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Em Anate Issue2

  1. 1. emanate ISSUE 02 February 2009 The Magazine of the Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Association EMA to Organize Life after Global Photo-Competition its First Thematic ‘Mundus’ Warming Capturing Changing Conference Climates Changing Perspectives of Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Climates
  2. 2. Introduction Many Perspectives on Erasmus Mundus ’Changing Climates’ Changing The theme of this second edition of Emanate is ’Changing Climates’. Last year the EMA Magazine Team invited all mem- bers of the Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Association (EMA) to make their personal interpretation of the theme and send in articles and photos which they would like to share with the EMA community. The team is very grateful for all the interest and the numerous contributions – and we hope you, as reader of this magazine, will enjoy diving into the many In its own unique way Erasmus different perspectives on ‘Changing Climates’ presented in Mundus is all about ’Changing Cli- this edition. We feel this issue truly reflects the diversity of mates’ – just as this edition of Ema- Erasmus Mundus students and alumni – not only because of nate is. The rare opportunity to live the many ways of approaching the theme, but also because and study in several European coun- of the numerous nationalities and disciplines that the authors tries within one master programme represent. is certainly an example of students Many contributors have chosen to reflect on climate change changing climates; not only with re- and its serious consequences for the environment and hu- spect to weather and temperature, manity. Climate change is high on the agenda – also in the but also with respect to cultures and minds and professional lives of Erasmus Mundus students and learning environments. The Erasmus alumni. On February 26th and 27th 2009 many EMA members Mundus experience challenges the will gather in Budapest to attend the very first EMA confer- cultural and intellectual skills of ence. This major event will address the role of higher educa- its students and produces unique graduates with amazing tion institutions in addressing climate change questions, and abilities to adapt to very different cultural and professional the potential of multidisciplinary solutions. In Budapest the circumstances. debate launched in this issue of Emanate will continue. The Erasmus Mundus concept itself is going through a We hope you will enjoy reading the second edition of change of climate. Next year a new round of Erasmus Mun- Emanate! dus (2009-2013) will begin. Novelties in the second round will include scholarships for Europeans, doctorate pro- The EMA Magazine Team grammes and more cooperation with universities in third countries. The EMA is looking forward to a new chapter of Erasmus Mundus beginning next year. The Emanate Team are (from left to right): Magazine Team Coordinator Rikke Skovgaard Andersen, Denmark | Karel Van Acoleyen, Belgium | Michael Eshiemokhai, Nigeria Jasmine Kang, India | Gregor Lichtfuss, Germany | Amber Parker, New Zealand | Zachary Rothstein, US Natasha Sardzoska, Macedonia | Valentina Villoria, Venezuela | Luca Zanaica, Italy 2 emanate | ISSUE 02
  3. 3. Table of Contents and Table of limates Contents News from EMA The theme of this edition is – obvi- 2nd General Assembly in Italy: The EMA Keeps Growing................................................. 4 ously – also about one of humanity’s Feedback is Crucial – Student Survey from the EMA General Assembly ..................... 5 greatest challenges: climate change. Dancing Samba Together .......................................................................................................... 6 On the 26th and 27th of February, Er- Mexican Alumnus is New Vice-President of the EMA ...................................................... 7 asmus Mundus students and alumni will Together in Jakarta ...................................................................................................................... 8 gather at the Central European Univer- Does Erasmus Mundus Make a Difference? ......................................................................... 9 sity in Budapest to discuss how higher The Key to a Technologically Advanced Future .................................................................10 education can provide a response to cli- EMA at the Far End of the World .......................................................................................... 11 mate change. This is the first major EMA conference, with a highly salient topic. Climate Change Nowadays most academic disciplines are, in one way or another, concerned with climate change and the “Erasmus EMA to Organize its First Thematic Conference ...............................................................12 Mundus Conference – Higher Education Harvesting the Crops.................................................................................................................13 and Climate Change” will be a meeting Climate Change in the Arctic ................................................................................................14 place for EMA members of many differ- Climate Change in India – a Need for a Rights-Based Approach ................................15 ent backgrounds. Is Climate Change more Important than Environment? ................................................16 I hope you will enjoy reading this sec- Fruitful Future? Great Grapes to Wonderful Wine ...........................................................18 ond edition of Emanate. Experience in the Field: Internships at the UN Institutions ..........................................20 Climates of the Mundus...........................................................................................................21 HANNEKE A. LUTH Life after Global (“Mundus”) Warming ................................................................................22 President Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Higher Education News Association (EMA) Erasmus Mundus Round 2 – In Action! ...............................................................................23 Photo Competition The EMA Photo Competition ..................................................................................................24 Your Say Global Citizenship: Benefits and Challenges......................................................................26 India, the next Superpower: Myth or Reality?...................................................................28 International Health from within Germany ......................................................................30 3
  4. 4. News from EMA 2nd General Assembly in Italy: The EMA Keeps Growing by RIKKE SKOVGA ARD ANDERSEN, EMA Magazine Team Coordinator A new round of Erasmus Mundus, the launch of EMA regional chap- ters, Brazilian samba and a photo exhibition – these were just a few of the ingredients for this year’s biggest EMA event Delegates of Erasmus Mundus Master Courses The 2nd EMA General for Foreigners in Perugia the 2nd EMA at the 2nd EMA General Assembly. Assembly... General Assembly (hosted by EMA) and 4th Student Seminar (hosted by the Eu- and the 4th Erasmus Mundus Student ropean Commission) took place in Italy. Seminar were held in Perugia, Italy on The major Erasmus Mundus event coin- the 6th and 7th of June 2008. More cided with ‘Studybox’, the 1st European than 150 Erasmus Mundus students and Forum on the right to university study Welcome to EMA Regional Chapters alumni - delegates of courses, EMA serv- and was part of the local university’s ice team representatives, regional chap- celebration of the European Year of In- ter representatives and observers - made tercultural Dialogue. For Erasmus Mun- The event in Perugia proved to be an excellent example of the journey to Perugia, Italy, to attend dus students and alumni it were two the fact that the EMA keeps growing. EMA China and EMA the most important EMA event in 2008. days of serious debates, lots of fun and Latin America (EMA-LA) Chapters and the Erasmus Mundus On the kind invitation of the University networking with old and new friends. Association of India (EMAI) introduced themselves and