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Organics granulationBio-Fertilizer & Value-added Waste streams<br />31st Conference of the Institute for Briquetting and A...
Principles of Organics Granulation<br />A Technical Overview of Fertilizer Production from Manures and other Waste Streams...
FEECO – Overview<br />
Who We Are<br />Worldwide supplier of process equipment<br />Specializing in Thermal Processing, Agglomeration, Material H...
What We Do<br />Collaborate with Customers<br />Process Development<br />Feasibility Analysis<br />Pilot Plant Testing<br ...
Strengths of our Team<br />Engineering Staff from all major disciplines:<br />Chemical/Process<br />Mechanical<br />Civil/...
Laboratory Services<br />Our pilot plant can be set up for testing on a single piece of equipment or multiple pieces as a ...
The 30,000’ View<br />Organics Recycling<br />
Recycling?<br />“Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful mat...
Organic Waste Streams<br />Agricultural Waste (Manures, Composts)<br />Industrial Waste<br />DAF Sludge, Food Waste, Resta...
The Ag-Waste Dilemma<br />Economic pressure pushing towards herd growth<br />Prohibitively high land costs lead to herd gr...
The Ag-Waste Opportunity<br />Source of macro and micro nutrients<br />Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Boron<br /...
Waste Transformation: The Need<br />Fertilizer demand is increasing<br />Despite recent setbacks, non-renewable fertilizer...
The Organic Food Industry<br />U.S. sales of organic food and beverages have grown from $1B in 1990 to $20B in 2007, 20.9%...
Fertilizers from Organic Wastes<br />Generally considered a low-analysis fertilizer<br />Macronutrient content &lt; 10% by...
Organic Waste Utilization - Recap<br />Major Driving Force: Growth!<br />Demand Side Needs<br />Rising Fertilizer Costs<br...
Fertilizers from Organic Wastes<br />
Granulation Process Approaches<br />Organics Granulation<br />
Organic Granulation Systems<br />Mixer – Drum Dryer Granulation<br />Pin Mixer<br />Paddle Mixer<br />Mixer – Pan Pelletiz...
Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />
Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />Mixer selection based on feedstock analysis<br />Pin mixer for finely divided particles (ch...
Pin Mixers<br />Used as pre-conditioning unit or stand-alone agglomerator<br />One Rotor with Radial Pins<br />Multiple Fe...
Pin Mixer Basics<br />Turbulent action of the mixer provides thorough mixing of liquid (binder), raw feed, and recycle<br ...
Pin Mixer Basics<br />Mechanical work compacts the agglomerate through work between the pins and shell and interaction wit...
Pin Mixer Basics<br />Mixer may be required for agglomeration to occur in pelletizing disc or drum:<br />Chemical reaction...
Pin Mixer<br />High speed, Multiple feed screws<br />
Pin Mixer<br />Internal view, during fabrication<br />
Paddle Mixer/Pug Mill<br />Slower speed, double shaft, mixing paddles<br />
Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />Advantages:<br />Mixer offers moisture control of granulation process<br />Simple, closed s...
Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />Disadvantages:<br />Oftentimes a tight moisture window in pin mixer granulation limits cont...
Pan Granulation<br />
Pan Granulation - Fundamentals<br />Feed from Pin Mixer fed through articulating feed chute <br />Small particles at botto...
Pan Granulation - Fundamentals<br />Trajectories defined by particle size<br />Optimization:<br /><ul><li>Spray locations
Scraper locations
Pan Inclination
Rotational Speed</li></li></ul><li>Pan Granulation<br />Advantages:<br />Very good control over granule size<br />Improved...
Pellet Mill Process - Overview<br />Raw Manure Unloading<br />Manure Drying<br />Size Reduction<br />Steam Conditioning<br...
Pellet Mill Process<br />Physical Product Differences<br />Crumble vs. Spherical Product<br />Energy Usage<br />Reduction ...
Bio-Fertilizer Plant - Emissions<br />Gas Treatment<br />Feedstock specific<br />Particulate<br />Wet scrubbing<br />Form ...
Selection of Agglomeration Equipment<br />Parameters of Particulate Feed<br />Size and Shape<br />Moisture Content<br />Ma...
Parameters of Agglomeration Method<br />Batch or Continuous Operation<br />Capacity Requirements<br />Wet or Dry Operation...
Bio-Fertilizer Processing Considerations<br /><ul><li>Raw Feed Handling
Feedstock specific
Dewatering
Mechanical (presses, centrifuges, etc.)
