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AE Rio 2011 - Escolas Europeias Jose Tribolet

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Apresentacao realizada no Congresso AE Rio 2011 em abril de 2011 - Rio de Janeiro - Brasil

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AE Rio 2011 - Escolas Europeias Jose Tribolet

  1. 1. Panoramica do tema EE na Europa José TriboletPresidente do INESC – Instituto de Sistemas e Computadores Professor Catedrático de Sistemas de Informação Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Rio de Janeiro, 14 Abril 2011
  2. 2. As 4 “Escolas” de E. E. Na Europa  T.U. Delft – Jan Dietz , Jan Hoogervorst Ontologia Empresarial, Governação Empresarial GSDM – Generic Systems Development Model T.U. Lisbon – Jose Tribolet, Pedro Sousa Organizational Self Awareness (OSA) Arquitectura, Transformação e Controlo Empresarial
  3. 3. As 4 “Escolas” de E. E. Na Europa Antwerp Univ. – Jan Verelst, H. Manaart Controlo da Complexidade Empresarial Software, Processos, Arquitecturas Normalizadas St. Gallen Univ. – Robert Winter, A. Albani Method Engineering, Business Engineering Design Science and Design Research
  4. 4. ENTREPRISE ONTOLOGY 5
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  9. 9. FIRST THINGS FIRST
  10. 10. The Enterprise Physics 101 Zachman Questions What is an Organization “made of”? What does an Organization “do”? … Why? When? Where? How?EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  11. 11. Usual Top-View AnswerEO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  12. 12. EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  13. 13. The Bottom Line TruthEO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  14. 14. EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  15. 15. The usual Computer Engineering version: An Organization is a System This system is composed by subsystems These subsystems interact with each other.EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  16. 16. The “usual” Hard Science Systems Approach: An Organization is a complex and dynamic network of computers, intelligently interacting with each other, while some of them are still being operated by “users”!EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  17. 17. The “usual” Soft Science Approach: An Organization is a tribe of Humans playing their cultural, social, political games under a variety of forms of management by MBA trained leaders.EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  18. 18. Our T.U.Lisbon approach: An Organization is a dynamic, time-varying choreographic orchestration played by humans, using whatever tools, they have, namely computers, to act on their environment.EO&EA@SONAECOM CEPEI da Área Científica Sistemas de Informação – DEI, IST
  19. 19. O CONFRONTO COMA REALIDADE
  20. 20. Tautologias O Ser Humano é um Nó activona Rede transacional de Agentes que mudam, a cada instante, o estado do Mundo
  21. 21. Tautologias Uma Empresa É o que os seus Agentes activos, humanos e computadores, FAZEM, num dado instante e local,ao longo do todo o tempo e em todos os lugares.
  22. 22. TautologiasA arquitectura do hardwarede todos os Seres Humanos é idêntica!
  23. 23. Tautologias Arquitectura do Ser Humano: 5 classes da canais de I/O, Memória Massiva Neuronal,Elevado numero de Processadores, muitos dos quais dedicados a Processamento Semântico de alta complexidade.
  24. 24. DEFINIÇÃOUma Empresa é uma web semântica de “servidores”, uns de carbono outros de silício, que transacionam contínuamente, alterando recursos, isto é, o estado do Mundo
  25. 25. No século XX ... ... era adequado separar as redes de agentes activos: -Agentes de carbono: ciencias sociais, organização e gestão- Agentes de sílicio: ciencias e engenharias da computação, da informática, das comunicações
  26. 26. No século XX ...... era o tempo do software, das aplicações, das interfaces pessoa/máquina O humano era “ o utilizador” !
  27. 27. Neste inicio do século XXI ...... muitos executivos, responsáveis por processos e pelossistemas informáticos ainda sonham com “utilizadores”deterministicamente perfeitos, totalmente controlados pelos workflows, e pelas aplicações !
  28. 28. “Bad news”, minha gente!Esse “mundo orwelliano” não existe mesmo. O “bicho humano” é muito resistente! E muito melhor do que se pode pensar!
  29. 29. No século XXI ...As duas redes estão hoje simbióticamente ligadas, já não mais são separáveis! É a emergencia da biónica organizacional!
  30. 30. No século XXI ...Já há vida para além das aplicações e do software O ser humano é actor, é sensor, é controlador, É autonomo , é decisor, é responsável !