shared their activities planned for the next year. Furthermore, some enthusiastic EMA members decided to start building pro- chapter teams in order to create new chapters. These teams Contact the EMA regional chapters Contact the pro-chapter teams were: Africa, Community of Independent States (CIS), and and associations North America. All of them are glad to welcome new people North America to their networks. EMA China Ryan Bushek | naema.info@gmail.com Mengmeng Cui Community of Independent States A New Round of Erasmus Mundus mengmeng.c@gmail.com Denis Popov | denis.a.popov@gmail.com EMA Latin America Southeast Asia Tahia Devisscher | info@ema-la.eu Iqbal Akbar / Chaidarun Iamphak Another big theme for the two days in Perugia was the sec- EMA African Chapter erasmusmundus.sea@gmail.com ond round of Erasmus Mundus which is scheduled to begin Karen Basiye in 2009. Among the speakers was Member of the European karen.basiye@mespom.eu Contact the regional networks Parliament, Allesandro Battilocchio (Italy), who has been EMA of India writing a report on the proposal for the new Erasmus Mun- Vijita Aggarwal Oceania dus programme for the European Parliament’s Committee on vijitaaggarwal@yahoo.com Gregor Lichtfuss | gregor@lichtfuss.eu Development. Mr. Battilocchio presented some of his conclu- sions and discussed the programme with the students and alumni present. 4 emanate | ISSUE 02
  5. 5. News from EMA Feedback is Crucial Student Survey Results from the EMA General Assembly in Perugia At the EMA General Assembly in Pe- rugia in June 2008, student and alumni representatives were asked to complete a survey evaluating their experiences at each university they attended within their Erasmus Mundus (EM) consortium. The questions asked respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 (with 1 = Poor, 3 some students in EM master’s courses = Satisfactory and 5 = Excellent) their with high tuition fees found the schol- experiences on Arrival and Settling, arship to be grossly inadequate. Local Culture, University Experience & Courses and the adequacy of the EM Many prospective students have had Scholarship. Student and alumni repre- difficulty finding information on stu- sentatives were also asked to answer a dent experiences in specific EM master’s series of open questions relating to their courses. While there is ample evidence overall experiences. The EMA received from the EMA survey and others which Making new friends in Perugia. 59 survey responses and is pleased with indicates that Erasmus Mundus is work- the overall positive feedback. ing well overall, it is less clear whether this general experience is true for all The average rating for Arrival and Set- EM master’s courses and all universi- tling was 3.6 with most respondents ties within them. As the EMA survey reporting positive experiences relating evaluated student experiences at each Between Cultures in to their welcoming from the host uni- university, the most interesting finding Photos… and Samba! versity. The price of student housing and was the variation in ratings given by re- assistance from the university in secur- spondents across different universities Next to the debates on regional chap- ing appropriate housing (particularly for within their consortium. ters and the new Erasmus Mundus students with families), were the areas programme the trip to Perugia also of greatest concern identified in the This initial survey was designed by the included plenty of social and cultural survey and written feedback. On expe- EMA Policy Team as a first step towards events. Among other things there was rience with Local Culture the average the involvement of the EMA into course an exhibition of 10 photos from the first response was 3.3 with most students quality and student feedback. The EMA EMA photo competition which provided reporting positively on integrating with will continue to work closely with the some insight into the rich multicultural local culture, but having greater diffi- European Commission to develop an life of Erasmus Mundus. Another suc- culties learning the local language and online survey and feedback system for cessful social event was a concert with interacting with local students. the EMA website, which will provide Brazilian singer Selma Hernandez who prospective students with more courses inspired a room full of Erasmus Mundus Most students rated highly the aca- and university specific information. The students to dance samba! demic opportunities in their master’s EMA has an important role to play in A big thanks to the University of For- course with University Experience & gathering honest, accurate and objec- eigners and the Project Erasmus Perugia Courses receiving an average rating of tive feedback directly from its members for their help and hospitality. 3.7. In particular, experiences were very and would like to thank everyone who positive regarding student-professor took the time to provide critical feed- Would you like to know more about relations, academic quality and overall back in Perugia. the conclusions from Perugia? academic experience. The survey found Please visit www.em-a.eu for minutes the EM Scholarship to be broadly ad- of the General Assembly and results of equate, receiving an average rating of About the authors: the statute voting. 3.3. This rating however varied greatly Peter Bentley is a student in the European among survey respondents, notably Master’s Programme in Higher Education. 5
  6. 6. News from EMA Dancing Samba Together How can a Samba dance be compared with the feel- ing of “we can change the world”? It might be a matter of rhythm, at least if you can follow it. Or maybe it is not the samba, but being together with Erasmus Mundus friends that gives you the powerful feeling It is a usual cliché that when one comes out of the university, one stops experimenting with life. Experiments which enable us to deviate from norms and embark on the path we are happy with. We somehow make ourselves believe that after education, we are entering a real world which will not tol- erate our happy-go-lucky nature and would not accept the changes we propose. We will have to fit in the system. Hence we stop trying anything new and just go with the flow losing the capacity for changes. More than one year has passed since I finished my Erasmus Mundus Master programme and I came back to reality. I have been no different, until my trip to Perugia for EMA General Assembly. There I felt that energy inside me again. Energy that makes me feel things can change and I can be part of that change again. The energy that once made me feel that I can change myself. It was the EMA event that refilled me with energy and reignited my creativity. Now I felt it again, that things can change. I met people that will accompany me and give me strength and energy to keep following the plans for a future. Now I am more aware of things that were preventing me; I was afraid of heights, speaking in front of the people, fearing nobody would agree with me and was getting used to agreeing with anything that life gave me. But the push that I received from my peers during the event gave me hope, as the audience was broad and open-minded to others’ opin- ions and different points of view. It is the magic of Erasmus, of both Erasmus and Erasmus Mundus programmes, that one 6 emanate | ISSUE 02
