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Floor finish

Manish Jain
Gr. Floor , Ashoka apartment
Bhawani Singh Road
C-scheme , Jaipur -302001
Rajasthan ( INDIA)
Ph. 91-0141-2743536 , 91-9829063132
Web :

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Floor finish

  1. 1. FLOOR FINISH Compiled by : FD Architects Forum Gr. Floor , Ashoka apartment Bhawani Singh Road C-scheme , Jaipur -302001 Rajasthan ( INDIA) Ph. 91-0141-2743536 Email: Web :
  2. 2. FLOOR FINISHING  Among the factor that will influence the selection of floor finishing are as follows: a) Function of the floor b) Price c) Maintenance d) Comfortable
  3. 3. TYPES OF FLOOR FINISHING  Concrete flooring (Vaccum Dewatered )  Terrazzo (marble Chips ) Flooring  Glazed Ceramic Tile  PVC sheet (tile) Flooring ( Vinyl Flooring)  Carpet  Marble  Wood – parquet  Mosaic  Timber  Rubber flooring  Linoleum flooring
  4. 4.  A good finishing will have the following characteristic: a) look attractive / beautiful b) comfortable & safe c) long lasting and able to prevent - high temperature - fungi - chemical corrosion
  5. 5. Vaccum Dewatered Flooring (VDF) Benefits 1. Compressive strength of floor increases by up to 60% 2. Tensile strength increases by @ 70% 3. Cement consumption is reduced to the extent of 40%, no cement is required separately for finishing the surface. 4. Abrasion resistance of the floor increases by @ 60% resulting in less wear and rear of the floor surface 5. Shrinkage of concrete is reduced and floor wraps less. 6. Elimination of curling Elimination of Curling
  6. 6. Vaccum Dewatered Flooring (VDF) SCHEMATIC SHOWING VACUUM DEWATERING PROCESS In this system, concrete is poured in place & vibrated with a poker vibrator. Then a screed vibrator is run over the surface, supported on channel shuttering spaced 4.0 meters apart. The screed vibrator is run twice to achieve optimum compaction & leveling. After this a system of lower mats & top mat is laid on the green concrete & this is attached to a vacuum pump. This draws out excess water. A: Double Beam Screed Vibrator B : Groove Cutting Machine C: Power Floater Cum Trowel D : Vacuum Pump
  7. 7. TERRAZO (MOSAIC) TILES Terrazo as in situ and tile floors were once very popular in India and are still being used in middle class houses. However, unless the tiles are made of proper constituents and are well cured, they tend to get pitted. It also requires polishing after it is laid so that enough time should be given at the planning stage itself for its laying with respect to the time of completion of the building. Coarse aggregate Binder Fine aggregate white or coloured marble chips cement (grey white or coloured) marble powder (or magnesite powder Terrazo decorative concrete
  8. 8. TERRAZO (MOSAIC) TILES Sizes of terrazo tiles. Terrazo tiles should conform to IS 1237-1959. The nominal sizes (together with the joints) are as follows: 1. 200 mm x 200 mm with 20 mm total thickness 2. 300 mm x 300 mm with 25 mm total thickness 3. 250 mm x 250 mm with 22 mm total thickness 1. Absorption test TEST 2. Abrasion test (resistance to wear) 3. Transverse strength test on dry tiles 4. Transverse strength test on tiles after immersion in water for 24 hours
  9. 9. TERRAZO (MOSAIC) TILES 1. Absorption test 2. Abrasion test (resistance to wear) Full-sized tiles are immersed in water and the absorption of water is to be determined as a percentage absorption. As per Appendix A of IS 1237-1959 titled "Cement concrete flooring tiles". The test is conducted on a 7.06 cm x 7.06 cm (50 sq. cm) specimen cut from the tile. After it is abraded in the machine by 200 revolutions in the prescribed manner, the loss in weight is determined. The wear in thickness is calculated by weighing the tiles before and after the test as follows:
  10. 10. TERRAZO (MOSAIC) TILES 3. Transverse strength test on dry tiles 4. Transverse strength test on tiles after immersion in water for 24 hours In this test, full-size tiles are tested on a span indicated in below Table and loaded at midpoint. The modulus of rupture should not be less than 3 N/mm2 for dry specimen and loss in modulus of rupture should not be more than one third in specimen tested after 24 hours of submersion in water. They are tested with wearing surface as the upper surface.