  31. 31. Como lidar com esta nova realidade? Com Metodologias de ENGENHARIA, Radicadas em sólida bases cientícas Validadas experimentalmente
  32. 32. Que “nova” Engenharia é esta? É a Engenharia Empresarial O seu foco é o Objecto “Empresa”. Uma realidade do nosso mundo!
  33. 33. EE MANIFESTO (2011)Enterprises are essentially social systems, of which the elements are human beings intheir role of social individual with authority and responsibility.
  34. 34. EE MANIFESTO (2011) The operating principle of enterprises is that socialindividuals enter into and comply with commitmentsregarding the products or services that they create and deliver. These actions come in universal patterns, called transactions.
  35. 35. As 4 “Escolas” de E. E. Na Europa T.U. Delft - Jan Dietz , Jan HoogervorstOntologia Empresarial, Governação Empresarial GSDM – Generic Systems Development Model
  36. 36. ENTREPRISE ONTOLOGYNesta ultima década surgiram as bases científicas da EE,a partir da obra seminal do Prof. Jan Dietz ( T.U.DELFY) ENTREPRISE ONTOLOGY THEORY AND METHODOLOGY
  37. 37. ENTREPRISE ONTOLOGY
  38. 38. ENTREPRISE ONTOLOGY A Ontologia Empresarial é baseada em: Teoria FI – Facts and InformationTeoria TAO – Technology, Arquitecture, Ontology Teoria PSI – Performance in Social Interaction
  39. 39. ENTREPRISE ONTOLOGYA Ontologia Empresarial tem as seguintes bases: Axioma da Distinção Axioma da Operação Axioma da Transação
  40. 40. The emerging discipline of Enterprise Engineering Organization Information Systems Sciences Sciences Data Systems Form Data Engineering Information, InformationContent Communication Systems Engineering Collaboration,Intention Enterprise Engineering Cooperation
  41. 41. What is Enterprise Ontology? ConceptuallyEnterprise Ontology is the understanding of anenterprise’s construction and operation in a way that isindependent of realization and implementation.
  42. 42. What is Enterprise Ontology? Practicallyit is the highest-level constructional model of anenterprise, the implementation model being thelowest one.
  43. 43. What is Enterprise Ontology?Compared to its implementation model, theontological model offers a reduction ofcomplexity of well over 90%.Only by applying this notion of EnterpriseOntology can substantial strategic changes ofenterprises be made intellectually manageable.
  44. 44. The distinction axiomCOORDINATION HUMAN ABILITY PRODUCTION
  45. 45. What does the Y-theory accomplish? COMMUN organization information ICATION actioncommunication is the thread of which organization is woven
  46. 46. The Operation AxiomThe people in an organization (subjects) perform two kinds of acts:production acts or P-acts and coordination acts or C-acts.By performing P-acts, the subjects contribute to bringing about thefunction of the organization.By performing C-acts, the subjects enter into and comply withcommitments regarding P-acts. This is the way in whichcooperation between subjects is accomplished.An (elementary) actor role is defined as the authority to performone particular type of P-act. A subject in his fulfilling of an actorrole is called an actor.
  47. 47. Depiction of the Transaction Axiom fact requested request promise O-phase desired fact new fact promised E-phase fact fact accepted produced customer producer R-phase accept state fact stated
  48. 48. Elementary actor role An elementary actor role is defined as: the institutional authority that is necessary and sufficient to be executor in a particular transaction typeAn (elementary) actor is a subject, fulfilling an actor roleA subject may play a number of actor roles, and an actor role may be played by a number of subjects, either consecutively or simultaneously or collectively.
  49. 49. Competence Competence is (primarily) defined asthe collective knowledge, know-how and experience that is necessary and sufficient for a subject to perform production acts of a particular kind. Competence is related to profession. Examples: plumber physician judge
  50. 50. Authority Authority is defined as the being authorized of a subject by an institution, e.g., by a company (employee) or by a society (client),to perform particular production acts and/or coordination acts Examples: plumber of company X physician in hospital Y judge at court Z
  51. 51. Responsibility Responsibility is defined as the socially felt need by a subject to perform the coordination acts for which it is authorized, in an accountable way Examples:plumber of company X  client of company Xphysician in hospital Y  patient of hospital Yjudge at court Z  defendant at court Z
  52. 52. Authorization By authorization is understood the assignment of a complete actor role to a subject (person) or a collectivity of subjects. It means that the subject (orthe collectivity of subjects) is allowed to be executor of instances of the corresponding transaction type.Note that the same actor role may also be assigned to one or more other subjects. However, every instance of the correspondingtransaction type will be carried through completely by one of them.