  7. 7. News from EMA by RIKKE SKOVGA ARD ANDERSEN, EMA Magazine Team Coordinator Mexican Alumnus is New can be accepted with less prejudgement Vice-President because everybody understands that we all are different and everybody comes with good intentions. of the EMA Once a friend told me that there are turning points in life when everything looks very fragile, however those can become important if you take advan- tage. For me, one of these points was Chapters, course associations and networking Erasmus Mundus. It was fragile because with other student and academic organizations I found an alternative way to live my life, a moment where everything was are on the agenda of the newly elected Vice- possible because we started believing President of the EMA: Ricardo Chávez Medellín in change and living a dream that the world now belonged to us. Within the from Mexico event, I saw new ideas being accepted, discussed, speculated, supported and pushed … It was fragile because I don’t see it everyday, not since I came back One of the outcomes of the 2008 EMA home to reality as I used to say, after the General Assembly was a decision to in- Masters programme. vite motivated EMA members to apply for the position as Vice-President of A samba concert at the impressive the EMA. In October last year the EMA Aula Magna of the University of Peru- Steering Committee selected Ricardo gia also taught me something. At the Chávez Medellín, a Mexican alumnus beginning we all sat on our seats and from the Joint European Masters in listened. But little after, there were Materials Science, as the association’s some people who started to move their new Vice-President. Ricardo is currently feet. They were not afraid of looking ri- a Ph.D. student at Darmstadt University diculous while moving with the rhythm. of Technology in Germany. We had the Many were moving in their own cultur- chance to ask Ricardo a few questions Ricardo Chávez Medellín al style. I couldn’t help myself and also about his background and visions for did some flamenco steps, luckily oth- the EMA: ers started following me, which made What will be your three top priori- me even stronger. We were moving What inspired you to run for the ties as Vice-President? together at the same rhythm with joy position as Vice-President of the Chávez: First of all I want to consoli- and „allegria“ - the word that often is EMA? date and to further develop the Region- used in samba songs. The scene was Chávez: There were actually two main al Chapters within the EMA structure. peculiar and beautiful because it came reasons. Firstly, I had the chance to see Then, secondly, I would like to promote form our energy inside. the process that led to the formation of the interaction between Course Repre- EMA. Since its beginning, the EMA has sentatives and EMA Steering Committee. It was a moment in life that took my shown a lot of potential and this deeply Lastly, it is my goal to create stronger dark side away and gave me a ray of impressed me. Therefore, I decided to ties between the EMA and other student light that would change my life. contribute as much as possible to its and academic organizations. further development. Secondly, I had the chance to serve as the Vice-presi- Where do you see the EMA in 10 dent of the Latin American Chapter. In years? this position, I got some experience of Chávez: I see EMA in 10 years as a dy- the development of regional chapters namic and well-known organization and their interaction with third-party with world-wide presence in which all About the authors: institutions and I would like to share its members contribute with their en- Andrea Piehl Harms is an alumna of the this experience with the rest of the EMA thusiasm and ideas to its further devel- Joint Master in Water and Coastal Man- community. opment. agement Programme. 7
  8. 8. News from EMA Biking trip around the center of Old Batavia ing intercultural experiences in a more Together in local sense. From the city trip, alumni Jakarta went for dinner at a famous Indone- sian ethnic restaurant, Lara Djonggrang. During this occasion, alumni discussed various key issues and agreed to launch the EMA Southeast Asia (SEA) chapter. This new chapter has several goals such as to enhance EM promotion to new Fifteen Erasmus Mundus alumni visited students and employers; trigger coop- eration between alumni and EU in vari- the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, to pro- ous local projects; and provide feedback to EMMC coordinators about the pro- mote the programme and lay the foun- gram. The participants agreed that the launching of SEA chapter will bring es- sential benefit not only to the regional dations for the establishment of EMA community but also to the EMA com- munity as a whole. Southeast Asian chapter Working as a team with fellow alumni On 1–2 November 2008, EMA held its 3rd networking event, the adequacy of the materials around was fun. Although the members had coinciding with the European Higher Education Fair (EHEF) the booth. EM also had a scheduled 55- never met before, the studies in Europe in Jakarta. 14 EMA members from Indonesia, Malaysia, the minute presentation, given by Mr. Koen certainly brought them together as a Philippines, and Thailand, plus one EMA Steering Committee Nomden (Education, Audiovisual and solid team. Being from different courses member came to Jakarta for this purpose. The fair was attended Culture Executive Agency, Brussels) and was a great advantage because inquiries by 88 education institutions from 20 countries, plus 1 booth Ms. Jennifer Lenhart (EMA promotions for particular programs can be referred from European Union. In the EU booth, EMA work hand-in- team). to fellow alumni. hand with the local European Commission (EC) delegation to The whole event was exhilarating and introduce Erasmus Mundus (EM), answer questions from pro- The networking event was held on had an incredible turnout. The allocat- spective students and parents, and share experiences of study- the first day and included a short city ed 1 seminar room was never enough; ing in Europe. EC’s support was excellent. They provided a vari- trip and dinner in the evening. During hence we utilized both seminar rooms. ety of promotional materials and were continuously monitoring the city trip, alumni explored the Old In addition, we also held an extra pres- Batavia which refers to the old name of entation session on day 2. The seminar Jakarta. The journey began with a little rooms were packed during each session. tour of museum Bank Mandiri, which The visitor count reached 15,000 (from was an old Dutch trading company, built expected of 4,000) for the two days – a with art-nouveau architecture that was smashing success on all counts. once famous in the early 20th century. To get more acquainted with the fine About the authors: details of this architecture, a black- Yansen Darmaputra is an alumnus of and-white movie made in 1941 was the Joint European Master’s Programme shown. Afterwards, the alumni went in Clinical Linguistics, Abigail Yao is an on a half-hour biking trip around the alumna from the CoMundus Programme center of Old Batavia. These joyful mo- and Iqbal Akbar is an alumnus from the ments indeed brought friendship among European Masters in Nuclear Fusion Sci- the alumni and an opportunity for shar- EMA members in Batik (traditional cloth from Indonesia) ence & Engineering Physics. emanate | ISSUE 02 8
  9. 9. News from EMA Does Erasmus Mundus Make a Difference? Overview of the Results of the Graduate Impact Survey b y ANA GOELDEN and NATALIA SPARTAKOVA, ICUnet. AG, EMA Ser vice Provider On request of the European Commis- How has your attitude towards Europe and the EU changed due sion ICUnet.AG, the service provider for EMA, has been conducting both quali- to your Erasmus Mundus experience? (In percent) tative and quantitative studies during 2007-2008 among first-year students 49,00 and alumni with the scope to evalu- 50 ate the impact of Erasmus Mundus on its graduates. Overall 817 participants 40 took part in the survey representing 92 30,50 countries. 