Advanced separation with polymers
On-farm or Centralized Plant?
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IBA 2009: Principals of Organics Granulation - A Technical Overview of Fertilizer Production from Manures and other Waste Streams

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Presented by FEECO International at the 2009 Institute for Briquetting & Agglomeration Conference held in San Antonio, Tx.

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IBA 2009: Principals of Organics Granulation - A Technical Overview of Fertilizer Production from Manures and other Waste Streams

  1. 1. Organics granulationBio-Fertilizer & Value-added Waste streams<br />31st Conference of the Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration<br />San Antonio, Texas, USA<br />September 29th, 2009<br />Presented by:<br />Brett Rittenhouse, FEECO International<br />Brittenhouse@feeco.com<br />(920) 468-1000<br />
  2. 2. Principles of Organics Granulation<br />A Technical Overview of Fertilizer Production from Manures and other Waste Streams<br />FEECO INTERNATIONAL<br />
  3. 3. FEECO – Overview<br />
  4. 4. Who We Are<br />Worldwide supplier of process equipment<br />Specializing in Thermal Processing, Agglomeration, Material Handling, and Process Systems<br />Founded in 1951 as Fertilizer Engineering and Equipment Company.<br />By the 1960s, we had diversified into Mining, Minerals, Pulp & Paper, and Waste Recycling – and became FEECO International.<br />Privately held company with about 80 employees<br />
  5. 5. What We Do<br />Collaborate with Customers<br />Process Development<br />Feasibility Analysis<br />Pilot Plant Testing<br />Financial Modeling<br />Plant Design and Engineering<br />Detailed Equipment and Plant Design<br />Equipment and System Supply<br />Project Management – single equipment to turnkey supply<br />
  6. 6. Strengths of our Team<br />Engineering Staff from all major disciplines:<br />Chemical/Process<br />Mechanical<br />Civil/Structural<br />Environmental<br />Electrical<br />Customer-focused Project Management<br />
  7. 7. Laboratory Services<br />Our pilot plant can be set up for testing on a single piece of equipment or multiple pieces as a continuous process tying together agglomeration, drying, sizing, and recycling capabilities. <br />Batch Testing/Feasibility<br />Pilot Plant Testing (500-1000 lb/hr)<br />Tolling Plant (24 hr Production Runs)<br />Analytical Testing<br />
  8. 8. The 30,000’ View<br />Organics Recycling<br />
  9. 9. Recycling?<br />“Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air and water pollution, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.” – Wikipedia, September, 2009.<br />
  10. 10. Organic Waste Streams<br />Agricultural Waste (Manures, Composts)<br />Industrial Waste<br />DAF Sludge, Food Waste, Restaurant Waste<br />Municipal Waste (Biosolids, Composts)<br />
  11. 11. The Ag-Waste Dilemma<br />Economic pressure pushing towards herd growth<br />Prohibitively high land costs lead to herd growth without adequate land to dispose of waste<br />Nutrient levels saturated on fields where it is economically viable to spread<br />Excess nutrient run-off leads to surface and ground water pollution<br />Nutrient value of manure does not get fully realized<br />
  12. 12. The Ag-Waste Opportunity<br />Source of macro and micro nutrients<br />Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Boron<br />Source of Bio-Energy Production – Anaerobic Digestion<br />Organic industry as a growth market<br />
  13. 13. Waste Transformation: The Need<br />Fertilizer demand is increasing<br />Despite recent setbacks, non-renewable fertilizer prices will continue to rise<br />US production capacity is shrinking<br />World food demand is increasing<br />Increasing competition for land resources (development, energy crops, etc.)<br />
  14. 14. The Organic Food Industry<br />U.S. sales of organic food and beverages have grown from $1B in 1990 to $20B in 2007, 20.9% growth in 2006.<br />U.S. sales of non-food organic products were $17.7B in 2006, 26% growth in 2006.<br />Source: Organic Trade Association<br />
