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Slides kompos

  1. 1. Membuat kompos = cara semulajadi untuk kitar semula Menghasilkan baja kompos = semudah membuat kek Hanya campurkan bahan, kacau,’masak’ dan hasilnya = baja 2
  2. 2. WHAT IS COMPOSTING? Composting is nature’s way of recycling organic matter. It is the process whereby biodegradable organic matter is broken down by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen. The product of this process is compost, which benefits the environment as a natural fertilizer for gardening and farming.
  3. 3. Compost Making • In composting, various factors which influence the composting processes have to be considered. These include ~C:N ratio, ~temperature 60-67 untill 30 degree ~ moisture content, ~ oxygen level, ~ pH of the compost (7.0 – 7.2_ ~ the type of agro-waste & surface area of particles
  4. 4. Benefits Of Composting • Composting has many benefits. Some of the most important are: - Saves money on fertilizer for plants and reduce the country's fertilizer imports. - Saves water by retaining moisture in the soil and reduces leaching in sandy soils. In clayey soils, compost improves aeration - used as a soil conditioner for improving the soil structure. • It may solve environmental problems due to excessive use of chemicals, accumulation of agro-waste and failure to return organic matter to the soil
  5. 5. • All organic materials, e.g plant wastes can be used in making compost. • The materials include dry and wet materials • The mixture used in compost usually is 6 dry material : 3 wet material : 1 soil MATERIALS FOR MAKING COMPOST 6
  6. 6. • The 4 essential ingredients for composting are: DRY+ WET + Air + Water
  7. 7. DRY / BROWN MATERIAL • Carbon Sources- for structure • Little water content, • High C/N ratio • Decomposes slowly • E.g. dried leaves, woody materials, chipped 8
  8. 8. WET / GREEN MATERIAL • Nitrogen sources-for stored nutrients • High water content • Low C/N ratio • Decomposes quickly • E.g. leaves of leguminous tree, grass chipping, plants trimming, vegetable food scraps 9
  9. 9. OPTIONAL ADDITIVES i. MANURE – najis ternakan mengandungi mikroorganisma dan berfungsi mengurai dan mempercepatkan proses pereputan bahan kompos ii. GML – meneutralkan keadaan berasid dan membantu pembiakan mikroorganisma bagi mempercepatkan proses pereputan iii. EM (Effective Microb) – mikrob berguna membantu bagi mempercepatkan proses pereputan 10
  10. 10. The microorganisms in compost use carbon (C) for energy combined with small amounts of nitrogen (N). The microorganisms in compost use carbon (C) for energy and Nitrogen (N) for protein synthesis 11
  11. 11. COMPOSTING ORGANISMS 12  Eartworms  Centipedes  Sowbugs  Bacteria  Fungi  Actinomycetes  Psychrophiles
  12. 12. GASES AT WORK 13
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES OF USING COMPOST IN CROP CULTIVATION i. Improve soil structure soil and water-holding ability ii. Increase soil fertility iii. Improve water / moisture retention iv. Increase resistance of plants to pests and diseases v. Provide nutrients to plants vi. makes an excellent mulch vii.keeps soil healthy and balanced 14
  14. 14. METHOD COMPOST  pile built on the ground  material unshredded Pile given no attention 12-36 months 15
  15. 15. METHOD COMPOST  material in simple bin of wire , wood, metal or plastic Concave top with tarp used to control moisture content Turned to aerate weekly 3-4 months 16
  16. 16. METHOD COMPOST Material in rotating tumbler All material shredded Precise mix of carbon and nitrogen to keep compost hot Tumbler rotated daily 17
  17. 17. EQUIPMENT YOUWILL NEED • Pitchfork to turn compost, or other aerating tool. • Hose to keep pile moist in a drought.
  18. 18. Optional Equipment to Reduce Size of Materials: • Shredder/chipper. • Heavy kitchen knife.
  19. 19. Other Equipment: • Thermometer to track heating. • Screen to refine finished compost • Wheelbarrow.
  20. 20. Composting Process compact Soil (0.5) Wet Material (1.5) Dry Material (3) the base of the are high carbon materials, provide for air circulation from the bottom of the pile. thin third layer of manure The purpose of using soil is to introduce m/o needed to break down the organic mater in the pile
  21. 21. Composting Process Soil Wet Material Dry Material Pipe or hallow bambooPlace a hollow bamboo stick in the center of the pile for aeration. Repeat the procedure , built the heap until done
  22. 22. Composting ProcessCover with palm leaves or plastic sheet,protect from rainfall and sunlight . If the material is dry, it should be watered well as the heap is built.
  23. 23. Composting Process
  24. 24. Turning Compost Heap • Turn the pile every 2 weeks - to improve aerotion, - speed up microorganisms activity and - ensure uniform decomposition. • The pile is reconstructed, material previously on the top and sides of the pile should moved to the center. • usually takes 3 to 4 months, it depends on the air tempreture and the mixtures. • The compost finished decomposing when volume decrease to about one-third of its original volume.
  25. 25. • Good compost smells good, and is black brown in colour, crumbly and has an earthly odour with pH 7.0 to 7.2.
  26. 26. Q? • Why do LAYERS OF A COMPOST PILE? • If manure can give Nitrogen (N), How to do P composed and K composed?
  27. 27. MASALAH SEBAB PENYELESAIAN Timbunan kompos berbau dan terdapat banyak lalat. Sisa-sisa makanan tidak di tutup Tutup sisa-sisa makanan dengan tanah atau kambusnya di tengah timbunan. Terlampau basah atau terlampau banyak sisa- sisa makanan dalam timbinan Tambahkan tanah atau bahan kering dan rombakkan timbunan. Timbunan penuh dengan tikus dan binatang perosak. Sisa-sisa makanan tidak ditutup ataupun lubang lebih besar daripada ¼ inci. Tutup sisa-sisa makanan. Gunakan tong atau bekas yang dapat nencegah tikus atau memasang jerat atau umpan. Proses pereputan terlampau lambat atau tidak reput. Terlampau kering. Siram sehingga lembap dan kacau. Terlampau banyak kering. Tambahkan bahan hijau atau baja organik atau baja haiwandan kacau.
  28. 28. USING YOUR FINISHED COMPOST 32  fertilizer  mulching  reuse for other compost heap
  29. 29. 33
  30. 30. compact Soil (0.5) Wet Material Potongan daun pisang (1. Dry Material Medium fertigasi Media cendawan (3)the base = plant shredded thin layer of manure thin layer of GML Watering + EM (50ml/liter)
  31. 31. compact Soil (0.5) Wet Material Potongan daun pisang (1. Dry Material Medium fertigasi Media cendawan (3)the base = plant shredded thin layer of GML Watering + EM (50ml/liter)