30 The results provided us with important 17,00 insights into students and graduates 20 level of satisfaction with the EM, im- pact of the programme on their career 10 2,50 and personality, as well as attitudes 1,00 towards Europe and the EU. 0 in a very in a fairly no changes in a fairly in a very Among motives for application Eras- positive way positive way negative way negative way mus Mundus the factor of scholarship has been chosen by more than 50% of students. The “academic level of EMMC universities” also seems to be impor- employment rate tendency among Erasmus Mundus gradu- students and graduates lean towards tant to the students, especially in the ates is overall satisfying: 59% of graduates of September-De- intercultural competence, followed by case of non-EU country students and cember 2007 have found a job or a PhD position, even though communication competence and self- graduates. For the students who are the Survey was conducted shortly after the graduation or confidence. EU citizens, such categories as “joint even before the official end of the programme; 79% of earlier or multiple degree” and “availability graduates have a job or a PhD position. Attitude towards Europe, which be- of the subject” represent the most im- Another exciting finding that we were able to observe is the comes a home for Erasmus Mundus stu- portant motivation criteria. We plan to fact that Erasmus Mundus graduates earn considerably more dents for a significant time period, was look into the motivational factors even than first year students earned before starting the EM pro- also in focus of the survey. According more deeply in the next upcoming gramme, which signifies that the Erasmus Mundus has a sig- to the obtained results the majority of Graduate Impact Survey, which would nificant impact on participants’ income. students and graduates perceive the EU help the European Commission to in- in a positive way. fluence the processes of the future EM When asked to which extent the knowledge acquired during Last, but not least, the impact of the programme more precisely and react Erasmus Mundus studies is relevant for the present job, 78% EM programme on students’ social life adequately to the existing challenges. of respondents state that it was very or quite relevant. There seems to be quite considerable. Not When it comes to impact of the Eras- also seems to be a strong impact of the EM programme on only have many Erasmus Mundus stu- mus Mundus programme on the grad- the improvement of subject related competences among the dents found a lot of friends from all over uates, the categories “career” and “at- alumni. When choosing which additional skills gained during the world, but 26% of the graduates titude towards the EU” were preferred the EM programme are the most relevant for their present oc- also found a partner during the Erasmus by most respondents. We can conclude cupation, the majority of graduates named intercultural com- Mundus times. that the EM programme represents a petence, communication abilities and language skills. very important milestone and a solid Many survey participants state that the impact of the Eras- We will continue exploring the impact basis for successful career develop- mus Mundus programme on their personality is strong or very of Erasmus Mundus in the following ment, be it academic or industrial. strong. Upon choosing two areas where the programme had Graduate Impact research in 2008- According to the survey results, the the most impact on their personality, most Erasmus Mundus 2009. 9
  10. 10. News from EMA The Key to a Technologically Advanced Future 1st Erasmus Mundus Materials Science Workshop opment. As there is frequently a considerable time lag be- Institut National Polytechnique de Lor- tween a scientific discovery and its useful application, people raine, France; Universitat Politècnica often forget the important link that connects fundamental de Catalunya, Spain and Luleå Tekniska research and future prosperity. It is only with continued in- Universitet, Sweden) as well as within vestment that the discoveries of today and the highly trained several industries will certainly raise experts necessary to develop and exploit them will also be awareness of Erasmus Mundus Master available for the innovative products of the future. courses. Within the field of Materials Science, the barriers that divide It was with some financial support academia, government institutions, and the industry must be from the EMA Thematic Conference reduced if not completely eliminated. Only in this way will it Events Funds that EMA became part of be possible to turn fundamental discoveries into practical ap- this project. The EMA Thematic Con- plications for the benefit of Europe. Promoting links between ference Events Funds was initiated by researchers, theoreticians, industrial scientists, and managers Conferences and Events Team on be- Concentrating on the technologically through collaborative schemes and joint research institutes is half of the European Commission with advanced future an obvious solution. For this reason a thematic chapter in the the main idea to facilitate the internal area of Materials Science was created, fundamentally for the and external communication as well as prosperity of Europe and its High Education and more specifi- networking among Erasmus Mundus cally within the Erasmus Mundus programme. Students. EMMSSA, a students’ wing of the EMMS (Joint European Aveiro, one of Portugal’s most beauti- Masters in Material Science) hosts an Annual Workshop with ful cities, had the honor to be the host a poster and oral section for students, professors and indus- of this event. Three enriching days with Materials Science is an interdiscipli- try interaction. The success of this workshop is proven by the around 60 participants, including EM nary field involving the properties of continuance of this project over the years. students and alumni (EMMS, AMASE matter as well as its applications to var- and FAME) and course coordinators ious areas of science and engineering. It Progress is the vital word for Erasmus Mundus and based expressed themselves among others. is within this science that the relation- on that, expansion was the next step. Therefore, collabora- EMMSSA also had the honor to invite ship between the structure of materials tion between related Erasmus Mundus Master courses EMMS speakers from the Erasmus Mundus Se- at atomic or molecular scales and their and AMASE (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) lection Board, the Portuguese Erasmus macroscopic properties are investigated. was formed and the 3rd EMMS & 1st Erasmus Mundus Ma- Mundus representative, the Portuguese It embraces elements of applied chem- terials Science Workshop entitled “Materials Science: The National Structure as well as guests istry and physics, as well as mechanical, Key to a Technologically Advanced Future” was created. This from University of Aveiro. chemical, civil and electrical engineer- project is equally beneficial for EMMS/AMASE students and The Erasmus Mundus National Struc- ing. This is an on-growing natural sci- alumni, for the EMMS/AMASE professors and for the over- tures are contacts and information ence that has faced several challenges all EMA community. With this project it is possible to create points in each of the European coun- at the beginning of the 21st Century. a great networking opportunity between fellow students as tries participating in Erasmus Mundus. The first main challenge is to convince well as professors from both consortiums. The publicity of this Leonor Santa Clara, the representative the industry, the public, and politicians event within the 7 Universities (University of Aveiro, Portugal; of the Portuguese National Structure of the importance of materials science Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany; Aalborg said “It was with great pleasure that in driving modern technological devel- Universitet, Denmark; Universität des Saarlandes, Germany; we participated in the 3rd EMMS & 1st 10 emanate | ISSUE 02
  11. 11. News from EMA The participants of the Erasmus Mundus Materials Science Workshop Erasmus Mundus Materials Workshop throughout and beyond Erasmus Mundus. As stated by Juliano may provide the solution in order to re- that took place in September at the Soyama, an EMMS student who just started his masters : „This duce the considerable time lag between University of Aveiro. This was the occa- workshop was a great opportunity to meet my fellow students a scientific discovery and its useful ap- sion to see the evolution of one of our from Erasmus Mundus and to have an overview on what they plication. Therefore, in this way we are pioneer EMMC especially through the have been developing. It was also important for me to realize trying to promote future collaborative contact with the students and the un- the extension of our EMMS program concerning its interna- schemes and joint research institutes. derstanding of their experiences. This is tional character and post-activities.