implications </l...
Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Refers to the extent to which traditional masculine values, like aggressiveness and a...
<ul><li>MASCULINITY measures the extent to which the dominant values in society emphasize assertiveness and acquisition of...
Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Masculinity/femininity:  country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
Long-Term Orientation (LTO) <ul><li>Confucian Dynamism (synonym) </li></ul><ul><li>Values: thrift, persistence, and tradit...
Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Country scores on Confucian dynamism (long-term orientation)
VALUE ORIENTATION
Florence Kluckhohn  and Fred Strodtbeck <ul><li>value orientations are deeply held beliefs about the way the world should ...
human nature orientation <ul><li>innate character of human nature  </li></ul><ul><li>should human beings be seen as good, ...
person-nature orientation <ul><li>the potential types of relations between humans and nature  </li></ul><ul><li>(mastery o...
relational orientation <ul><li>INDIVIDUALISM  </li></ul><ul><li>LINEALITY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLATERALLY  </li></ul>
relational orientation   individualism <ul><li>preference for individual goals and objectives over group objectives </li><...
relational orientation   lineality <ul><li>focuses on the group and group goals crucial issue is the continuity of the gro...
relational orientation   laterality <ul><li>focuses on the value of the group, group members goals but not the group exten...
activity orientation   <ul><li>Doing </li></ul><ul><li>Being </li></ul><ul><li>Being-in-becoming  ( growing )   </li></ul>
activity orientation doing <ul><li>emphasizes productivity and tangible outcomes  </li></ul>
activity orientation being <ul><li>spontaneity, emotional gratification, and personal balana с e  </li></ul>
activity orientation   final activity orientation, being-in-becoming <ul><li>concerned with who we are and places importan...
time orientation <ul><li>examines how cultures come to terms with the past, the present, and the future   </li></ul>
past orientation <ul><li>predominates in cultures placing a high value on tradition and emphasizing ancestors and strong f...
present orientation <ul><li>predominates where people see only the here and now as real   —   the past is seen as unimport...
future orientation <ul><li>highly values change and progress   </li></ul>
<ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

4. typologies of culture

19,137 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

4. typologies of culture

  1. 1. Typologies of culture
  2. 2. HIGH AND LOW CONTEXT CULTURE (E.T.HALL) <ul><li>Low-context cultures – information and rules are explicit (e.g. USA) </li></ul><ul><li>High-context cultures – information and rules are implicit (e.g. African cultures, </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American) </li></ul>
  3. 3. GEERT HOFSTEDE CULTURAL TYPOLOGY
  4. 4. Includes three broad dimensions : <ul><li>Expected Social Behavior (Individualistic or group; Low or high power distance; masculine or feminine). </li></ul><ul><li>Man’s search for truth (high or low uncertainty avoidance). </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of time (short term or long term orientation). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Geert Hofstede’s cultural typology <ul><li>based upon a study of 100,000 IBM employees who work in IBM divisions throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions of culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism/Collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity/Femininity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Orientation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Measures the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept the unequal distribution of power </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of high PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># Org. Levels- Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># Supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage Differentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Power distance: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  8. 8. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>Rank distinctions among the Japanese </li></ul>
  9. 9. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance is the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are tolerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of high UA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No risk tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualistic behavior </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) <ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  11. 11. Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>I/C is the extent to which the self or the group constitutes the center point of identification for the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual self interest is pursued individually, or as a part of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of I/C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm as “family” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarian decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group performance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Individualism/Collectivism <ul><li>Individualism exists when people define themselves as individuals. It implies loosely knit social frameworks in which people are supposed to take care only of themselves and their immediate families. </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism is characterized by tight social frameworks in which people distinguish between their own groups (i.e., relatives, organizations) and other groups. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) <ul><li>Individualism/collectivism: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  14. 14. Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Refers to the extent to which traditional masculine values, like aggressiveness and assertiveness, are valued. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts of M/F </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Roles Minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Women In Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Skills Rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuitive Skills Rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Rewards Valued </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>MASCULINITY measures the extent to which the dominant values in society emphasize assertiveness and acquisition of money things while not particularly emphasizing concern for people. </li></ul><ul><li>FEMININITY is the extent to which dominant values in society emphasize relationships among people, concern for others, and the overall quality of life. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Masculinity-Femininity (M/F) <ul><li>Masculinity/femininity: country examples and organizational implications </li></ul>
  17. 17. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) <ul><li>Confucian Dynamism (synonym) </li></ul><ul><li>Values: thrift, persistence, and traditional respect of social obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are likely to adopt longer planning horizon, with individuals ready to delay gratification. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Country scores on Confucian dynamism (long-term orientation)
  19. 19. VALUE ORIENTATION
  20. 20. Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck <ul><li>value orientations are deeply held beliefs about the way the world should be, and not necessarily the way it is </li></ul>
  21. 21. human nature orientation <ul><li>innate character of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>should human beings be seen as good, evil, or a mixture of ? </li></ul><ul><li>are human beings capable of change (mutable) or are not able to change (immutable)? </li></ul>
  22. 22. person-nature orientation <ul><li>the potential types of relations between humans and nature </li></ul><ul><li>(mastery over nature, harmony with nature, or subjugation to nature) </li></ul>
  23. 23. relational orientation <ul><li>INDIVIDUALISM </li></ul><ul><li>LINEALITY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLATERALLY </li></ul>
  24. 24. relational orientation individualism <ul><li>preference for individual goals and objectives over group objectives </li></ul>
  25. 25. relational orientation lineality <ul><li>focuses on the group and group goals crucial issue is the continuity of the group through time </li></ul>
  26. 26. relational orientation laterality <ul><li>focuses on the value of the group, group members goals but not the group extended through time </li></ul>
  27. 27. activity orientation <ul><li>Doing </li></ul><ul><li>Being </li></ul><ul><li>Being-in-becoming ( growing ) </li></ul>
  28. 28. activity orientation doing <ul><li>emphasizes productivity and tangible outcomes </li></ul>
  29. 29. activity orientation being <ul><li>spontaneity, emotional gratification, and personal balana с e </li></ul>
  30. 30. activity orientation final activity orientation, being-in-becoming <ul><li>concerned with who we are and places importance on spiritual development </li></ul>
  31. 31. time orientation <ul><li>examines how cultures come to terms with the past, the present, and the future </li></ul>
  32. 32. past orientation <ul><li>predominates in cultures placing a high value on tradition and emphasizing ancestors and strong family ties </li></ul>
  33. 33. present orientation <ul><li>predominates where people see only the here and now as real — the past is seen as unimportant and the future is seen as vague and unpredictable </li></ul>
  34. 34. future orientation <ul><li>highly values change and progress </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>

×