  11. 11. RESILIENT FLOOR MATERIALS The word "resilient" means able to bring back to the original form after compression or stretching. Floors such as rubber floors, linoleum floors, PVC floors are called resilient floors. Such floors are used in places where we want to reduce noise to the minimum level as in libraries, computer rooms, office rooms, etc. and also where we want electrically-insulated floors.
  12. 12. Linoleum (IS 653-1962) In modern buildings, the use of vinyl has replaced linoleum, but on occasion, linoleum floors can still be found in older facilities.  Linoleum was composed of oxidized linseed oil, resins, embedded cork, and wood flour with pigments pressed on a backing. It is available in rolls of width about 1.80 meters or 3.60 meters. The thickness varies from 2mm to 6mm. Linoleum flooring is also available in form of tiles. Linoleum flooring should be laid over an effective damp-proof area.
  13. 13. Its properties included in a remarkable degree of resiliency. Next to cork and rubber, and of course, padded carpeting, linoleum is considered to have the greatest degree of resiliency. Linoleum was quite durable, was resistant to oil and grease, and do not shrink. The negative aspects of linoleum was that it is highly susceptible to water. The linoleum would absorb water and would then soften, causing it to lose its abrasion resistance and become more susceptible to indentation. Even high humidity would have a negative effect upon this material. Linoleum floor
  14. 14. Rubber Floors All modern rubber floors are made from synthetic rubber, such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Rubber tiles are cured or vulcanized by the application of heat. Rubber floors are nonporous, waterproof surfaces. One major advantage is that they are quite resilient and will remain resilient over a considerable temperature range.
  15. 15. Rubber flooring is susceptible to alkalines, oils, grease, solvents, ultraviolet light, and ozone in the air. When attacked by these components, a rubber floor will often become tacky and soft. It will then become brittle and begin to crack and powder. Rubber Floors Rubber tiles often have knobs n the surface or will have a tread pattern to improve traction, especially if liquids are frequently spilled on the surface.
  16. 16. Vinyl Floors (IS 3492-1966) There are several types of vinyl floorings and tiles. The major varieties include vinyl composition tiles, homogeneous or flexible vinyl tiles, and laminated vinyl flooring.
  17. 17. Laminated vinyl flooring is less expensive to manufacture than vinyl composition or homogeneous vinyl floors. The low initial cost may be deceiving, however, for once the top wear layer is worn through, the floor will have to be replaced. Some laminated floorings are only guaranteed for three years with moderate use. The cost of laminated vinyl flooring will vary in proportion to the thickness of the top vinyl wear layer. Vinyl Floors In addition to the vinyl resins, vinyl composition tiles contain mineral fillers such as asphalt and pigments. Homogeneous vinyl tiles may either be flexible or solid, and it has become the preferred standard for resilient tile flooring. It is practically unaffected by moisture, oils, and chemical solvents.
  18. 18. Cork Tile Cork tile is made from the outer bark of cork oak trees grown in Spain and Portugal. The cork is ground into large granules, mixed with synthetic resins, and pressed into sheets, which are then cut into tiles. Contemporary cork tiles for floors usually have a top layer of clear vinyl applied to them. This vinyl layer protects the cork from staining and wear.
  19. 19. Cork tiles traditionally have had limited application in industrial or institutional settings. One reason is that cork is susceptible to staining because it is one of the most porous of all floor coverings. Another limitation is that it is not durable; it is highly susceptible to abrasion. Cinders, sand, and gravel tracked on to a cork floor will severely shorten its life span. Finally, it is expensive. Cork Tile
  20. 20. Carpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate the maintenance of hard flooring surfaces around the edge of a carpet. Rugs, on the other hand, are often used to accentuate a tile or wood floor. In areas where there is heavy foot traffic, rugs can be used to equalize wear and help prevent tracking onto other floor coverings. Carpet Floors Carpet offers a number of benefits over hard and resilient flooring materials. Carpet prevents slipping; it provides an additional source of insulation, it has acoustical properties that can effectively lower noise levels; and it is the most resilient of all floor coverings, which is a major benefit to individuals who must remain on their feet for extended periods.