“ both useful and motivating for National Structures. Congratulations! “ The organization of the 1st Erasmus Mundus Materials Sci- The main objectives of this event were ence workshop should be considered as a milestone in the About the author: to facilitate the dissemination of knowl- story of the Materials Science EMMC programme. Since net- Sonia Pinho is an alumna of the Joint edge and promote interdisciplinary dis- working among EM students, who are future researchers, the- European Masters in Material Science cussions regarding material science oreticians, future industrial scientists, and future managers Programme. at the Far End of the World EMA ErasmOz - an Initiative for EMApac, the EMA Pacific Region Network by GREGOR LICHTFUSS The Pacific region is not only home to iting EMA members with local professional and social support. site and let us know what you think of numerous Erasmus Mundus students, At the same time information on Erasmus Mundus and study- a regional base, whether you would like but also the home of EM course insti- ing in Europe can be provided and promoted to interested stu- to actively or passively participate and tutions and an exciting destination for dents and educational and research institutions. what you would expect of such an ini- research activities across study fields. tiative. As the Pacific region is somewhat uncharted territory in the Based in Australia, the regional ini- EMA world, a primary aim of ErasmOz is an appraisal within You will find the short questionnaire tiative ‘ErasmOz’ for the Pacific region the EMA community to evaluate interest. here: http://www.EMApac.eu/ and you aims to lay the foundation for a regional If the country you are coming from, you are currently living can also join the ErasmOz/EMApac Fa- home for Erasmus Mundus Students, in, you are going to live in or you are going to study/work in cebook group. Don’t hesitate to contact alumni, lecturers, friends and interested enclosed by the circle from Tokyo to Hobart to Christchurch to us anytime with questions or sugges- people. Clipperton Island to Hawaii, this call is for you. tions or if you would like to get involved ErasmOz aims to provide resident or vis- Please take part in a short online survey on the EMApac web- in the process! 11
  12. 12. Climate Change EMA to Organize its First Thematic Conference Higher Education and Climate Change, on 26-27 February 2009 in Budapest, Hungary Climate change is the most pressing Mundus Master Courses (EMMCs), embraces a great national The EMA Climate Change Confer- threat to the world‘s environment, al- and cultural diversity of people in different fields of study: ence is organized by the Conference & ready contributing to a visible effect on from agricultural and forestry sciences to architecture, ur- Events Team. The Team currently con- human health, food security, economic ban and regional planning, business studies, communication sists of 32 members and its mission is activity, water and other natural re- and information sciences, geography, environmental studies, to assist the Association in constructing sources and physical infrastructure. Ris- health and humanities, engineering, technology, law and so- a strong community with ever-lasting ing concentrations of greenhouse gas cial sciences. This diversity has substantial potential to offer a inter-personal relationships among its emissions into the earth’s atmosphere, variety of multidisciplinary solutions in addressing the issues members, through the organization of brought about by human activities, are of climate change. EMA-supported conferences and events. leading to changes in the climate, and To achieve this goal, the first General the result of this will impact on all areas Recognizing the challenge and the potential contribution Assembly of the EMA in October 2007 of human activities. towards climate change, and with support from the European (held in Brussels, Belgium) has defined Commission, the EMA is going to organize its first thematic threefold roles and responsibilities for the conference on higher education and climate change. This team: first, to create a platform for the Erasmus Mundus Conference will bring together students, communication and cooperation among alumni and scholars mainly from the EMMCs to discuss what the EM students and alumni body via role higher education can play in front of the changing climate the implementation of EMA supported today. It offers a communication and networking platform for conferences and events; second, to pro- the students and alumni and the EMMC faculty members to mote networking among EMA members broaden their knowledge and insight on climate change issues and contribute to the establishment of a beyond their own fields of study and to utilize different angles united community through the provision for meeting the challenges climate change poses to human of various means of support for different society. This conference will also involve experts and profes- events; and third, to promote Europe as sionals in the emerging climate change sector, which will be a centre of excellence in international an excellent opportunity for EM students and alumni to es- higher education on all EMA organized tablish connections with climate change professionals and to conferences and events, in close coop- deepen their commitment to professional development in the eration with other EMA teams (esp. the field of climate change. Promotion Team). Chunyu on his way to a hydropower project site on the eastern Tibetan The two-day conference intends to accumulate valuable ex- Plateau. perience and to create a model project for the preparation and organization of future EMA conferences. It will consist The scale and long-term potential of of a plenary session delivered by internationally recognised the impact of climate change has drawn experts specialising in higher education and/or climate enormous attention from policy-mak- change, as well as parallel workshops focusing on different ers and academics to media and citi- subjects contributed by EMA members. The participating Er- zens from countries around the world. asmus Mundus students and alumni have the opportunity to Higher education institutions as the bring issues from their field of study associated with climate knowledge centre of mankind assume change. They also get a possibility to interact with one an- About the author: a crucial role in finding the means to other in order to find ways of addressing such points through Chunyu Liang is Coordinator of the EMA respond to climate change and to train the course of higher education. The conference will also seek Conferences and Events Team and an the future leaders to tackle it with a to establish an Erasmus Mundus Forum on Climate Change to alumnus of the Master’s Programme holistic approach. The Erasmus Mundus continue the dialogue and networking in the climate change in Environmental Sciences, Policy and Programme, consisting of all Erasmus field among the interested EMA members. Management. 12 emanate | ISSUE 02
  13. 13. Climate Change Harvesting the Crops How Changing Climate can Affect Agriculture in Developing Countries Global warming is influencing our climate. It could get drier or wetter, warmer or colder. We are able to fight against these changes by taking off clothes or adding more... But what about plants and especially food crops that are cultivated by 80% of the world population in order to feed themselves? In Europe, we observe the effect of climate change on the delay of seasons and the changing temperatures but as we are living in temperate climates the impact on our lives and especially our agriculture is not really important. Contrarily, in Asia, Africa or Latin America, the impact of cli- Province of Mwaro, Burundi, 2007. On the left side, cultivated valleys of vegetable mate change is more important because the variability be- crops and on the right, the same area after a heavy rain, all the crops are lost. tween the seasons in those tropical and arid areas is extreme. Cyclones and heavy rains are intensifying the precipitation archaic methods, bad quality or absence realized by the United Nations Devel- level during the wet seasons; heat waves and droughts are of inputs (seeds, fertilizers, irrigation). opment Program in 2007-2008, shows increasing temperatures during the dry season, which induces Moreover, the land they use is some- in the figure below strongly developing water stress. In these countries, the majority of the popula- times infertile or eroded. Added to these countries could have their agricultural tion consists of farmers with small surfaces to cultivate with fragile conditions of production, there output potential affected by climate are extreme