  15. 15. Fertilizers from Organic Wastes<br />Generally considered a low-analysis fertilizer<br />Macronutrient content &lt; 10% by weight.<br />Wide range of feedstocks:<br />Slurries (&lt;10% solids) – Relatively dry, composted material (&gt;80% solids)<br />The drier feed material can be finely divided and relatively dusty<br />Limits application in the field.<br />Traditional granulation approaches can be implemented to improve the handling, storage, spreading, and utilization characteristics of the material.<br />
  16. 16. Organic Waste Utilization - Recap<br />Major Driving Force: Growth!<br />Demand Side Needs<br />Rising Fertilizer Costs<br />Trade Imbalances<br />Local and Secure Source of Nutrients<br />Supply Side Needs<br />Increasing Disposal Problems<br />Environmental Regulation<br />Need for safe (and profitable?) means of “Nutrient Recycling”<br />
  17. 17. Fertilizers from Organic Wastes<br />
  18. 18. Granulation Process Approaches<br />Organics Granulation<br />
  19. 19. Organic Granulation Systems<br />Mixer – Drum Dryer Granulation<br />Pin Mixer<br />Paddle Mixer<br />Mixer – Pan Pelletizer – Drum Dryer Granulation<br />Dry Pellet Mill & Crumbler<br />
  20. 20. Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />
  21. 21. Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />Mixer selection based on feedstock analysis<br />Pin mixer for finely divided particles (chicken litter, compost, etc.)<br />Pug Mill/Paddle Mixer for sludges, pastes, and filter cakes.<br />Dewatered liquid manures from centrifuge, DAF effluent<br />
  22. 22. Pin Mixers<br />Used as pre-conditioning unit or stand-alone agglomerator<br />One Rotor with Radial Pins<br />Multiple Feeds<br />Fluid Ports in Top Cover<br />Relatively High Speed – Turbulent Mixing Action<br />
  23. 23. Pin Mixer Basics<br />Turbulent action of the mixer provides thorough mixing of liquid (binder), raw feed, and recycle<br />Reduces the amount of liquid required for agglomeration<br />Allows high liquid levels without over-wetting<br />Reduces chances of segregation due to density differences in feed materials<br />Reduces the chances of selective agglomeration<br />Up to 90% of binder liquid can be added in mixer with 10% reserved for finish processing (if necessary)<br />
  24. 24. Pin Mixer Basics<br />Mechanical work compacts the agglomerate through work between the pins and shell and interaction with each other<br />Improved crush strength, Less attrition<br />With a retention time of seconds, the mixer delivers to a finishing pelletizer (if necessary) nuclei that are properly moistened, have adequate density, and are thoroughly mixed with binders, recycle, and multiple raw materials<br />Can increase on-size product up to 95% (when coupled with Pan Pelletizer)<br />Can increase capacity of pelletizing disc or drum (nuclei formation in mixer)<br />
  25. 25. Pin Mixer Basics<br />Mixer may be required for agglomeration to occur in pelletizing disc or drum:<br />Chemical reaction (Phosphoric Acid Spray)<br />Reduce moisture level in sludges by mixing with dry recycle<br />Intimately mix liquid with raw feed (compost)<br />
  26. 26. Pin Mixer<br />High speed, Multiple feed screws<br />
  27. 27. Pin Mixer<br />Internal view, during fabrication<br />
  28. 28. Paddle Mixer/Pug Mill<br />Slower speed, double shaft, mixing paddles<br />
  29. 29. Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />Advantages:<br />Mixer offers moisture control of granulation process<br />Simple, closed system<br />Minimal waste. Off-spec product recycled in granulation loop<br />Easy binder addition in mixing step<br />Optimization includes evaluation of:<br />Pin arrangement<br />Pin tip speed<br />Retention time (function of equipment sizing and mixer speed)<br />
  30. 30. Mixer – Dryer Granulation<br />Disadvantages:<br />Oftentimes a tight moisture window in pin mixer granulation limits control<br />Material handling can be challenging for wet, sticky feed<br />Require finely divided feedstock – pre-grinding/de-lumping may be necessary<br />Limitations on achievable granule crush strength (feedstock specific)<br />Small diameter granule production<br />Might be desired for “greens” grade product<br />
  31. 31. Pan Granulation<br />
  32. 32. Pan Granulation - Fundamentals<br />Feed from Pin Mixer fed through articulating feed chute <br />Small particles at bottom of bed and travel furthest<br />Largest particles remain in kidney shaped area on top of bed<br />Competition between gravitational and centrifugal forces resulting segregation by size in tumbling bed<br />
