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  2. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Proteins are macromolecules, polimers composed of amino acids monomers.Proteins practically ejecuted all cells activities and are responsable of a normal procces in that cell activity. </li></ul><ul><li>In the form of enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and globulins, they catalyze, regulate, and protect the body chemistry. In the form of hemoglobin, myoglobin and various lipoproteins, they effect the transport of oxygen and other substances within an organism. </li></ul>
  3. 5. How protein aggregation can lead to Neurodegenerative disease <ul><li>Experiments of protein aggregation are aimed at elucidating cellular protein misfolding and discovered why the misfolding and aggregation are deleterious for cells,especially in neurodegenerative diseases </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>The aggregates usually consist of fibers containing misfolded protein with a beta-sheet conformation, termed amyloid. There is partial but not perfect overlap among the cells in which abnormal proteins are deposited at the cells that degenerate. </li></ul><ul><li>The affected proteins share certain structural characteristics wich predispose them for the co-aggregation. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>To fulfill their different functions ,polypeptides have to fold first.Molecular chaperones have specialized to assit other proteins during their folding.If the chaperones fail,misfolding and aggregation of the newly synthesized and pre-existing proteins might occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular chaperones could possibly prevent cellular break-down.they are able to shield the aggregates. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Observation <ul><li>The Knowledge of the process of protein aggregation,and elements that estimulates and are involved in it,provides very important information to understand and analysis pathologies suchs as neurodegenerative protein where protien aggregation play a crucial role. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Mapping proteins on Chromosome 19 <ul><li>The goal of this study is to identify the proteins that the diferent genes give rise to in the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>The proteome ,the set of all human proteins ,is significantly more complicated than the genome. There are over 20.000 proteins coded by the genome in thr human body and each protein can have a wide variety of forms,depending of where is it processed and localised and its function. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>The most likely explanation is that inclusions and other visible protein aggregates represent an end stage of a molecular cascade of several steps, and that earlier steps in the cascade may be more directly tied to pathogenesis than the inclusions themselves </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>A number of proteins that are associated with prostate cancer are controlled by chromosome 19, would be important to identify and verify their relationship with cancer . </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>There are many steps in the process: </li></ul><ul><li>Frist step consist in sequencing all the proteins linked to chromosome 19.The next stage will be to develop methods to extract these especific proteins from samples, and the third is teh most important stage,because these methods will be used to see if any of proteins of the chromosome 19 are correlated to cancer,diabetes and cardiovascular diesease. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Modern development of new drugs is almost entirely directed towards the targets proteins that play a key role in a given disease but its only by studying the gene coding information linked to diferent proteins that we can get knoweledge that can lead to new drug developments. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Observation: <ul><li>This investigation is very important because in a future it can provide information about all human proteins,their variations ,location and intervention in diferent biological processes.with this information the understanding of certain disease and biological process in human body, where protiens are involved will be easier. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Medical Utility <ul><li>The study increased the understanding of the pathways involved in protein aggregation, and some recent clues have emerged as to the molecular mechanisms of cellular toxicity. These are leading to approaches toward rational therapeutics. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>The process of protein aggregation have a important role in the genesis of some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease , amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.this information would be useful in posible therapies. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Molecular chaperones qre very important in protein aggregation because they are able to shielde the aggregates,so that the aggregates cannot get in touch with others proteins anymore. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>The medical utility of mapping proteins is provide information about proteins involved in apration of diesease, it can be explained in the following way: pacients with a certain disease have abnormally high or low levels of certain protein in their bodies,The target protein probably is asociated to the development of the disease.It may be posible to stop the disease by regulating the effect of the protein in question. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Bibliografia <ul><li>MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina Maria. Biología Molecular. 5. ed. Medellín: Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.Fac. de medicina, 2009. 105-106 p </li></ul><ul><li>LODISH, H.Biologia celular y Molecular. 5. ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Buenos aires :Medica panamericana, 2004. 973 p </li></ul><ul><li> htm </li></ul><ul><li> htm </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>