TPM (en)

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Total Productive Maintenance
Operator Driven Reliability

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TPM (en)

  1. 1. MITSUBA F.N.E. Maintenance Department TPM / ODR T otal P roductive M aintenance O perator D riven R eliability ( focused on GF08 winding section )
  2. 2. What is Total Productive Maintenance? <ul><li>TPM is not … </li></ul><ul><li>… a maintenance improvement program </li></ul><ul><li>… a program to clean and paint machines </li></ul><ul><li>… merely involving operators in “autonomous maintenance” </li></ul><ul><li>… a maintenance program applied to all critical equipments </li></ul><ul><li>… led by the maintenance or plant engineering organizations </li></ul><ul><li>… one of many options for improving equipment reliability and/or cutting costs </li></ul>TPM is a slow culture change to get people to do the right things at the right time. TPM is a long term process …not a three worded jargon and a trendy program. TPM is an organization-wide equipment improvement strategy… TPM is a systematic focus on eliminating the major equipment-related losses… TPM is a strategy that demands the involvement of anyone who contributes to a problem… TPM is a strategy that assures that all critical equipment is reliable by focusing on improving overall equipment effectiveness… TPM is a culture change (evolution) led by top management with very clear business expectations… TPM is the only proven work culture that promotes and sustains reliable equipment at lower cost…
  3. 3. A common misunderstanding about TPM ! Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) provided the framework for policies, the structures, the tools, and the results for consistently reliable, low operating cost equipment and facilities during the evolution of the Toyota Production System (TPS). … TPM is the backbone of the TPS… This is where the misunderstanding begins for today’s corporate leaders: they see, they analyze, and adopt or adapt the TPS tools that they see when they see TPS in action. Unfortunately this tools are not the “system” which makes TPS working: what our western culture fails to see is the “TPS journey” from the old ways of doing business to the new and continuously improving ways, generating sustainable results.
  4. 4. TPM HOUSE PLANNED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM SKILL TRAINING PROGRAM QUALITY MAINTENANCE SYSTEM TPM IN OFFICE 5S S eiri (Sort out) - S eiton (Set in order) - S eiso (Shine) - S eiketsu (Standardize) - S hitsuke (Sustain) THE EIGHT PILLARS OF TPM “ KOBETSU - KAIZEN” SYSTEM “ JISHU - HOZEN” SYSTEM SAFETY, HYGIENE AND WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  5. 5. What is Operator Driven Reliability? PLANNED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM SKILL TRAINING PROGRAM 5S S eiri (Sort out) - S eiton (Set in order) - S eiso (Shine) - S eiketsu (Standardize) - S hitsuke (Sustain) THE FIVE PILLARS OF ODR “ KOBETSU - KAIZEN” SYSTEM “ JISHU - HOZEN” SYSTEM TPM is a slow culture change to get people to do the right things at the right time: the TPM journey must be covered using much attention and pursuing the goals in a systematic way (step by step). The first step of TPM is the ODR: the ODR is a new and innovative approach to the maintenance, used for example in SKF Industrie (Massa plant), to drive the maintenance operations toward the excellence!
  6. 6. 5S TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement. SEIRI - Sort out : this means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is reduced. SEITON - Set in order : the concept here is that &quot;Each items has a place, and only one place&quot;. The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and coloured tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks. SEISO - Shine the workplace : this involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines. SEIKETSU - Standardize : employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. This standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly. SHITSUKE - Sustain : considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.
