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Motivation concepts and theories

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  2. 2. MOTIVATION THEORIES ..... attempt to explain why people do what they do, or don’t do, as the case may be
  3. 3. MOTIVATION – Derived from the Latin word “MOVERE” which means “to move”. -The forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. NEEDS – Deficiencies that energize or trigger behaviors to satisfy those needs.
  4. 4. NEEDS-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY – Maslow’s motivation theory of five instinctive needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified. Satisfaction-progression process – A process whereby people become increasingly motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower need is gratified.
  5. 5. NEEDS-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) Selfactualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Needs Physiological Needs Achieving one’s potential, self-fulfilment, becoming what one is capable of becoming. The desire for a positive self-image, to achieve attention, recognition, and appreciation from others. A need to be accepted by peers, friendship, being part of a group. A need for safe and secure from physical and emotional environment, free from threat. Food , drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other bodily requirements.
  6. 6. NEEDS-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) • ERG THEORY –Aldefer’s motivation theory of three instinctive needs arranged in a hierarchy, in which people progress to the next higher need when a lower one is fulfilled, and regress to a lower need if unable to fulfill a higher one. Frustration-regression process – A process whereby a person who is unable to satisfy a higher need becomes frustrated and regresses to the next lower need level.
  7. 7. NEEDS-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) Growth A person’s needs for self-esteem through personal achievement as well as for self-actualizaton. Relatedness A person’s needs to interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around other people. Existence A person’s physiological and physically related safety needs, such as the need for food, shelter, and safe working conditions.
  8. 8. COMPARING ALDEFER’S ERG THEORY TO MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCHY Self-actualization Growth Esteem Relatedness Belongingness Safety Existence Physiological
  9. 9. INNATE HUMAN DRIVES FOUR FUNDAMENTAL DRIVES  Drive to acquire – This is the drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and personal experiences. The drive to acquire extends beyond basic food and water, it includes the need for relative status and recognition in society.  Drive to bond – This is the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with others.  Drive to learn – This is the drive to satisfy one’s curiosity, to know and understand ourselves and the environment around us.  Drive to defend – This is the drive to protect ourselves physically and socially.
  10. 10. THEORY OF LEARNED NEEDS (cont’d) • DAVID MC CLELLAND • Need for achievement (nAch) – A learned need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own efforts, like to be successful in competitive situations, and desire unambiguous feedback regarding their success. • Need for affiliation (nAff) – A learned need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation.
  11. 11. THEORY OF LEARNED NEEDS (cont’d) • Need for power (nPow) – A learned need in which people want to control their environment, including people and material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others (socialized power).
  12. 12. THEORY OF LEARNED NEEDS (cont’d) PERFORMANCE RESULTS Higher the Needs Lower the Needs Need for Achievement (nAch) Must win at any cost. Must be on top and receive credit. Fears failure. Avoid responsibilities. Need for Affiliation (nAff) Demands blind loyalty and harmony. Does not tolerate disagreement. Remains aloof, maintains social distance. Need for Power (nPow) Desires control on everyone and everything. Exaggerates over position and resources. Minimizes own position and power.
  13. 13. COMPARING MC CLELLAND’S THEORY TO ALDEFER’S ERG THEORY AND MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCHY Self-actualization Achievement Growth Esteem Power Affiliation Relatedness Belongingness Safety Existence Physiological
  14. 14. Practical Implications of NeedsBased Motivation Theories Corporate leaders need to balance the demands and influences of the different innate drives. They must also recognize that different people have different needs at different times. These theories also warn us against relying too heavily on financial rewards as a source of employee motivation.
  15. 15. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION Expectancy Theory – The motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes .
  16. 16. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) Expectancy Theory Model – An individual’s effort level depends on three factors: effort-to-performance expectancy, performance-to-outcome, and outcome valences. Employee motivation is influenced by all three components of the expectancy theory model. If any component weakens, motivation weakens.
  17. 17. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION effort-to-performance (E→P) expectancy – The individual’s perceived probability that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance performance-to-outcome (P→O) expectancy – The perceived probability that specific behavior or performance level will lead to specific outcomes. Valence – The anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
  19. 19. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) What work outcomes I will be received as a result of my performance? Can I achieve the desired level of task performance? How highly do I value outcomes?
  20. 20. OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X - Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y - Assumes that workers can exercise selfdirection, desire responsibility, and like to work. Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
  21. 21. OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) Theory X • • • • • Work is inherently distasteful to most people. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems. Motivation occurs only at the physiological and safety levels. Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. Theory Y • • • • • Work is natural as play, if the conditions are favorable. Self-control is often indispensable in achieving organizational goals. The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population. Motivation occurs at the social, esteem, and self-actualization levels, as well as physiological and security levels. People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated.
  22. 22. OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (cont’d) Fredrick Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Herzberg’s Theory of motivation is called “Dual Factor Theory” and “Hygiene/ Maintenance Theory of Motivation”. Focused attention on the work environment to identify factors that arose in people either positive or negative attitudes toward their work.
  23. 23. - Salaries, Wages and other Benefits - Company Policy and Administration - Good Inter-personal relationships - Quality of Supervision - Job Security - Working Conditions - Work/Life Balance When in place, these factors result in... - General Satisfaction - Prevention of Dissatisfaction - Sense of Personal Achievement - Status - Recognition - Challenging/stimulating Work - Responsibility - Opportunity for advancement - Promotion - Growth When in Motivator Factors Hygiene Factors OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION place, these factors result in... - High Motivation - High Satisfaction - Strong Commitment
  24. 24. THANK YOU! end of the presentation