climatic conditions, which change in 2080. induce more soil erosion and loss of fer- tility and lower yields. From the green Solutions have to be found to al- Change in agricultural output hills of Burundi cultivated with cassava, low the agriculture of these regions to potential sweet potatoes and beans to the arid adapt and fight against climate change valleys of Yemen full of watermelon and effects. European farmers are generally (2080s as % of 2000 potential) maize, farmers can watch, in one day, all protected by their government in case their production disappear, which rep- of climatic catastrophe; for example -20 -10 0 10 20 resents several months of food for their in the south of France where there are family. In some countries of Africa, this many orchards, farmers can be insured Industrial countries kind of event has forced parents to feed against frost damage. Developing coun- their childrens with mud pancakes. tries’ governments have to implement structures that can support vulnerable World According to the Study, carried out by farmers when they are touched by bad the US journal Science in 2007, climate climatic conditions. Moreover, as their Developing Countries change could cause severe crop losses economy depends mostly on agriculture, in developing countries over the next it is inevitable to find adaptations to ag- Asia 20 years. Its results demonstrate that ricultural policy. “by 2030 southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its main crop, maize About the author: Middle East and North and South Asia 10% of rice, millet and Julie Mayans is a student in the Agris Africa maize crops”. As these crops represent Mundus Master’s Programme in Sus- Latin America the main food of those populations, it tainable Development in Agriculture. could be catastrophic. Another study, Africa Source: Human Development Report 2007-2008: “Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world”, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 13
  14. 14. Climate Change Climate Change in the Arctic The Arctic is a hotspot for climate change research. A Spanish Erasmus Mundus alumna reports from a research trip to Svalbard by ANDREA PIEHL system. This master thesis project was released his movie “The Inconvenient part of a broader project which studied Truth”, raising awareness and surprising how the species of Arctic water, such as audiences, including me. The IPCC also These are times of change in the environment. The Arctic plankton are the food elements for cod did a remarkable job, being a scientific is an area where this change has scientifically already been and local sea birds and consequently organization working together to give a observed for some time. I can consider myself fortunate to larger marine mammals like seals (i.e. sound basis to what had previously been have been there before it was too late, but especially to have the whole food chain), are being af- only treated as a theory. I definitely taken part in a scientific expedition that contributed towards fected by the intrusion of warmer and agree that both IPCC (Intergovernmen- the understanding of the main driving-forces that influence more saline Atlantic water masses. This tal Panel on Climate Change) and Al the whole ecosystem of a fjord. My master thesis took place is what science can do. Gore deserved the Peace Nobel price for in the remote island archipelago of Svalbard, located 79ºN what they achieved in raising to the top within a Norwegian-founded research project, in the fjord of the international agenda the prob- The Momentum of Kongsfjorden where a community of international bases lem that Climate Change may cause the of scientists work together in what is called the “the World world and humankind. I would have to Northernmost community”, the population of which varies But other advances, as well as setbacks, congratulate also the German presiden- from 100 in summer to about 10 scientists during winter. have arisen recently. Thanks to some cy of the European Union for setting the key public actors and initiatives, cli- target of reducing the emissions of CO2 My background in Marine Science and the Joint Erasmus mate change has been put top of the in Europe by 20%, by 2020. I feel proud Mundus Master in Water and Coastal Management gave me international agenda. Some of these ad- of the EU for taking the lead on Climate the unique opportunity as a Spanish citizen to go to the Arc- vances have created a momentum that Change issues. Nevertheless, nowadays tic and study the oceanographical characteristics of the fjord. has inspired many important political all these advances are being severely Basically, local Arctic cold and fresh water masses in the fjord initiatives. The first I remember, back in threatened by the world economic cri- are being increasingly influenced by the intrusion of warmer 2006, was the so-called “Stern Report”, sis. Unfortunately, the environment has and more saline water masses from the northernmost exten- a report ordered by the UK Government traditionally been regarded as the last sion of the Gulf Stream. The result of this intrusion is an which concluded that ignoring climate priority, as a “luxury” asset. unstable change in the whole ecosystem. My Master thesis change would be economically more ex- project task was to develop a tool to identify the short-term pensive than putting in place measures There is a very special initiative tak- changes in water masses that would allow scientists to fore- to halt it. At the same time, Al Gore, ing place at the moment that I would cast a consequent change in the long term of the whole eco- the former vice-president of the USA, like to highlight. The International Polar 14 emanate | ISSUE 02
  15. 15. Climate Change Year (IPY) is an enormous research ef- Climate fort taking place for the 4th time be- tween March 2007 and March 2009. Change in India This initiative promoted by the World Meteorological Organization has given the polar scientific community the op- portunity to study in a coordinated and A Need for a Rights-Based Approach detailed way the polar environment and socio-economy, at the same time. It must be said that this time-frame em- by BUDDHADEB HALDER braces the two summer seasons of both franchised and so there is a high pos- poles, the most suitable season to take sibility of arising internal conflict over samples in these extreme environments. Climate Change presents a real chal- the natural resources and agricultural I will be very excited to see the outcome lenge and danger for India. A developing products like water and food grains. of this considerable research effort. country like India will face huge human Now, let us examine the standpoint of and environmental problems in coming the Indian Government in regard to deal- New Dangers years due to climate change. Geographi- ing with the impact of climate change? cally, India is a tropical country with a Mr. Pradipto Ghosh, Ex-Secretary of the However, there are some concerns - long coastline and having a large number Ministry of Environment and Forest, has the Arctic has remained one of the last of poor and rural population, India is said: ‘‘India is certainly not responsible frontiers on Earth and now, with the highly vulnerable to climatic changes for the mess. We are, in fact, victims International Polar Year, another spe- which will dramatically affect human of it. So why expect us to tighten our cial issue has arisen. The sea ice in the rights, either directly or indirectly. belts?