  7. 7. “ KOBETSU - KAIZEN” SYSTEM “ Kai” means change, and “Zen” means good (for the better). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that “a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value”. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well. <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of easy handling of operators. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen Target </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools used in Kaizen </li></ul><ul><li>PM analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Why - Why analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of losses </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen register </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen summary sheet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ JISHU - HOZEN” SYSTEM <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Uninterrupted operation of equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stepwise implementation of JH activities. </li></ul>This pillar is oriented towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. <ul><li>JISHU HOZEN Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce wire consumption by TBD % </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce process time by TBD % </li></ul><ul><li>Increase use of JH by TBD % </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in JISHU HOZEN </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial cleanup of machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Take counter measures </li></ul><ul><li>Fix tentative JH standards </li></ul><ul><li>General inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization and </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous management. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PLANNED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM <ul><li>It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 “families” or groups which was defined earlier. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance Prevention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment. </li></ul>Productive Maintenance <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve and sustain availability of machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum maintenance cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces spares inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve reliability and maintainability of machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Zero equipment failure and break down. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve reliability and maintainability by TBD % . </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce maintenance cost by TBD % . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure availability of spares all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Six steps in Planned maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment evaluation and recoding present status. </li></ul><ul><li>Restore deterioration and improve weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Building up information management system. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of planned maintenance. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SKILL TRAINING PROGRAM <ul><li>It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only &quot;Know-How&quot; by they should also learn &quot;Know-why&quot;. By experience they gain, &quot;Know-How&quot; to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing &quot;Know-why&quot;. The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phase of skills are: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 : Do not know. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 4 : Can do and also teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps in Educating and training activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of training calendar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kick-off of the system for training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of activities and study of future approach. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. QUALITY MAINT. SYSTEM It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance). QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand. <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defect free conditions and control of equipments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QM activities to support quality assurance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of prevention of defects at source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on poka-yoke (fool proof system). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-line detection and segregation of defects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective implementation of operator quality assurance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce in-process defects by TBD %. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cost of quality by TBD %. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects . For customer-end data, we have to get data on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer end line rejection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field complaints. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For In-house data, they include data related to products and data related to process . </li></ul><ul><li>Data related to product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product wise defects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity of the defect and its contribution - major/minor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the defect with reference to the layout. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. TPM IN OFFICE
  13. 13. SAFETY, HYGIENE AND WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  14. 14. LOSS STRUCTURE IN PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES Operating worker-hours Operating hours Loading worker-hours Loading hours Actual working worker-hours Utilization hours Effective working worker-hours Net utilization hours Value-added worker-hours Value-added hours Human Equipment Management Losses Motion Losses Line Organization Losses Losses resulting from failure to automate Measuring and adjustment losses Shut Down Losses Failure Losses Setup and Adjustment Losses Start-Up Losses The losses which decrease the human work efficiency The losses which decrease the equipment efficiency Other Stoppage Losses Speed Losses Typical Equipment Losses Defect/Rework Losses Minor stoppage/Idling Losses
  15. 15. OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY (OEE) Operating hours Loading hours Utilization hours Net utilization hours Value-added hours 1 2 3 4 <ul><li>SD Losses </li></ul><ul><li>DownTime Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Defect Losses </li></ul>Availability = (UT) / (UT+DT) Performance Rate = (SCT • PU) / (UT) Quality Products Rate = (TP-DP) / (TP) UT -> UpTime DT -> DownTime SCT -> Standard Cycle Time TP -> Total Production DP -> Defective Production OEE = Availability · Performance Rate · Quality Products Rate Failure Setup/Adjustment Speed Losses Defect/Rework Minor Stoppage
  16. 16. HOW MUCH DOES AN OEE IMPROVEMENT COST? Measurement of actual level of defects and breakdowns. Modelling the plant behaviour and validate the simulation model. Determination of current OEE. INTERNAL SPEC. Evaluation of possible single or combined equipments interventions. Determination of Percentage of OEE Improvements for intervention (%OEEI) Evaluation of Equipments Improvements Costs (EIC) Determination of the Cost Percentage Improvement index for interventions. DESIGN A PLANT MAINTENANCE PROGRAM. OEE = A ·PR·QR CPI = EIC/(%OEEI)
  17. 17. TPM APPLICATION IN 12 STEPS <ul><li>Step 1: Announcement of TPM - Top management needs to create an environment that will support the introduction of TPM. Without the support of management, scepticism and resistance will kill the initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Launch a formal education program - This program will inform and educate everyone in the organization about TPM activities, benefits, and the importance of contribution from everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Create an organizational support structure - This group will promote and sustain TPM activities once they begin. Team-based activities are essential to a TPM effort. This group needs to include members from every level of the organization from management to the shop floor. This structure will promote communication and will guarantee everyone is working toward the same goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Establish basic TPM policies and quantifiable goals - Analyze the existing conditions and set goals that are SMART:  S pecific, M easurable, A ttainable, R ealistic, and T ime-based. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Outline a detailed master deployment plan (MASTER PLAN) - This plan will identify what resources will be needed and when for training, equipment restoration and improvements, maintenance management systems and new technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: TPM kick-off - Implementation will begin at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7: Improve effectiveness of each piece of equipment - Project Teams will analyze each piece of equipment and make the necessary improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7.1: Develop an autonomous maintenance program for operators - Operators routine cleaning and inspection will help stabilize conditions and stop accelerated deterioration ( JH ). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7.2: Develop a planned or preventive maintenance program - Create a schedule for preventive maintenance on each piece of equipment ( PLANNED MAINTENACE SYSTEM ). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7.3: Conduct training to improve operation and maintenance skills - Maintenance department will take on the role of teachers and guides to provide training, advice, and equipment information to the teams ( TRAINING ). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8: Develop an early equipment management program - Apply preventive maintenance principles during the design of new products and new equipments ( TPM IN OFFICE ). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 9: Develop a quality maintenance system - Fix, maintain and check the conditions in order to obtain Zero Defect condition ( QUALITY MAINTENANCE SYSTEM ). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 10: Develop an effective administrative system and an effective system to support the production ( TPM IN OFFICE ). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 11: Develop an effective integrate management system for the Safety, Hygiene and Environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 12: Continuous Improvement - As in any Lean initiative the organization needs to develop a continuous improvement mindset. </li></ul>Maintenance and reliability as a core business strategy is key to a successful TPM implementation. Without the support of top management, TPM will be just another “flavour of the month.”  Implementing TPM using the above 12 steps will lead us on the road to “ zero breakdowns ” and “ zero defects ”.
