Preparation of Porous Alumina Ceramics as Support Membrane for Hydrogen Gas Separation<br />By<br />STA. ANA, Ferdinand, J...
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report

799 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
799
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sta. Ana, Ferdinand - SSIP 2011 Technical Report

  1. 1. Preparation of Porous Alumina Ceramics as Support Membrane for Hydrogen Gas Separation<br />By<br />STA. ANA, Ferdinand, Jr. B.<br />Submitted to the Faculty of the<br />Philippine Science High School – Main Campus<br />in partial fulfilment of the requirements for<br />Summer Science Internship Program<br />June 2011<br /><ul><li>Table of ContentsPageIntroductionBackground of the Study 1Statement of the Problem 2Significance of the Study 2Scope and Limitations 3Review of Related LiteratureSupport Membrane Structure 4Support Membrane Fabrication 5Support Membrane Characterization 7Materials and MethodsPreparation of Raw Ceramic Materials 9Formation of Porous Alumina Support 9Porous Support Characterization and Data Analysis 10Results and Discussion 12Summary and Conclusion 16Recommendations 16Bibliography 17AppendicesMass distribution of raw ceramic materials 18F-distribution table (α = 0.01) 19Task list of the preparation of porous alumina 20ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separationNetwork chart for the preparation of porous 21alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separationGantt chart for the preparation of porous 22alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogenSummary of Materials Safety Data Sheets for 23use in the preparation of porous alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separation</li></ul>INTRODUCTION<br />Background of the Study<br />Gas separation through membrane technology is being studied as a better way of acquiring pure or concentrated hydrogen gas, which is looked upon with interest mainly due to its potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Hydrogen separation and purification methods include pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and cryogenic distillation CITATION Mei05 l 13321 (Meinema, Dirrix, Brinkman, Terpstra, Jekerle, & Kosters, 2005). Membrane separation technology is preferred over the other two because it is believed to be relatively more cost-effective, less energy consumptive and simpler in operation CITATION Pha06 l 13321 (Phair & Badwal, 2006).<br />In gas separation and purification, inorganic membranes are largely used because of several reasons such as its capacity to withstand high pressures up to 10 MPa, the possibility of cleaning with steam and the possibility of good back flushing to remove fouling CITATION Kei95 l 13321 (Keizer, Uhlhorn, & Burggraaf, 1995). Two types of inorganic membranes are used for hydrogen gas separation and purification. These two are the dense phase metal and metal alloys, and the porous ceramics membrane CITATION Sch08 l 13321 (Scholes, Kentish, & Stevens, 2008). Dense phase metal membranes currently use palladium as the selective barrier, but use of this metal is limited due to its low thermal and mechanical stability and high production costs (Meinema et al., 2005). A high permeability, moderate to high selectivity, and chemical and thermal stability make porous ceramics, specifically microporous membranes, an attractive option for hydrogen separation and purification (Lu, Diniz da Costa, Duke, Giessler, Socolow, Williams, Kreutz, 2007).<br />A microporous membrane consists of a selective permeable membrane and a porous support which may be made from ceramic materials. The key in order to improve both the selectivity and permeance properties of the membrane is believed to be in the pore formations of these structures CITATION Kim01 l 13321 (Kim, Kusakabe, Morooka, & Yang, 2001).Therefore, more studies should be done in order to develop membranes that produces hydrogen of high purity.<br />Statement of the Problem<br />The project aims to devise the most suitable alumina formulation and produce porous alumina supports in order to provide a reinforcing structure for the permeable membrane. A custom formulation of alumina will be used in order to determine and characterize the optimal properties for the hydrogen gas separation and purification. The process of alumina support creation will use an organic binder and pore former in order for the support to become porous and sturdy enough to provide support.<br />Significance of the Study<br />Hydrogen is currently being looked upon with interest due to its potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. First, it is considered to be more economically viable due to it being abundant in different resources such as biomass. Second, its use as an energy source is environment-friendly compared to the use of fossil fuels. Aside from energy, hydrogen can also be used in hydrogenation processes in order to decrease the molecular weight of compounds. Saturation of compounds, removal of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, prevention of oxidative corrosion by scavenging oxygen, and manufacturing of ammonia, methanol and synthesis gas are some of the other uses of hydrogen.