Identify the type of bone that each
of the following bones would be
What are the functions of the
• Support and protect spinal cord
7. Name the types of bones. Which
type is important for movement?
• Long (movement- muscle attachment)
How do the axial and appendicular
skeletons differ in terms of their
Axial Skeleton protection, attachment,
Appendicular Skeleton attachment, movement,
support, blood cell formation & mineral
(calcium & phosphorus)
What would you find in the
medullary cavity of a long bone?
• Yellow bone marrow
What factors affect the stability of a
• Shape of bones
• Area over which the bones are in contact
• Flexibility of the ligaments
• Other soft tissue (muscles, tendons, joint capsule) how strong
, loose they are…
• The more mobility the less stability.
Name and describe the types of
synovial joints in the body. Which
type of joint has the most
• Gliding- btwn tarsals/carpals
• Hinge- elbow joint
• Pivot- radioulnar joint
• Condyloid- radius and carpals
• Saddle- carpal-metacarpal joint
• Ball & socket- shoulder,hip (most movement)
How do fibrous, cartilagenous &
synovial joints differ?
• Fibrous- no movement (skull)
• Cartilagenous- limited movement (vertebral column)
• Synovial- freely moving.
Where is articular cartilage found
and what is its function?
• Ends of long bones
• Protect the ends of bones, reduce friction
Where is synovial fluid found and
what is its function?
• In a synovial joint
• Lubricates, reduces friction and provides nutrients to joint
Where are the bursae commonly
• Found where two structures rub together
• Reduce friction
A tendon connects ______to _____.
• muscle to bone
A ligament connects _____ to _____.
• bone to bone
Name the layers of fascia in a
muscle and identify where they are
• Epimysoium- around the whole muscle
• Perimysium- around a muscle bundle
• Endomysium- around each muscle fiber (cell)
Label the long bone on page
•epiphysis, spongy bone,
articular cartilage, diaphysis,
compact bone, bone
marrow, marrow cavity,
blood vessel and
Label synovial joint on Page 28
What are the opposites of these
joint movements: flexion,
abduction, medial rotation?
• Lateral (external rotation)
Describe pronation of the forearm.
• Medial rotation of the radioulnar joint, not the wrist.
How do concentric, eccentric and
isometric muscle contractions
• Concentric- muscle shortens during contraction
• Eccentric – muscle lengthens during contraction
• Isometric- muscle does not move during contraction
Based on your understanding of
error bars which data point would
you conclude as not being as
accurate as the others?
Outline the functions of connective
1. It acts as a cushion between joints and reduces friction in
movement (articular, meniscus, hyaline)
2. Connects bone to bone at a joint (attach to periosteum).
3. Connect muscle to bone (attach to periosteum)
What is the name of the outermost
layer of connective tissue
surrounding skeletal muscle?
What fluid filled sacs are associated
with certain synovial joints?
• Synovial membrane
Describe why reliability is important
with regard to administering the sit
and reach test.
• Reliability- the degree to which a measure would produce the same
results from one occasion to another. If we see improvements in
fitness tests, improvements must be due to fitness and not because
there is something wrong with the reliability of the test.
Explain DOMS in relation to
eccentric and concentric muscle
• DOMS results primarily from eccentric muscle action and is
associated with structural muscle damage, inflammatory
reactions in the muscle, overstretching and overtraining.
Outline what is meant by
• Correlation measures the strength and direction of the
relationship between two variables
Outline the importance of specificity,
accuracy, reliability and validity with
regard to fitness testing.
• Specificity- When testing fitness it must be specific to the
• Accuracy- the instruments used to measure the fitness
component must be accurate. Equipment working properly.
• Reliability- the degree to which a measure would produce the
same results from one occasion to another. If we see
improvements in fitness tests, improvements must be due to
fitness and not because there is something wrong with the
reliability of the test.
• Tests are unreliable when there is a learning or habituation
effect i.e. a decrease in response to a stimulus after
• Validity- the fitness test measures what it claims to measure.
State a motion in the sagittal plane
and give an example 84
• Flexion of bicep at elbow joint.
State a motion in the frontal plane
and give an example
• Adduction of the leg at the hip joint
State a motion in the transverse
plane and give an example
• Eversion of the ankle joint
What is the role of agonist,
antagonist and synergistic muscles
in accomplishing joint motion?
• Agonist- mover contracts concentrically i.e. muscle shortens to
move the bone relative to the joint.
• Antagonist- during joint movement contracts eccentrically i.e.
• Synergist- helps agonist by contracting isometrically, i.e. muscle
does not shorten but is contracted, to prevent unwanted