  53. 53. DelegationBy delegation is understood the allowance by the authorized subject toanother subject to perform one or more steps in one or more instances of thecorresponding transaction type. However, the authorized subject remains fullyresponsible for the acts of the delegate.As a general rule, the subject who performs the state act in a transaction isconsidered to also have performed the P-act (cf. action rules for “on stated”).
  54. 54. Enterprise Ontology - practical definition coordination actors production Enterprise Ontology entering into deciding and complying ontological judging with commitments creating formulating computing infological interpreting reasoning speaking, hearing copying datalogical storing writing, reading transporting
  55. 55. A0 T1 A1 basic transaction process rq rq O-phase actor role pm pm COORDINATION E-phase st st PRODUCTION ac ac R-phase atomic process step ontological ontological customer : request : employee : rental R has been started customer has entered rental R has been started into a commitment < performer > < intention > < addressee > < proposition > infological B-organization infologicalcustomer has specified the amount to be paid what he wants has been calculated I-organization Datalogical datalogical customer has D-organization the rental form has been expressed this filled outin an English sentence
  56. 56. The ontological aspect models Construction Model CM Process Model PM SM State Model AM Action Model
  57. 57. The ontological aspect models SYSTEM construction Construction Model CMC-WORLD P-WORLDstatics & Process Model PM SM State Model statics &kinematics kinematics AM Action Model SYSTEM dynamics
  58. 58. The ontological aspect modelsConstruction Model : regards the construction of the enterprisesystem, specified by transaction types, actor roles (plus initiator andexecutor links), and information banks (plus information links).Process Model : regards the state space and process space of thecoordination world, specified by business events and (declarative)business rules.State Model : regards the state space and process space of theproduction world, specified by business objects, business facts, and(declarative) business rules.Action Model : regards the operation of the enterprise system,specified by imperative business rules.
  59. 59. From Transaction Pattern to Process Model initia tor ex ecutor T04 T04 rq rq rq pm O-phase pm pmactor role E-phase T04 st st R-phase ac ac T04 T04 ac st transaction steps are the atoms of business processes
  60. 60. Ontological Process ModelCA01 A01 T01 dc CA02 T01 T01 T02 T02 rq x pm rq pm T02 T01 T02 T02 ac st membership T01 T01 payment ac st membership start
  61. 61. Practical relevance of the Interaction Model Its compactness allows for strategic discussions on the basis of the IAM (customers, suppliers, sourcing). The wholeness of the transaction pattern facilitates attention for topics like responsibility, ownership, etc. It shows the ontological units of competence, authorization and responsibility. This facilitates the analysis of the (traditional) organizational functions. For an SME (Small or Medium sized Enterprise), the IAM fits on one sheet of paper (A4 or A3): the essential enterprise map fits in a manager’s briefcase!
  62. 62. Organization Construction Diagram personal data CPB11 library general CPB12 CPB14 data data LIBRARY reduced fee approval loan start CA01 A01 A04 CA04 T03 T04 board annual fee loan membership control creator book return CA02 A10 T01 registrar annual fee T10 T05 controlleraspirant registrationmember member T02 loan end A06 membership T06 fee payment loan terminator return fine CA03 A09 T08 stock T09 T07publisher controller book stock payment shipment control book library CPB13 CPB12 titles data
  63. 63. Who needs Enterprise Ontology? Managers need to understand the ontological essence of their enterprise because they are held accountable. Developers need to understand the organization, independent of its implementation. Employees - only the ontology of an enterprise shows the roles they fulfill deeply. Users - why should the operation of an enterprise be fully opaque to its users? Enterprise Ontology provides them the transparency they deserve!
  64. 64. THE GSDPGSDP – Generic Systems Development Process
  65. 65. ENTREPRISE GOVERNANCE
  66. 66. ENTREPRISE GOVERNANCE AND EE Investigação Conjunta orientada por J. Hoogervorst e J. Tribolet, tese de Ms. Sc. - 11/2011, de Miguel Henriques, IST/UTL Caso Prático: DIAP – Departamente de Investigação e Acção Penal do Ministério Público de Portugal
  67. 67. Enterprise Governance
  68. 68. Enterprise Governance
  69. 69. As 4 “Escolas” de E. E. Na Europa T.U. Lisbon – Jose Tribolet, Pedro Sousa Organizational Self Awareness Arquitectura Empresarial Transformação e Controlo Empresarial
  70. 70. OSA – Organ. Self Awereness The Bill of Organizational Human Rights Humans have the RIGHTto “make sense” of what is going on in theOrganization they are an integral part of!