<br />Also, the use of microporous permeable membrane proves to be a large significance of this project due to the benefits it provides. Development of microporous permeable membrane proves to be more cost effective than some conventional methods such as PSA and cryogenic distillation. It is also less energy intensive. Compared to the use of the known hydrogen-selective Pd membrane, the use of microporous costs less. Therefore, the main significance of microporous permeable membrane in hydrogen separation and purification is that its production costs are lower than other methods.<br />Scope and Limitations<br />This study will only cover the use of organic binder and pore former, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the process of forming the porous alumina supports. There will be 18 experimental units which will be the porous alumina pieces. There will be four different formulations that will be used. These will serve as the treatments. Two treatments will have five replicates while the other two treatments will have four replicates. Two factors will be manipulated in varying the treatments. One will be the ratio of alumina to PVA in the formulation. This will be done to check if the ratio of alumina to PVA will have an effect on the formation of pores in the porous alumina supports. The other will be the amount of magnesium nitrate present in the formulation. Four properties of the porous alumina support will be characterized. These properties will include % porosity, % water absorption, and bulk density. <br />REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE<br />Support Membrane Structure<br />The structures of the porous alumina supports formed dictate the properties of the supports. There are many contributing factors to the formation of the structure of the supports. One such factor that has a large effect is the organic binder, PVA. It was found that the amount of PVA present affects the porosity and pore volume of the supports while having no significant effect on the surface area, pore size distribution and tortuosity CITATION Hua96 l 13321 (Huang & Chen, 1996). Other factors such as the particle size of alumina, forming pressure and sintering temperature and time are also able to affect the porosity of the supports CITATION Cha96 l 13321 (Chao & Chou, 1996). <br />Average pore size which is another property of the porous supports is found to increase proportionally with increasing amounts of PVA. It, however, decreases when the forming pressure increases. This reduction in the average pore size is attributed to the compressibility of PVA CITATION Cha96 l 13321 (Chao & Chou, 1996). The pore structure is another important property characterized in the supports. Two parameters are often used to describe the pore structure: (1) presence of ineffective pores, (2) the tortuosity of the flow path which means how twisted the path is or how many turns the path has CITATION Cha96 l 13321 (Chao & Chou, 1996). <br />The flexural strength of the supports is a property that should also be noted because it will determine if the support will be able to sustain the permeable membrane. It was found that the most prevailing factor in determining the flexural strength is porosity. Pore size is also an important factor in determining flexural strength. It was also observed that the effect of these factors on flexural strength is contrary to their effect on permeability. This means that flexural strength is inversely proportional to the flow permeability CITATION Cha96 l 13321 (Chao & Chou, 1996). These factors need to be considered before manufacturing the porous supports in order to come up with products that have most suitable properties needed for gas separation.<br />Support Membrane Fabrication<br />Fabrication of porous alumina supports requires the use of different methods and different materials, and each method or material is capable of dictating the properties of the product’s structure. The first thing that should be taken care of is the ceramic powder. There are three factors that need to be considered concerning the ceramic powder: (1) use of the appropriate powder for production of the intended ceramic product, (2) the particle size of the powder will affect the fabrication of the ceramic product, and (3) some powders can only be processed using specific methods CITATION Ric03 l 13321 (Rice, 2003).<br />Additives also have important roles in the fabrication of ceramic products. Their two largest uses are aiding densification and modifying properties. One such effect of some additives is the ability to speed up the reaction of particles and formation of phases. This particular effect can aid in the sintering process by allowing the particles enhanced reaction even at lower temperatures. Other effects of additives involve transformation of crystal structures, growth of ceramic whiskers, and processing of ceramics CITATION Ric03 l 13321 (Rice, 2003).