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Keys to Success With
Assessment &
Evaluation
H. Frank Cervone, PhD
Computers in Libraries 2015
April 29, 2015
Assessment and evaluation
Evaluation and assessment
are grounded in research
1
Evaluation and assessment are social
research
Social research is different
William Trochim's Research Methods Knowledge Base
What are the major issues in
conducting research in libraries?
2
Research
quality
Image courtesy of credo
Systems thinking can help improve results
Image courtesy of security-marathon.be
The goals of evaluation and assessment
Research methodology is critical
3
Scientific-experimental models
Image courtesy of askabiologist
Qualitative/anthropological
models
Image courtesy of The Guardian
Participant-oriented models
What do we like to assess and evaluate?
Resources
• Number of
books or
electronic
journal titles
Physical
environment
• Study spaces or
comfortable
seating
Units in the
organization
• Group
productivity,
growth, and
well-being
Functions
• Identification,
selection, and
acquisition of
materials
Processes
• Applying bar
codes to
materials or
creating
resource guides
What should be evaluated and assessed?
4
Types of evaluation
Formative evaluations
• Strengthen or improve the
object being evaluated
• Examine the delivery of the
program or technology
• The quality of its
implementation
• Assessment of the
• Organizational context
• Personnel
• Procedures
• Inputs
Summative evaluations
• Examine the effects or
outcomes of some object
• Describe what happens
subsequent to delivery of the
program or service
• Assess whether the
intervention can be said to
have caused the outcome
• Determine the overall impact
of the causal factor beyond
only the immediate target
outcomes
• Estimate the relative costs
associated with the object
Examples of formative evaluation
• Determines who needs the program, how great
the need is, and what might work to meet the
need
Needs assessment
• Determines whether an evaluation is feasible and
how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness
Evaluability
assessment
• Helps stakeholders define the program or
technology, the target population, and the possible
outcomes
Structured
conceptualization
• Monitors the fidelity of the program or technology
delivery
Implementation
evaluation
• Investigates the process of delivering the program
or technology, including alternative delivery
procedures
Process evaluation
Examples of summative evaluation
• Investigate whether the program or technology
caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined
target outcomes
Outcome evaluations
• Assesses the overall or net effects -- intended or
unintended -- of the program or technology as a
whole
Impact evaluation
• address questions of efficiency by standardizing
outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values
Cost-effectiveness and
cost-benefit analysis
• reexamines existing data to address new questions
or use methods not previously employedSecondary analysis
• Integrates the outcome estimates from multiple
studies to arrive at an overall or summary
judgement on an evaluation question
Meta-analysis
Survey research
Components of survey research
Selected sample of subjects that is representative of the study
population
A standardized questionnaire
The method to administer the questionnaire to the sample of subjects
• Self-administering
• Interview
Pretest
5
Other things to consider in design
Relevance of questions to users'
knowledge
•If you ask questions that are irrelevant to
your respondents, or don't make any sense
to them, they may just make up answers to
your questions
Long questions or statements make
people lose their patience
•Respondents should be able to read an item
quickly, understand what it means, and
select or provide an answer without any
difficulty
Avoid negative terms when
constructing a question
•Not only just the literal negative words like
no, not, never, but also words that have
negative meaning.
Biased terms in question
formulation should be avoided
•Inappropriate wording of questions that
encourages respondents to answer in a
particular way
•Avoid questions starting with “Don't you
think” or “don't you agree” as they will
generate more affirmative answers
Focus groups
Problems with focus groups
6
Open ended vs closed questions
• Open-ended questions allow for greater variety in
responses
• Closed-ended questions provide greater uniformity
and are more easily processed than open-ended
Voice of the customer
7
Understanding your customers
Who is the
primary
customer?
Where are
there
similarities and
differences in
the pain points
of the different
customer
groups?
Which
customers have
the greatest
worth?
What are the
issues with the
largest impact?