  18. 18. Why should Mitsuba start the TPM application? IMPROVE QUALITY COST DECREASES PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVES CAPTURE THE MARKET STAY IN BUSINESS PROVIDE JOBS AND MORE JOBS Cost decreases because of less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, snags, better use of machine-time and materials. Capture the market with better quality and lower price. Deming Chain Reaction
  19. 19. Where should Mitsuba start the TPM application?
  20. 20. COIL CORE ASSY FLOW PROCESS WINDING MACHINE COIL CORE UNIT WIRE COIL BOBBIN COIL CORE ASSY
  21. 21. NITTOKU WINDING MACHINE
  22. 22. ATOP WINDING MACHINE
  23. 23. WINDING MACHINE STRUCTURE Winding Machine Equipment Software Equipment Hardware Equipment NC Axis Wire Guide Wire Tightener Flyer Wire Guide Tools Brake Program
  24. 24. PM ANALYSIS ( visible defect ) PM P henomena P hysical After the winding process, wire insulator has been damaged! Wire guide tools damage the wire insulator. M echanism Wire guide tools touch the wire insulator during the process. M achine Hardware Software M aterial Wire insulator is too fragile. Wrong position of wire guide tools. Wrong dimension of layering. Wire Tightener does not work properly. M ethod Wrong transition between two poles. CHECK
  25. 25. PM ANALYSIS ( not visible defect ) PM P henomena P hysical Stator Assy fails the tests at the ending of production line! M echanism Wire guide tools touch the wire insulator during the process. M achine Hardware Software M aterial Wrong height of coil core unit. Wrong position of wire guide tools. Wrong dimension of layering. Wire Tightener does not work properly. M ethod A too high load on the wire during the winding process produces a high stress into the insulator Wire insulator is too fragile. Wrong design of coil bobbin. Resistance CHECK Inductance Wire insulator has been damaged during the winding process and it makes a short-circuit.
  26. 26. WHY-WHY ANALYSIS Kaizen Idea and schedule… … … … Why 2 Why 1 Due to/Action Why did you take above action? □ In case of spare-part no replacement. Describe Countermeasure: □ In case of spare-part replacement. What your final action? Breakdown, physical phenomenon: (6) □ Poor Skill (5) □ Weak Design (4) □ Deterioration (3) □ Material □ Coil Bobbin □ Coil Core Unit □ Wire (2) □ Poor Condition □ Basic □ Operating (1) □ Winding Machine □ Hardware □ Software E&T SKILL DESIGN PM JH Root cause is one of the following 5 items.
  27. 27. WHY-WHY PROCESS ANALYSIS NEW TEST Worker must not spend time for “NG” pieces. Why 2 Add facilities to test the coil core assy. Worker has to test the coil core assy. Why 1 Due to/Action Why did you take above action? □ In case of spare-part no replacement. Describe Countermeasure: first of all, the countermeasure avoids that a “NG” piece could be used in the downstream operations, as the resin treatment and the lead wire assembly ( it decreases the waste ); beside this, at this point of the process flow it is possible to rework the coil core assy. □ In case of spare-part replacement. What your final action? Add facilities to test the coil core assy. Phenomenon: Worker can not test the coil core assy before the resin treatment and the lead wire assembly! (6) □ Poor Skill (5) □ Weak Design (4) □ Deterioration (3) □ Material □ Coil Bobbin □ Coil Core Unit □ Wire ▣ (2) ▣ Poor Condition □ Basic ▣ Operating (1) □ Winding Machine □ Hardware □ Software E&T SKILL DESIGN PM JH Root cause is one of the following 5 items.

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