<br />The use of binders is also important as it is needed to provide solid deformation of the powder mass and give adequate strength for handling and stressing. Choosing the proper binder is often done with these two criteria in mind. Another criterion in choosing a binder is the difficulty of removing the binder CITATION Ric03 l 13321 (Rice, 2003).<br />Milling is an important method that affects the particles size distribution of the powder. It is also used to prevent accumulation of fine powders. Milling can either be done dry or wet. Dry milling is done to avoid a separate drying process. It is also done to prevent the formation of hard agglomerates. On the other hand, wet milling, which is more often applied in the laboratory, is used to make a coarse-grained slip or a fine-grained slip. Milling can be done either by ball milling or jet milling. Ball milling makes use of a milling media while jet milling makes use of two colliding jets of air which contain the ceramic particles. Jet milling is more capital intensive than ball milling, but it provides only little contamination due to the ceramic particles being in free flight. However, jet milling also makes cleaning between batches a more difficult task. In ball milling, it is the milling media that does the grinding. The milling media can be composed of porcelain, alumina, zirconia, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, steel and others CITATION Kin02 l 13321 (King, 2002).<br />Sintering is commonly the final step in producing ceramic bodies. It is done so that the desirable dimensions and properties are achieved. In sintering, it is quite important to achieve uniformity of temperature both in the global and local scale. The uniformity is needed globally to provide an adequately similar density all throughout the ceramic body. It is also needed to allow the sintering of multiple specimens for economic viability. Locally, the uniformity in temperature is needed because if the situation were otherwise, the microstructures of the ceramic body will be varied. This leads to the non-uniformity of the properties of the ceramic body. Eventually, this may result to warping, distortion or even cracking of the ceramic body. <br />In sintering, two more aspects are also noted. One is the heating method used with factors such as binder burnout, outgassing of powders and thermal stresses to be considered. The other is reaction sintering which takes note of sintering constituents or additives that affect the product’s composition. This knowledge can be used to give the ceramic body certain desired properties CITATION Ric03 l 13321 (Rice, 2003).<br />Support Membrane Characterization<br />After the porous ceramic supports have been produced, it is important to characterize them in order to determine their properties. There are several properties that can be measured. One of the most common properties measured in ceramic bodies is porosity. Porosity can be computed using the following formula obtained from Chao & Chou (1996):<br />% Porosity= Weightsoaked-WeightfiredWeightsoaked-Weightsuspended x 100<br />Another property that can be measured is the shrinkage which can be calculated using the following formula also obtained from Chao & Chou (1996):<br />% Shrinkage= (Volumegreen body-Volumefired body)Voleumgreen body x 100<br />% Water Absorption is also calculated because it can give the idea of whether the body has a high porosity which in turn can give an indication for permeability. It can be calculated using the formula:<br />% Water Absorption= Weightsoaked-WeightfiredWeightfired x 100<br />The bulk density of the ceramic body is also another indicator of porosity. The bulk density of a ceramic body can be calculated using the formula:<br />Bulk Density= WeightfiredWeightsuspended<br />There are also other properties such as pore size, pore size distribution and tortuosity that can be measured using different equations and analytical instruments in order to characterize ceramic bodies and determine which has the most desirable properties. Other properties such as permeability and selectivity are determined by doing experiments and gathering data CITATION Cha96 l 13321 (Chao & Chou, 1996). Overall, the properties of the ceramic bodies are modified with an aim of producing ceramic bodies ideal for gas separation which are bodies with high permeability while also maintaining high selectivity in order to maintain purity of the permeate CITATION Kim01 l 13321 (Kim, Kusakabe, Morooka, & Yang, 2001).<br />MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />Preparation of Raw Ceramic Materials<br />Four different formulations were used containing Alumina, Polyvinyl alcohol and magnesium nitrate. The four formulations were labelled A1, A3, B1 and B3. Formulations labelled with “A” had a 60% Al2O3 and 40% PVA composition while those labelled with “B” had a 70% Al2O3 and 30% PVA composition. <br />Formulations labelled with “1” were given magnesium nitrate with a mass of 1% of the amount of alumina in the formulation. Formulations labelled with “3” were given magnesium nitrate with a mass of 0.2% of the amount of alumina in the formulation. See Appendix A for mass distribution of the raw materials.