  71. 71. OSA An Organization is Self-Aware when all of itsservers maintain real-time synchronization of their individual world models All servers - carbon and silicon based - must maintain a shared view of the common choreography being played!
  72. 72. OSATo OSA enable and enterprise we need EE to Tool the Organization with the means to ACTIVE SYNC Carbon and Silicon Servers In Real-Time
  73. 73. OSA and Collective Intelligence A Self-Aware Organization empowers its organizational servers with the best decisional context its collective sensors & processors are capable of, so as to enable the “natural “ and“artificial” intelligent algorithms the servers use to take their own individual decisions.
  74. 74. OSA LIVE MODELSare the tools for Active Syncing !
  75. 75. OSAEnterprise as a System It has state variables! Some are observable. Some are controllable.
  76. 76. OSA and Dynamic Control
  77. 77. OSA
  78. 78. OSA
  79. 79. OSA
  80. 80. Am Entreprise is an AirplaneThe “airplane” is in the air, travelling along space and time.Change and the laws of “enterprise physics” are the ONLY constants!
  81. 81. Entreprise “in flight” ControlAre the Carbon Servers needed as sensors and actuators at all?
  82. 82. Base Line for Discussion 1. Is there a need for Run Time Monitoring of what an Enterprise DOES, i.e, of the Enterprise Operations? 2. Is there a need for Run Time Monitoring of who an Enterprise IS, i.e, of the Enterprise Agents, people and computers? 3. Is there a need for Run Time Monitoring of WHAT an Enterprise is made of, and in what state it is?
  83. 83. Fundamental Questions 1. What is the role of Enterprise Design? 2. What is the role of Enterprise Architecture? 3. What is the role of Enterprise Governance? 4. What is the role of Entreprise Engineering?
  84. 84. Examples of Domains of Concern1. The Global Financial System was never designed forrun-time observability and controllabillity.2. The Portuguese Public Administration was neverdesigned for run-time observability and controllabillity.
  85. 85. Puzzlement?Why are we surprised when things get out of“control”, if no run-time monitoring andcontrol mechanisms, were designed,engineered, and implemented?
  86. 86. AssessmentOur complex, intensive, massive, fast network ofactors, transactions and organizations have nowautonomous behaviours, that are presently trulyuncontrollable!
  87. 87. Conclusion It is the reality that counts, stupid! If we want to live in a world controlled by humans, we have to design it, engineer it, and implement it,and learn from its operation to continuously improve it!
  88. 88. ANSWERS 1. Is there a need for Run Time Monitoring of what an Enterprise DOES, i.e, of the Enterprise Operations? YES! 2. Is there a need for Run Time Monitoring of who an Enterprise IS, i.e, of the Enterprise Agents, people and computers? YES! 3. Is there a need for Run Time Monitoring of WHAT an Enterprise is made of? YES!
  89. 89. From the GOSPELThere are two known mistakes one can make along the road to truth: not going all the way and not starting. BUHDA
  90. 90. From the GOSPELBut our present mistake is even worst: We are going all the way, without ever having started! JOSÉ BUHDA SALVADOR TRIBOLET
  91. 91. Tradução em PortuguÊs Não te cuides não, vais ver onde vais parar!JOSÉ BUHDA SALVADOR TRIBOLET
  92. 92. As 4 “Escolas” de E. E. Na Europa Antwerp Univ. Jan Verelst, H. Manaart Controlo da Complexidade Empresarial Software, Processos, Arquitecturas Normalizadas
  93. 93. Normalized Software Normalized Software Software andSystems are to actual Software Systems as electronic boards are tomicro electronics systems and devices
  94. 94. Trends : NS applied to BP, EA, EE
  95. 95. As 4 “Escolas” de E. E. Na Europa St. Gallen Univ. Robert Winter, A. AlbaniMethod Engineering, Business Engineering Design Science and Design Research
  96. 96. PARA CONCLUIR:
  97. 97. FIRST THINGS FIRSTTHE ENTERPRISE ENGINEERING MANIFESTO
  98. 98. Panoramica do tema EE na Europa José TriboletPresidente do INESC – Instituto de Sistemas e Computadores Professor Catedrático de Sistemas de Informação Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Rio de Janeiro, 14 Abril 2011

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