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Anatomy of Eyelids


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Anatomy of Eyelids

  2. 2. Eyelids <ul><li>Act to protect the anterior surface and cover the globe from local injury </li></ul><ul><li>Spread tear film across the cornea with blinking </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in regulation of light reaching the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in tear flow regulation by their pumping action </li></ul>
  3. 4. 6 Structural Layers of Eyelid <ul><li>Skin and subcutaneous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Striated Muscle ( Orbicularis Occuli & Levator Palpebral Superiosis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Muller’s Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous Layer ( Tarsal Plates & Orbital Septum ) </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctiva </li></ul>
  4. 5. 1. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue <ul><li>Skin : thinnest of the body </li></ul><ul><li>2 layers : </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>- superficial keratinising stratified squamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>- keratonocyte developed from basal cell layer </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>- located below epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>- vascular connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>- hair follicles, sebum gland and sweat gland </li></ul><ul><li>Upper eyelid crease : caused by attachment of levator aponeurosis to pretarsal orbicularis bundle and skin </li></ul>
  5. 6. 2. Striated Muscle <ul><li>a. Orbiccularis Occuli </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial muscles of facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Close the eyelids by moving down the upper lid to meet the lower lid and palpebral fissure tighten up from the outer to the inner canthus </li></ul><ul><li>300 msec to complete ; 1 blink / 3 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the thickess of the eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>The muscle divided into the orbital and palpebral parts, with the latter being divided further into the preseptal and pretarsal portions. </li></ul><ul><li>Palpebral : blinking, winking ( spontaneous ) </li></ul><ul><li>Pretarsal : forced closure </li></ul><ul><li>Both of the palpebral and orbital portion is innervated by facial nerve </li></ul>
  6. 7. cont.. <ul><li>b. Levator Palpebral Superiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Originates at the inferior aspect of lesser wing of sphenoid bone, just above the optic foramen </li></ul><ul><li>It is a skeletal muscle that aided by tarsal muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the position of the upper eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>Innervated by oculomotor nerve </li></ul>
  7. 8. the anatomy of of orbicularis occuli muscle <ul><li>A : Frontalis </li></ul><ul><li>B : Corrugator superciliaris </li></ul><ul><li>C : Procerus </li></ul><ul><li>D : Orbital orbicularis </li></ul><ul><li>E : Preseptal orbicularis </li></ul><ul><li>F : Pretarsal orbicularis. </li></ul>
  8. 9. 3. Muller’s Muscle <ul><li>Originate from the undersurface of the levator in the region of the aponeurotic-muscle junction, and insert into the superior margin of the tarsus. </li></ul><ul><li>To assist levator palpebral superiosis and raise the upper lid </li></ul><ul><li>Innervated by sympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty infiltration may occur, giving the muscle a yellowish color, due to aging </li></ul>
  9. 10. 4. Fibrous Layer <ul><li>a. Orbital Septum </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous tissue, arises from periosteum of the orbital margin to the edge of tarsal plates </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally attached to the orbital margin </li></ul><ul><li>Hollowed by blood vassels, nerves, and aponeurosis of the levator </li></ul><ul><li>Fuse with : - levator aponeurosis ( to cover the tarsal plate ) </li></ul><ul><li>- capsulopalpebral orbital septum complex </li></ul><ul><li>Weak and thin with age </li></ul>
  10. 11. cont.. <ul><li>b. Tarsal Plates </li></ul><ul><li>Dense connective tissue that responsible for the integrity of the lids </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton of eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>Each tarsus approximately 25 - 29 mm long and 1 mm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Upper plate ~ 10 – 12 mm high </li></ul><ul><li>Lower eyelid ~ 4 mm high </li></ul>
  11. 12. 5. Conjunctiva <ul><li>A clear mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Non-keratinizing squamous epithelium and goblet cell </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior layer of the eyelids </li></ul><ul><li>Goblet cell – producing mucous component of tear film </li></ul>
  12. 13. Other Anatomical Consideration <ul><li>Lid Margin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucocutaneous junction (grey line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2mm wide ; 30 mm long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eyelashes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the hairs that grow at the edge of the eyelid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper lid : 100 – 150 eyelashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower lid : 50 – 75 eyelashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyelashes take about 7 – 8 weeks to grow back if pulled out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meibomian Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as tarsal gland. Originated in tarsus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the supply of meibum, and oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye’s tear film. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper : 25 glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower : 20 glands </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. … Thank You …