<br />Formation of Porous Alumina Support<br />After all of the formulations were produced, 75 mL of ethanol was added to each formulation to serve as the solvent. The formulations were placed in a container with zirconia balls to serve as the milling media. The formulations were then ball milled for 16 hours. After ball milling the formulations, they were unloaded and washed from their containers using ethanol and dried in the oven overnight at a temperature of 80OC. The dried formulations were then crushed and powdered into finer particles by grinding. After that, they were made to pass through a 100 mesh in order to screen them. The screened particles were weighed into 2 g each and placed in paper containers. Five paper containers from the “B” formulations were taken while four paper containers were taken from the “A” formulations. They were formed into pellets using metal mould with a diameter of 2 cm. The pellets were then sintered at a temperature of 1400 OC. <br />Porous Support Characterization and Data Analysis<br />The porous supports were then weighed to get the fired weight. The soaked weight of the porous supports were also taken. The porous supports were also suspended in water contained in a beaker placed on a top-loading balance to measure the suspended weight. <br />Using the data gathered, the % porosity, % water absorption and bulk density of the porous supports were calculated using the formulas given by Chao & Chou (1996). Conclusions were made based on the properties of the porous supports. In order to compare if there are significant differences among the four formulations, an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was done with a level of significance of 0.01.<br />The process flowchart in Figure 1 summarizes the materials and methods to be used in the study.<br />Procurement of raw ceramic materials (Al2O3, PVA and Mg(NO3)2)Preparation of the raw materials into their specific formulations (A1, A3, B1 & B3)Addition of ethanol to each formulationBall milling of the formulations for 16 hoursOvernight drying of formulationsGrinding of dried formulation and screening using 100 meshWeighing of formulations into 2 g eachForming of pellets using a metal mould with a diameter of 2 cmSintering of pellets at temperature of 1400OCCollection of data by characterization of porous alumina supportsAnalysis of data by use of statistical test to determine the most desirable formulationConclusion<br />Figure 1. Process flowchart to prepare porous alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separation<br />RESULTS AND DISCUSSION<br />Production of Porous Alumina Supports<br />The porous alumina supports produced from the four different formulations was physically measured based on its fired weight, soaked weight and suspended weight. Table 1 shows the values of the mentioned properties.<br />Table 1. Fired, soaked and suspended weights of the porous alumina supports<br />Porous supportsFired weight (g)Soaked weight (g)Suspended weight (g)A111.141.660.8021.111.580.7531.241.800.8641.161.680.80A311.171.620.7521.131.580.7231.151.620.7741.131.600.72B111.361.920.8821.381.910.8931.411.900.8441.381.910.8851.401.910.85B311.381.910.8921.401.910.8731.371.840.8141.371.840.8151.381.880.85<br />Characterization of Porous Supports<br />The porous supports were then characterized by calculating for the following properties: % porosity, % water absorption and bulk density. Table 2 shows the values of the mentioned properties.<br />Table 2. % porosity, % water absorption and bulk density of the porous alumina supports<br />PropertiesPorous SupportA1A3B1B31234∑x1234∑x12345∑x12345∑x% porosity60.5%56.6%59.6%59.1%2.35858.95%51.7%52.3%55.3%53.4%2.12753.17%53.8%52.0%46.2%51.5%48.1%2.51650.32%52.0%49.0%45.6%45.6%48.5%2.40748.14%% water absorption45.6%42.3%45.2%44.8%1.77944.47%38.5%39.8%40.9%41.6%1.60840.2%41.2%38.4%34.8%38.4%36.4%1.89237.84%38.4%36.4%34.3%34.3%36.2%1.79635.92%Bulk density1.431.481.441.455.81.451.561.571.491.576.191.551.551.551.681.561.657.991.601.551.611.691.691.628.161.63<br /> After analysing the data, several trends were found among the formulations. % porosity decreases from A1 to B3. This is also the trend for % water absorption. This proves the correlation between % porosity and % water absorption. A higher % water absorption can also mean an increase in % porosity. The trend for bulk density, however, turned out to be the opposite. The supports with higher bulk densities had lower porosities. Consequently, bulk density can still be used as an indicator of porosity, although in an inversely proportional sense. Figure 1 and 2 graphically show these trends.