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Two main types of plant tissue are used in transport - xylem and phloem.
Xylem transports water and minerals.
Phloem trans...
The importance of transport of plants

Translocation
• Survival of plant
• Enables sucrose to
be stored or
converted

Tran...
The mechanisms of the opening of a stoma

light stimulates photosynthesis in the
guard cells

guard cells accumulate K+ th...
The movement of water from soil to leaves




Root pressure – osmosis ……>osmotic pressure ……>root pressure
Capillary ac...
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Plants transport SPM notes

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Biology

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Plants transport SPM notes

  1. 1. Two main types of plant tissue are used in transport - xylem and phloem. Xylem transports water and minerals. Phloem transports organic molecules such as the products of photosynthesis. Xylem vessels: Consist of dead hollow Tracheids: Transport water Similar to vessels but with narrower lumens Waterproof (thanks to LIGNIN) Connected by pits Provide support Xylem Cells Parenchyma: Fibres: Living cells with thin cellulose walls. Provide strength because their walls are lignified (and therefore, dead). Store water (therefore they are turgid) Provide support through turgidity Sieve tube elements: Companion cell: Living, tubular cells that are connected end to end End cell walls - have perforations in them to make sieve plates Cytoplasm - present but in small amounts and in a layer next to the cell wall Since the sieve tube element lacks organelles, the companion cell with its nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, enzymes etc., Lack of nucleus and most organelles controls the movement of solutes provides ATP for active transport in the sieve tube element Cell walls - made of cellulose Next to each sieve tube element is a companion cell Strands of cytoplasm called plasmodesmata connect the sieve tube element and companion cell Phloem Cells Parenchyma: Provides support through turgidity Fibres: Provides support for the sieve tube elements
  2. 2. The importance of transport of plants Translocation • Survival of plant • Enables sucrose to be stored or converted Transpiration • aborption and transport of water & mineral ions • cooling effect • metabolic process • supply water • maintain cell turgidity
  3. 3. The mechanisms of the opening of a stoma light stimulates photosynthesis in the guard cells guard cells accumulate K+ through active transport guard cells become hypertonic water enters guard cells by osmosis guard cells become turgid stoma opens (because thinner outer wall stretches more than thicker inner wall)
  4. 4. The movement of water from soil to leaves    Root pressure – osmosis ……>osmotic pressure ……>root pressure Capillary action – adhesive(water-wall), cohesive (water-water) Transpirational pull Stomata open Light intensity Levels of carbon hydroxide Stomata close ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ Cool day Hot day Condition Firm, upright Floppy leaves Plant cell Turgid Flaccid Rate of transpiration Low High Surface area exposed to sunlight Increase Reduce Stomata Open Closed How herbaceous plant adapt

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