What is the best
way to rectify
pain points and
weaknesses?
In summary
Evaluation and assessment are grounded in research
Qualified personnel are a must
Formal strategy must guide the plan
Understanding what you want to know is crucial
Pretest your data collection instruments
Focus groups require special care
Voice of the customer can help you focus your efforts
Q & A
H. Frank Cervone, PhD
University of Illinois at Chicago
fcervone@uic.edu

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Keys to success with assessment and evaluation

  • 1. Keys to Success With Assessment & Evaluation H. Frank Cervone, PhD Computers in Libraries 2015 April 29, 2015
  • 3. Evaluation and assessment are grounded in research 1
  • 4. Evaluation and assessment are social research Social research is different William Trochim's Research Methods Knowledge Base
  • 5. What are the major issues in conducting research in libraries? 2
  • 7. Systems thinking can help improve results Image courtesy of security-marathon.be
  • 8. The goals of evaluation and assessment
  • 13. What do we like to assess and evaluate? Resources • Number of books or electronic journal titles Physical environment • Study spaces or comfortable seating Units in the organization • Group productivity, growth, and well-being Functions • Identification, selection, and acquisition of materials Processes • Applying bar codes to materials or creating resource guides
  • 14. What should be evaluated and assessed? 4
  • 15. Types of evaluation Formative evaluations • Strengthen or improve the object being evaluated • Examine the delivery of the program or technology • The quality of its implementation • Assessment of the • Organizational context • Personnel • Procedures • Inputs Summative evaluations • Examine the effects or outcomes of some object • Describe what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or service • Assess whether the intervention can be said to have caused the outcome • Determine the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes • Estimate the relative costs associated with the object
  • 16. Examples of formative evaluation • Determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need Needs assessment • Determines whether an evaluation is feasible and how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness Evaluability assessment • Helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes Structured conceptualization • Monitors the fidelity of the program or technology delivery Implementation evaluation • Investigates the process of delivering the program or technology, including alternative delivery procedures Process evaluation
  • 17. Examples of summative evaluation • Investigate whether the program or technology caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined target outcomes Outcome evaluations • Assesses the overall or net effects -- intended or unintended -- of the program or technology as a whole Impact evaluation • address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis • reexamines existing data to address new questions or use methods not previously employedSecondary analysis • Integrates the outcome estimates from multiple studies to arrive at an overall or summary judgement on an evaluation question Meta-analysis
  • 19. Components of survey research Selected sample of subjects that is representative of the study population A standardized questionnaire The method to administer the questionnaire to the sample of subjects • Self-administering • Interview
  • 21. Other things to consider in design Relevance of questions to users' knowledge •If you ask questions that are irrelevant to your respondents, or don't make any sense to them, they may just make up answers to your questions Long questions or statements make people lose their patience •Respondents should be able to read an item quickly, understand what it means, and select or provide an answer without any difficulty Avoid negative terms when constructing a question •Not only just the literal negative words like no, not, never, but also words that have negative meaning. Biased terms in question formulation should be avoided •Inappropriate wording of questions that encourages respondents to answer in a particular way •Avoid questions starting with “Don't you think” or “don't you agree” as they will generate more affirmative answers
  • 24. Open ended vs closed questions • Open-ended questions allow for greater variety in responses • Closed-ended questions provide greater uniformity and are more easily processed than open-ended
  • 25. Voice of the customer 7
  • 26. Understanding your customers Who is the primary customer? Where are there similarities and differences in the pain points of the different customer groups? Which customers have the greatest worth? What are the issues with the largest impact? What is the best way to rectify pain points and weaknesses?
  • 27. In summary Evaluation and assessment are grounded in research Qualified personnel are a must Formal strategy must guide the plan Understanding what you want to know is crucial Pretest your data collection instruments Focus groups require special care Voice of the customer can help you focus your efforts
  • 28. Q & A H. Frank Cervone, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago fcervone@uic.edu