  21. 21. Wood Floors There is nothing quite as attractive as the warmth and richness of wood floors. Most hardwood floors are made from oak, but other popular woods include ash, beech, birch, hickory, maple, teak, and walnut. In addition to its attractiveness, hardwood floors are extremely durable if they are properly finished and maintained.
  22. 22. Unfinished wood floors will quickly deteriorate under even light use, as wood is an extremely porous material. Unfinished woods are susceptible to dirt lodging in the grains, splintering of the wood fibers, abrasions caused by normal foot traffic, and of course, moisture, the bane of wood floors. Too much moisture will cause a wood floor to warp, while too little humidity will cause wood floors to shrink and crack. To help forestall damage, most wood floors made today receive factory applied finish. In some instances the wood is heated to open the pores of the wood. Tung oil and carnuba wax are then applied to seal the wood. Wood Floors
  23. 23. Since there is a degree of resiliency in even the hardest of hardwood floors, precautions should be taken to protect the floor from furniture legs that may dent the flooring. Wood floors are particularly susceptible to metal or hard plastic rollers and to those small metal domes that are often found on the legs of office furnitures Wood Floors
  24. 24. Wood Floor
  25. 25. Parquet  Parquet flooring is a floor composed of short strips or blocks of wood forming a pattern, sometimes with inlays of other woods or other materials  Parquet flooring is a series of wood flooring pieces that create a geometric design.  Parquet offers a variety of design options  Timber used for Parquet floor is Jati & Kempas
  26. 26. Parquet Pattern
  27. 27. Parquet Floor
  28. 28. Installing parquet
  29. 29. Glass  Glass is a practical and beautiful material that is strong enough to be used structurally, even as flooring. Floor panels are usually manufactured from two or more layers of annealed glass laminated together. Sandblasting or screen printing to the top surface not only gives anti-slip properties but also design opportunities.
  30. 30. Glass flooring
  31. 31. Glass flooring
  32. 32. Glass block flooring
  33. 33. Glass flooring
  34. 34. Glazed ceramic tile Glazed ceramic tiles are made from special ceramic clay in two operations Biscuits the body of tile is made and fired at 1200 To 1300 c Glazed Biscuits are then coated with glazed , decorations etc. and again fired in oven to opaque glazing Morbi, the most promising ceramic tiles manufacturing hub of India, is a city located in Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Major brands are : Kajaria Johnson Somany Nitco Asian Bell Ceramics Varmora
  35. 35. Vitrified tile When Special Clay is mixed with quartz and feldspar and burned to very high temperatures . These extra ingredients melt, creating a glass element inside the tile. This glass component makes the vitrified files very hard and resistant to any type of absorption. This word ‘Vitrified Tiles’ is simply a type tile with very low water absorption. And this property makes vitrified tiles acid/alkali/chemical resistant, impairs a greater strength & makes it stain resistant. In fact vitrified tiles again falls into several sub categories as below… 1.Soluble salt: 2.Full body vitrified tiles: 3.Nano polished Vitrified tiles: 4.Glazed Vitrified tiles (GVT): Soluble salt: Vitrified tiles that are printed with screen printing technology and then polished are called soluble salt. The design of soluble salt tiles is subject to fade away after wear & tear of few years.
  36. 36. Vitrified tile Full body vitrified tiles: This type of vitrified tiles has color all the way throughout the body (thickness) of the tile. Because of this scratches are less noticeable in this type of tiles. Full body vitrified tiles are formed with the paint mixture pre-added while making the body. Nano polished Vitrified tiles: If we apply a layer of liquid silica on vitrified tiles then it fills the micro (nano) pores on the tiles surface and makes it smoother in feel. This type of tiles is called nano polished vitrified tiles.
  37. 37. Vitrified tile Glazed Vitrified tiles (GVT): Some companies in Morbi (like Italica) manufacturers vitrified tiles with glazed surface; it is called Glazed Vitrified Tiles (GVT). Main advantage with GVT is it offers option of making any type of design/art work that is only possible in this type of vitrified tiles. Many type of textures (like wooden, bamboo, slate or stone) are possible in GVT.
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