‘‘ Thus, the position of Indian Gov- Arctic cap is in fact retreating and for India‘s emissions are now rising and ernment on the issue of climate change some key economic sectors this is seen projected to be among the top three in is easily understandable. The govern- as an advantage. For example, drilling less than a decade. As India has 7500 ment‘s argument is not entirely rational for fossil fuels in the area will increase km coast and 50 million people at risk because the global climate cannot dif- due to their accessibility, which will of sea level rise, so these large num- ferentiate between borders. And here cause serious damage to an environ- bers of people will be displaced from lies the main question: is it possible for ment already changing and, as is occur- the coastal zone and will move inwards. the government to guarantee ‘Right to ring now, an international discussion Seven of the world‘s major river basins Development‘‘ to the Indian population about the ownership of underwater originate in the Himalayan and Tibetan after having such a position on this very mineral resources. Maritime traffic will plateaus which are the source of water particular issue? also increase after the retreat of the ice for the population of China, India, Ne- cap. So a vessel travelling from Rotter- pal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Apart from this, the other concerns are dam will reach Asia saving 40% of the Climate change will also cause flooding on the issue of ecological displacement, time. All these new topical issues will in low-lying regions and the deltas will different diseases, food insecurity and need international regulation as well as turn infertile. Agricultural productivity the growing poor population in India. sound research to understand and pre- will decline; so hunger and food inse- Recently, in June 2008, the Government vent further problems. curity will increase rapidly. This climate of India launched the National Action change will damage economic assets Plan on Climate Change. Though the Climate change has been put on the and the infrastructure of India. Thus, intellectuals have described this action international agenda, and I think we the impacts of climate change on hu- plan as incorporating the country‘s vi- will have to congratulate these people man lives will be felt not just in years, sion of sustainable development, it was for at least raising the public profile of but over generations. business-as-usual it seemed. It has an ecological concern that will make already been proven that most of the us all work for the earth to be a bet- We have already seen the impact of victims would be the poor and the mar- ter place. I wish this could also be done climate change across South Asia. In ginalised group of society, whose rights with other issues such as the loss of 2007, 20 million were diplaced due to have always been neglected, so there is biodiversity which urgently needs our “wild weather” in South Asia. Climate a real need to introduce a human rights- public attention, as well as many others. change will affect the identity and the based approach to different action and However, in the meantime I am happy culture amongst India‘s tribal and in- development plans to deal with the is- that people are at least changing their digenous communities. These commu- sue of climate change in India. behaviour to some degree for one eco- nities will be obliged to change their logical reason. This will make the path food habit, cultural identity and so on. About the author: easier for further ecological needs that Diseases such as malaria, dengue, and Buddhadeb Halder is an alumnus of the we have been putting aside and that are cholera have increased already in the Human Rights Practice Master’s Pro- of a concern to us all before we destroy region. Its greatest victims will be the gramme. the planet we are living on. poor, the marginalised and the disen- 15
  16. 16. Climate Change Photo: geralt/PIXELIO Climate Change more Is Important than Environment? For decades, environmental protection has been overlooked, but the fight against climate change might provide a golden opportunity for change No doubt about it, climate change has According to two of the latest updates of the Eurobarometer that challenge the responsibility of hu- received a lot of attention in the last cou- surveys, ‘Attitudes of European citizens towards the environ- mans in bringing about changes in the ple of years within the international po- ment‘ and ‘Attitudes of European citizens towards climate climate. While it is true that it is an litical arena, media and even EMAnate has change‘, 75% of EU citizens believe that climate change is extremely complicated subject and the drawn attention to it as its second theme. a very serious problem, 62% consider climate change as the impacts are far from understood, it also In fact, it could be argued that, among most serious problem the world is currently facing (higher seems clear that we humans are living other mistakes made by President Bush, that international terrorism with 53%) and 57% mentioned it beyond our natural means. According to his timid response to act on climate as a top concern among their top five [global] environmental the latest WWF’s Living Planet Report change has played a role in the low concerns. 2008 “more than three quarters of the ratings. Indeed, in the present United world’s people live in nations that are State’s elections, the candidates’ pledg- ecological debtors – their national con- Ecological Debt es to address this issue have certainly sumption has outstripped their coun- been an important point in the debate. try’s biocapacity”. On the other side of the Atlantic, cli- However, there are still some climate change sceptics. Some For my work at the European Commis- mate change seems to have become a believe that the discourse has been exaggerated, others think sion, I was asked to assess which projects great concern for EU citizens. that the science behind it is misleading and there are those funded by the external cooperation of- 16 emanate | ISSUE 02
  17. 17. Climate Change 75 % of EU citizens believe that climate change is a very serious problem, 62% consider climate change as the most serious problem the world Photo: helei/PIXELIO is currently facing. fice (EuropeAid) of the Commission were is an important cause of global warming. According to the Environmentalists have fought for many actually related to climate change. As it Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change released decades to protect the environment, to turns out, due to the complexity of eco- in 2006 by economist Lord Stern of Brentford for the Brit- halt biodiversity loss, to stop the deple- systems and the factors driving climate ish government, deforestation is responsible for more than tion of natural resources, among many change, the issue of climate change (the 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions, which is more than other environmentally related issues. mitigation strategies and the adaptation the transport sector. At the same time, forests, and especially Some of them may agree that the fact to ‚change‘) is a cross-cutting concern tropical forests (paradoxically, tropical forests are being lost that climate change has become a top covering a very broad range of topics: the fastest), host an immense number of species making them priority on the international agenda has biodiversity, energy efficiency, air pollu- essential for preserving biodiversity. Besides that, they also opened many doors either to influence tion, recycling, transport, deforestation, protect soil and water quality along with a number of other environmental policies or channel more human health, disaster preparedness, benefits for the environment and society. In conclusion, curb- - but not enough - economic resources diversification of energy sources (energy ing deforestation is not only good for tackling global warm- to environmentally related projects... or security), sustainable consumption and ing, but for many other things such as preserving biodiversity development. food security, among many others. and water quality. If climate change has become more im- portant than environment and both are For instance, one of the many examples clearly linked, then why shouldn‘t we Development and Adaptation of the links between climate change take advantage of this as a starting point and other environmental issues is for- for influencing politicians and advocat- ests. As far-fetched as it might seem to Many believe that promoting good development polices will ing for changes in people‘s behaviour? you now, what you eat affects forests, make those most affected by climate change less vulnerable. If it is genuinely good for fighting cli- by encouraging the conversion of for- As the Stern Review report stated, “development itself is key mate change (and scientifically-based), est areas into cattle grazing land or crop to adaptation” by building resilience to cope with the inevita- it should be good for the environment land. Moreover, as you surely know, by ble impact of climate change. and societies around the world. reading this article online instead of a It is as simple as this: if you live in a shanty town without a printed version on paper you are con- proper health care system there is a higher risk of not surviving tributing to a reduction in the exploita- and not recovering from a climate-related natural hazard, such tion of forests. Nowadays, even trans- as a hurricane or a flood. On the other hand, if you are better portation is linked to forests: trees are off, you will be less vulnerable when facing a heat or a cold About the author: being cut down to produce agrofuels, wave. Furthermore, in general, economies of developing coun- Valentina Villoria is an alumna of the which are used to power vehicles. By tries depend on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, to Joint Master in Water and Coastal Man- now, it is well known that deforestation a much larger extent than those of the developed states. agement Programme. 17
