ObjectivesBy the end of this lecture, you will be able to:1. Describe the five phases of the drug life cycle2. Identify appropriate sources in which to find pharmaceutical information3. Execute a search for drug information using subject headings, subheadings (where appropriate) and filters4. Export citations to a RefWorks account and output a bibliography for an academic paper
1 . Pre-Clinical Review Ongoing Drug Discovery Clinical Trials Research Analysis Lab Research (animal testing) 1 approved Review of 5 K – 10 K ~250 side effects drug potential drugs potential drugs 2 – 10 years 3 – 6 years Life of 6 - 7 years 1 – 2 years the drug Health Canada www.hc-sc.gc.ca Drug Products Database1. http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/images/e/ef/Drugapproval.gif
Databases PubMed Embase Journal of Clinical ACC Cardiosource Review Bioinformatics Journal Gut Pathogens Biomagnetic Research and American Journal of Biochemistry and Technology Journal of Biotechnology Physiotherapy Advances in HematologyThyroid Research 9505 titles Journal of the History 7687 titles of Biology International seminars in surgical Journal of Translational Cancer Cell oncology Medicine International Journal of Pharmacy Technology Acta Toxicologica Environmental Entomology Actualites Pharmaceutiques Conflict and Health Hospitaliereshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/linkout/doc/lojournalsproviders.shtmlhttp://embase.com/info/what-is-embase/coverage
Database comparisonDatabase Subject areas Subject How to export headings to RefWorksPubMed Biomedicine and Yes Save citations health care and importEmbase Biomedicine and Yes Direct export pharmacologySciFinder Chemistry and No Save citations biochemistry and importClinicalTrials.gov Patient trials of No RefGrabIt interventions
What is the best source for these questions?1. What is the molecular structure of Dronedarone? A. EMBASE2. Which injection method is the most effective for B. Clinicaladministering lidocaine? Trials.gov3. What drug therapies are most effective for alcohol C. SciFinderwithdrawal in adolescence?4. Where can you find information about patient D. PubMedrecruitment for a study of enzyme use in celiacdisease?
• Web-based citation management software• Information on RefWorks: http://www.mcgill.ca/library/library- using/citationsoftware/refworks• McGill group code: RWMcGillUni• Request a RefWorks consult or ask a question: firstname.lastname@example.org
Drug DiscoveryLab Research 5 K – 10 Kpotential drugs Drug Discovery 2 – 10 years • Identify a target molecule • Find a promising “lead compound” • Determine pharmacokinetics
Drug DiscoveryLab Research 5 K – 10 Kpotential drugs Drug Discovery 2 – 10 years What are the pharmacokinetics of orally administered anti-cancer drugs? Anti- Pharmaco Administer cancer kinetics ed orally drugs
Drug DiscoveryLab Research 5 K – 10 Kpotential drugs 2 – 10 years Audience Experts Compare to NCBI Entrez Cost Subscription (registration required) Coverage Chemistry and biochemistry URL http://scifinder.cas.org/
Pre-ClinicalResearch(animal testing) ~250 potential drugs Pre-Clinical Research3 – 6 years You are interested in the research done on orexin antagonists for the treatment of insomnia.
Pre-ClinicalResearch(animal testing) ~250 potential drugs3 – 6 years Audience Experts Compare to Web of Science Cost Subscription Coverage All subjects (science focus) URL http://www.scopus.com/
Clinical Trials Clinical Trials6 - 7 years You’re interested in therapeutic use of enzymes for patients with celiac disease. How would you combine the terms for celiac disease and enzymes? celiac disease enzymes
Clinical Trials Celiac Disease OR Enzymes6 - 7 years ✗ celiac disease enzymes
Clinical Trials Celiac Disease AND Enzymes6 - 7 years celiac disease ✓ enzymes What’s missing from this search strategy?
Clinical Trials How to Search6 - 7 years • Start with your first concept “celiac disease” • Combine any synonyms with OR ”celiac disease” OR “coeliac disease” OR “celiac sprue” • Repeat for your second, or any subsequent concepts enzyme* OR biocatalyst* • Finally, group your concepts with brackets and combine with AND (“celiac disease” OR “coeliac disease OR “celiac sprue”) AND (enzyme* OR biocatalyst*)
Clinical Trials6 - 7 years Audience Everyone Compare to ISRCTN Cost Free Coverage Patient trials of interventions URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/
Clinical Trials Clinical Trials6 - 7 years You’re interested in therapeutic use of enzymes for patients with celiac disease. What if you wanted to know more about the results from trials of oral enzyme therapy for patients with celiac disease?
Clinical Trials6 - 7 years Audience Experts Compare to PubMed Cost Subscription Coverage Biomedicine and pharmacology Training URL http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS &PAGE=main&D=oemezd U/N & P/W mcgtrain & training
Review 1 approved drug Drug Review1 – 2 years You’re interested in the availability of the new oral dose medication Gilenya (Fingolimod) for patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Where would you look to find information about approval of this drug in Canada?
Review 1 approved drug Health Canada www.hc-sc.gc.ca1 – 2 years Drug Products Database Audience Everyone Compare to eCPS Cost Free Coverage Drug product information / drug monographs URL http://webprod3.hc-sc.gc.ca/dpd- bdpp/index-eng.jsp
OngoingAnalysis Review of side effects Ongoing AnalysisLife ofthe drug You’re interested in rates of patient compliance with drug therapy post heart attack. Where would you look to find studies on patient compliance?
OngoingAnalysis Review of side effectsLife ofthe drug Audience Experts Compare to Embase Cost Free Coverage Biomedicine and health care URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e ntrez?otool=icamuhslib
What is the best source for these questions?1. Where can you find administration and dosageinformation for a patient taking ampicillin formeningitis?2. Which drug therapy for patients with type I diabetesis associated with the fewest adverse reactions?3. What is the molecular structure of tapentadolhydrochloride?4. What is the safest method of administeringantibiotics to febrile infants?
SUMMARY QUIZ1. The 5 phases of the drug life cycle are …2. A database that contains information about pre-clinical research is…3. Combine synonymous terms with …4. PubMed tools for finding pharmaceutical studies are …5. Three methods for importing citations into RefWorks are…