<br />Evaluation of Porous Alumina Supports<br /> Using the Single Factor ANOVA test, the significance in the difference in % porosity among the formulations was calculated. Table 3 shows the values calculated for the ANOVA test.<br />Table 3. ANOVA test values for % porosities of the porous alumina supports<br />Source of variationDegrees of freedomSum of SquaresMean SquareFTreatments3286.062595.354166716.12706755Errors1482.77755.912678571Total17368.84<br /> Using the F-distribution table, degrees of freedom 3 and 14 for d.f.1 and d.f.2, respectively, and a level of significance of 0.01, the critical F value was determined. See Appendix B for the F-distribution table. The critical F value was found to be 5.564. The calculated F value of 16.12706755 far exceeds the value of the critical F value. This means that there is significant variation among the formulations used when it comes to % porosity which is an indicator of the permeability of the porous alumina supports.<br />SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION<br /> Using the determined properties such as % porosity, % water absorption and bulk density of the porous alumina supports, supports produced using the A1 formulations seem to possess the most desirable properties among the four different formulations. Using the ANOVA test, it was validated that there is a significant variation among the formulations. Therefore, this makes the A1 formulation the prime candidate to be the used formulation in producing porous alumina supports.<br />RECOMMENDATIONS<br /> More formulations can be used and tested in order to make sure that the most desirable porous alumina supports can be achieved. Exploring more than two other methods of producing the porous alumina supports can also be a factor for better products. Also, more properties can be characterized such as pore size, pore size distribution, tortuosity and shrinkage so that the porous alumina support can be better checked for suitability in hydrogen gas separation. <br />BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Chao, W., & Chou, K. (1996). Studies on the control of porous properties in the fabrication of porous supports. Key Engineering Materials, 115, 93-108.Huang, T., & Chen, H. (1996). Sythesis and characterization of gas permselective alumina membranes. Key Engineering Materials, 115, 81-92.Keizer, K., Uhlhorn, R., & Burggraaf, T. (1995). Gas separation using inorganic membranes. In R. Noble, & S. Stern, Membrane separations technology: principles and applications (1st ed., pp. 553-588). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V.Kim, Y., Kusakabe, K., Morooka, S., & Yang, S. (2001). Preparation of microporous silica membranes for gas separation. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 18(1), 106-112.King, A. (2002). Ceramic technology and processing. Norwich, New York, United States of America: Noyes Publication.Lu, G., Diniz da Costa, J., Duke, M., Giessler, S., Socolow, R., Williams, R., et al. (2007). Inorganic membranse for hydrogen production and purification: a critical review and perspective. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 314, 589-603.Meinema, H., Dirrix, R., Brinkman, H., Terpstra, R., Jekerle, J., & Kosters, P. (2005). Ceramic Membranes for Gas Separation - Recent Developments and State of the Art. Interceram, 54(2), 86-91.Phair, J., & Badwal, S. (2006). Mateirals for separatoin membranes in hydrogen and oxygen production and future power generation. Science and Technology of Advance Materials, 7, 792-805.Rice, R. (2003). Ceramic fabrication technology. New York, United States of America: Marcel Dekker, Inc.Scholes, C., Kentish, S., & Stevens, G. (2008). Carbon dioxide separation through polymeric membrane systems for flud gas applications. Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering, 1, 52-66.<br />APPENDIX A<br />Mass distribution of raw ceramic materials for each formulation<br />FormulationsAl2O3 (g)PVA (g)Mg(NO3)2 (g)A118120.04A318120.18B12190.04B32190.21<br />APPENDIX B<br />F-distribution table (α = 0.01)<br />APPENDIX C<br />Task list of the preparation of porous alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separation<br />Activity CodeActivity DescriptionObservable IndicatorsImmediately Preceding ActivityEstimated Duration(days)APreparation of raw ceramic materialsPrepared formulations in separate containers already added with ethanolNone1BBall milling of the materialsContainers of formulations already placed in the ball millA1CUnloading and drying of the formulationsFormulation are being dried in the ovenB1DGrinding and meshing of dried formulations and placing in containersFine particles of the formulations are in containers with 2 g eachC2EFormation of pellets using 2 cm metal mouldPresence of pelletsD2FSintering of the pelletsPellets are being sintered in the furnaceE1GCharacterization of the properties of the porous supportsData on the properties of the support gatheredF5HAnalysis of data using testsImplications of properties determinedG2IConclusionMost desirable formulation determinedH1<br />Total no. of