  18. 18. Climate Change Fruitful Future? Great Grapes to Wonderful Wine There are several main climate chang- and Spain being the first, second and duction of grapes at an optimal qual- es and predicted changes affecting ag- third largest producers (in hectolitres) ity for each variety. When the growth riculture described by the Inter-govern- worldwide. Grapes are grown across and ripening period of a variety is well- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the continent of Europe with thousands adapted, great grapes can be obtained and the Special Report on Emission of varieties found in different regions: to make wonderful wine. Scenarios (SRES) by the IPCC in 2007 from Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon (Table 1)¹. in Bordeaux, Nero d’Avola in Sicilia, This balance will be disturbed by the Even without considering the effects of Agiorgitiko in Greece to the Gruner climate changes that have been predict- human activity, which to a large extent Veltliner in Austria. ed. The increase in temperature, espe- drives these climate changes, tempera- cially minimal temperatures are crucial tures will continue to increase globally to grape ripening. The change in the an- Rising Temperatures in the future. So we might be happy nual precipitation cycles and CO² have with warmer weather as we head to all been predicted to play a role. Stud- the beach, but what are the effects go- So what will happen to this crop and ies have already shown that the average ing to be on agriculture in the future? the quality of wine that will result if temperature of viticultural regions have Are crops going to grow out of control, the climate continues to change as pre- increased by 1.3°C during the growing shrivel up, or no longer be grown in re- dicted? Development of the grapevine is season over the last 50 years. Further- gions that they are grown today? Will dependent on local conditions and most more, between 1950 and 1999, 17 out England become the new Italy, France importantly the temperature, as well as of 27 viticultural regions tested indicat- or Spain for growing grapes for exam- being dependent on how quickly a va- ed an increase of temperatures during ple??!! riety undergoes its physiological devel- the growing season. These regions cor- opment (for example Chardonnay ripens responded to: 7 in France, 1 in Spain, 4 Grapes are grown across the world for before Merlot). Due to the climate and in the USA, 2 in Australia, 2 in Portugal consumption and wine-making. 15 of varietal interactions different grape va- and 1 in Italy. The climate changes have the top 20 producing countries (in hec- rieties have been historically planted been seen to affect worldwide grape tolitres) are in Europe with Italy, France in different regions that allow the pro- production!² The harvest time which 18 emanate | ISSUE 02
  19. 19. Climate Change can estimate the ripeness of the variety become unbalanced resulting in lesser wheat, potato, rice etc. Hence, the ef- has been observed to mirror that of the quality wines. Establishing relationships fects of climate change on these crops temperature changes; a study of Pinot between the ‘vintage ratings’ of well- need to be well-explored. However, Noir between 1370-2003 showed that renowned wine tasting guides and ex- economically, grapes represent an im- the harvest date was as good as other perts on one side and the temperature portant part of agricultural production temperature reconstruction methods increase on the other side has already especially in Europe and an important (for example tree ring measurements)³. been done with some success, but this part of history and culture. Changing Therefore, we can already see that in- is still not easy to quantify. There have climates do not need to change this creasing temperatures are causing ear- been optimum temperatures suggested historical and cultural importance, but lier ripening of grapes on a global level. above which current varieties in the re- an understanding of these changes will gions should not pass if a quality wine ensure great grapes for wonderful wine The changing climate is going to drive is desired. in the future. changes in the viticulture world, notably Photo: weinkellerei mertes/PIXELIO A Helping Hand varieties that are suited to one region ¹ For further details on the impact of climate change and and its climate today may no longer the SSRES see: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/index.htm ² Jones, G.V., White, M.A., Cooper, O.R., Storchmann, K. be suitable in the future. We can turn So science needs to give us a helping (2005). Climate Change and Global Wine Quality. Climate back the clock, and let history teach us hand to ensure that grapes will con- Change. 73, 319- 343. ³ Chuine, I., Yiou, P., Viovy, N., Seguin, B., Daux, V., Le Roy about the geographical distribution of tinue to ripen as desired. Grapes rep- Ladurie, E. (2004). Grape harvest dates and temperature grapes. During the period “Little Opti- resent only one agricultural crop. Given variations in eastern France since 1370. Nature. 432, 289-290. mum” between 900-1200 A.D the aver- the effects already seen, measured and age temperature in Europe was approxi- predicted for this crop, one can only im- mately 1°C higher than it is today. And agine the impact that current climate About the author: yes, grapes were grown in England and change will have on other crops. Grapes Amber Parker is a student in the Interna- also on the Baltic Sea coasts. Winding for wine production do not represent tional Master “Vintage”, Vine, Wine and the clock forward a bit to the “Little Ice a staple crop for human nutrition like Terroir Management. Age” (1550-1850), these more northern vineyards disappeared due to the de- crease in temperature. Change observed Forecasted changes So a 1°C difference can have a serious (predictions from the 40 different scenarios proposed) impact on the grape distribution! Grape growers are going to need to have a bet- ter understanding of their local climate Increase of greenhouse gases by CO² will vary between 490-1260 to ensure future production of great 1.5ppm CO² between 1980 and ppm grapes and the possibility of adapting 2000 grapes that ripen later than the current ones that are planted. A temperature increase of 0.2°C A continual temperature increase What does this all mean for the wine? between 1990-2000 with this pe- of 1.4-5.8°C from 1990 to 2100 One of the great difficulties in the field riod being one of the most hottest is to quantify the effect of adapting to be recorded in history a variety that ripens well in the local conditions and therefore can produce An increase of the average global An increase in average tempera- a quality wine. The temperature af- temperature by 0.6°C during the ture of 0.2°C during the next two fects the development of the sugar and 20th century, and of 0.15°C each decades (a average value obtained acid in grapes, the colour compounds decade since the 1970s from the 40 different scenarios) and the flavour components. If grapes ripen too quickly due to the increased A change in precipitation cycles An increase in extreme daily rain- temperatures, these compounds could with an increase in evapo-transpi- fall even when the overall rainfall ration levels are predicted to decrease 19