  33. 33. Pan Granulation - Fundamentals<br />Trajectories defined by particle size<br />Optimization:<br /><ul><li>Spray locations
  34. 34. Scraper locations
  35. 35. Pan Inclination
  36. 36. Rotational Speed</li></li></ul><li>Pan Granulation<br />Advantages:<br />Very good control over granule size<br />Improved product quality – polishing on disc<br />Flexible with binder addition<br />Disadvantages:<br />“Open” system – odor, housekeeping, dust, etc.<br />Labor intensive<br />
  37. 37. Pellet Mill Process - Overview<br />Raw Manure Unloading<br />Manure Drying<br />Size Reduction<br />Steam Conditioning<br />Pellet Mill<br />Crumbling<br />Fines<br />Classifying<br />On-size Product<br />
  38. 38. Pellet Mill Process<br />Physical Product Differences<br />Crumble vs. Spherical Product<br />Energy Usage<br />Reduction in drying gas requirements<br />Increase in electrical requirements (pellet mill)<br />Reliability & Maintenance<br />Careful with high silica feedstocks<br />
  39. 39. Bio-Fertilizer Plant - Emissions<br />Gas Treatment<br />Feedstock specific<br />Particulate<br />Wet scrubbing<br />Form of Nitrogen in feedstock?<br />Fuel Source? Biogas may involve SOx scrubbing<br />
  40. 40. Selection of Agglomeration Equipment<br />Parameters of Particulate Feed<br />Size and Shape<br />Moisture Content<br />Material Characteristics<br />Material Sensitivities (heat, pressure, reactivity, etc.)<br />Bulk Characteristics<br />Binding Characteristics<br />Parameters of Agglomerated Product<br />Size and Shape<br />Strength<br />Green Strength<br />Final (cured) Strength<br />Structure<br />Source: Pietsch, Wolfgang Agglomeration in Industry, Vol 2<br />
  41. 41. Parameters of Agglomeration Method<br />Batch or Continuous Operation<br />Capacity Requirements<br />Wet or Dry Operation<br />Space and Energy Requirements<br />Investment and Operating Costs<br />Site, Supply, Environment, Infrastructure<br />Relative location to suppliers and customers (raw materials, additives/binders, energy)<br />Site accessibility and transportation facilities<br />Climatic conditions<br />Availability of skilled and other labor<br />Availability of support functions<br />Regulations (EPA, OSHA, etc.)<br />Source: Pietsch, Wolfgang Agglomeration in Industry, Vol 2<br />Selection of Agglomeration Equipment<br />
  42. 42. Bio-Fertilizer Processing Considerations<br /><ul><li>Raw Feed Handling
  43. 43. Feedstock specific
  44. 44. Dewatering
  45. 45. Mechanical (presses, centrifuges, etc.)
  46. 46. Advanced separation with polymers
  47. 47. On-farm or Centralized Plant?
  48. 48. Bio-security concerns
  49. 49. Feed Conditioning
  50. 50. Seed pellets formed in paddle mixer with wet feed and dry recycle
  51. 51. Pin or paddle mixer used to blend multiple feed streams
  52. 52. Binder?</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Agglomeration
  53. 53. Seed pellets grown on disc pelletizer
  54. 54. Seed pellets grown in rotary drum dryer or agglomerating drum
  55. 55. Binder?
  56. 56. Drying
  57. 57. Rotary drum, fluid bed, etc.
  58. 58. Pathogen Reduction (Time & Temperature)
  59. 59. Product cooling & storage
  60. 60. Rotary cooler, dryer cooling hood, fluid bed, etc.
  61. 61. Gas Processing
  62. 62. Thermal oxidation, exhaust gas scrubbing, PM capture</li></ul>Bio-Fertilizer Processing Considerations<br />
  63. 63. Overall Mass Balance: Advanced Manure Management<br />
  64. 64. Feeco Bio-Fertilizer Process Flow<br />
  65. 65. Feeco Bio-Fertilizer Process Flow<br />
  66. 66. Inorganic Nutrient Fortification<br /><ul><li> Biosolids
  67. 67. Manure
  68. 68. Organic Waste
  69. 69. Sulfuric Acid
  70. 70. Phosphoric Acid</li></ul>Pipe Reactor<br />Pug Mill<br />Drying/Agglomeration Plant<br />Fortified Granular Product<br />Ammonia<br />Benefits of Fortification :<br /><ul><li> Chemical Heat Release Utilization
  71. 71. Customized grade product
  72. 72. Improved margins, larger markets</li></ul>Potash<br />
  73. 73. FEECO Bio-Fertilizer Plant, Hog Manure<br />Plant aerial view<br />
  74. 74. Thank You!<br />

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