days: 16 days<br />APPENDIX D1A2B3C4D5E6F7 G8H9I10<br />Network chart for the preparation of porous alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separation<br />Legend:<br />A – Preparation of raw ceramic materials<br />B – Ball milling of ceramic materials<br />C – Unloading and drying of formulations<br />D – Grinding and meshing of formulations<br />E – Formation of pellets<br />F – Sintering of the pellets<br />G – Characterization of supports<br />H – Data analysis<br />I – Conclusion<br />APPENDIX E<br />Gantt chart for the preparation of porous alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separation<br />APPENDIX F<br />Summary of Materials Safety Data Sheets for use in the preparation of porous alumina ceramics as support membrane for hydrogen gas separation<br />ChemicalSymbolPrecaution/Hazards IDFirst AidPotential Acute Health EffectsPotential Chronic Health EffectsAluminaAl2O3Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: A4 (Not classifiable for human or animal.) by ACGIH. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available.TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified None for human. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. Repeated or prolonged exposure is not known to aggravate medical condition.Eye Contact:Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention.Skin Contact:In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention.Serious Skin Contact:Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek medical attention.Inhalation:If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.Serious Inhalation: Not available.Ingestion:Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If large quantities of this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband.Serious Ingestion: Not available.Polyvinyl alcoholPVASlightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: 3 (Not classifiable for human.) by IARC. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. TERATOGENICEFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. Repeated or prolonged exposure is not known to aggravate medical condition.Eye Contact:Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention if irritation occurs.Skin Contact:Wash with soap and water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Get medical attention if irritation develops. Cold water may be used.Serious Skin Contact: Not available.Inhalation:If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.Serious Inhalation: Not available.Ingestion:Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.Serious Ingestion: Not available.Magnesium nitrateMg(NO3)2Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation (lung irritant). Prolonged exposure may result in skin burns and ulcerations. Over-exposure by inhalation may cause respiratory irritation.Hazardous in case of ingestion, of inhalation. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. The substance may be toxic to blood, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.Eye Contact:Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention.Skin Contact:In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention.Serious Skin Contact:Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek medical attention.Inhalation:If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.Serious Inhalation:Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Seek medical attention.Ingestion:Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.Serious Ingestion: Not available.EthanolC2H6OHazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator), of ingestion. Non-corrosive for skin. Non-corrosive to the eyes. Non-corrosive for lungs.Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer) CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified PROVEN by State of CaliforniaProposition 65 [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Classified A4 (Not classifiable for human or animal.) by ACGIH [Ethyl alcohol 200Proof]. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified PROVEN for human [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof].DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Classified Development toxin [PROVEN] [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Classified Reproductive system/toxin/female, Reproductive system/toxin/male [POSSIBLE] [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. The substance is toxic to blood, the reproductive system, liver, upper respiratory tract, skin, central nervousEye Contact:Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention.Skin Contact:In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention.Serious Skin Contact:Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek medical attention.Inhalation:If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.Serious Inhalation:Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Seek medical attention.Ingestion:Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.Serious Ingestion: Not available.<br />

×