theories of IR-6/1

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theories of IR-6/1

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Intl History (IR Hist); 1900-1990 WW-1 started in Europe & later extended across the globe Known as Great War & 1st total war as it encompasses all resources-modern industrialized total war Belligerents mobilized their masses, industries & armies for the first time 2
  3. 3. Intl History (IR Hist); 1900-1990 WW-II more global in nature & total in scope Brought fundamental changes in global Politics European Status; Arbiter of world affairs before WW-II 3
  4. 4. Intl History (IR Hist); 1900-1990 WW-II brought Europe & USSR deeper into Europe Like WW-I & II, Cold war has its original EU & subsequent spread all over Great War brought demise of four European powers 4
  5. 5.  New Economic & Military Centers in Washington and Moscow -Two Super Powers Most Tangible legacy of WW-II Atomic bomb- a clash between Germany & US Nuclear bomb-the most threatening weapon of WW-II Transformation of world politically, technically 5
  6. 6.  From Year 1900 Three Changes at global level;  Transition from European crises to modern industrialized total war  End of empires & withdrawal of European powers from their colonies  Cold war; pol, mil & nuc confrontration b/w US 6
  7. 7. Modern Total War Debate & a blame game – about the origin of WW-I Versailles treaty & declaring Germany as responsible of WW-I German historian Fritz Fischer 1967- German aggression to satisfy its internal political needs of an autocratic needs 7
  8. 8. Modern Total War Nationalist beliefs & patriotism of masses in Europe to fight the war Assumptions that; War would be short lived, victorious & glorious Advent of trench warfare & Invention of New Weapon-MG Japan as an ally of UK in WW-I US entrance & Russian exit from the war theatre of WW-I Concept of Total war; whole societies & economies mobilized; men conscripted & women sent to factories 8
  9. 9.  Woodrow Wilson 14 Pts; became base for Paris conference in 1919 German agreed to armistice: US threat, UK naval blockade & failure of its last military offensive in West Failure of VPT to tackle the Europe’s central problem of security like:  A united and frustrated Germany  Precipitated German revanchism by creating new states & contested borders 9
  10. 10.  30 yrs War: 1914 to 1945 20 yrs Crises: 1919 to 1939 Economic Crises & Wall Street Crash of 1929 :Weakened liberal democracies & strengthened; communists, fascists & Nazis Unemployment & inflation world over, Germany as the worst hit – grounds for Nazis coming to power 1933; Adolf Hitler ceased power & transformation of German nation begin AJP Taylr; Origin of WW-II, Hitler was not different than others- only difference was philosophy of Nazism & racial supremacy 10
  11. 11.  Failure of Munich Agreement of 1938 by UK & French with Hitler on Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland Hitler’s capture of Czechoslovakia – a drive to capture Poland 1939; Blitzkrieg; Armoured & Air warfare; a concept over the great war 11
  12. 12.  Hitler’s support to his Italian ally Mussolini in Balkans & drive to North Africa 1941; Hitler’s invasion in Russia Massive early victories in the Eastern front & winter stalemate Mobilization of Soviets after German Brutality in Occupied areas German anti-semitism & holocaust Jews genocide by Germans 12
  13. 13. Rise & Fall of Japan Failure of concept of collective security – Basis of Leagues of Nations US Senate prevented US participation in LoN Soviet Union remained away Japanese aggression against Manchuria in 1931 Italian invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopian Empire) 1935 German involved in Spanish civil war 1936-39 13
  14. 14.  1868: Japan came out of the isolation in Imperialistic mode – rapid industrialization Japanese attack on China in 1937 US Economic sanctions against Japan and Japanese surprise attack on US fleet at Pearl Harbour on Dec 7, 1941 Germany & Italy declared war on US as a retaliation US prioritized the European theatre over Pacific 14
  15. 15.  Strategic bombing on German cities and later Japanese industrial bases Defeat of Germany; before or after Atomic attacks on Hiroshima & Nagasaki Gar Aalperovitz – Atomic Diplomacy- 1965 Use of atom to; coerce Moscow 15
  16. 16. End of Empire Started after WW-I Right of Self determination became a guiding principle for the end of colonialism UN Charter and self determination in clash Reduction of European power / arbitrary role UK, Portugal & French as Colonial powers 16
  17. 17. Factors Influenced the Decolonization Legacies & Conceptions of Nationalism Nationalism Awareness & Communication Civil Wars Different attitude for different aims 17
  18. 18. Cold War Rise of USA in world Pol & its conflict with USSR USSR Emergence in world politics Start of Cold war -1917, 1942 , 1945 or 1950s Concepts; cold war started because misperceptions or ? 18
  19. 19. Phases of Cold War 1945-53; Onset of Cold War 1953-1969; Conflict, confrontation and compromise 1969-79; The Rise & Fall of Détente 1979-86; 2nd cold war 19
  20. 20. The Onset of Cold War 1945 - 53  Div of EU – Gem Poland etc  USSR Determinate of EU - a can of explosion of ideologys by USSR  Truman’s Dolerchi of Continent of USSR & economci Recovery Plan (Marshal Plan for Western EU Jem 1947 20
  21. 21. Estate EU – Maint – leminst faces inEU & USSR when brought poor letsYugoslavia is method title who poorNAM1st cold war camphorate over Britishunder USSR & its Rd + rail can +blockhead of west below pip 21
  22. 22. US depl in UK with Nuc Wpn aircraftNATO in 1949 – principle ofcollectiveSecurity self defence ingressive inART 51 of UN charterCert of US to defend WEU but allcerts against for USSR through USwith of Nuc wpns. 22
  23. 23. Dev in Asia – Chinese war endeed in1949 under Mao Tending 30 yr warendeedInter Korea war – involved of US &Chinese – 3 million deaths (3 yrwar)Dev in middle east Jewish state bothUS, UK+ USC against war of Arbor+ Jahad above name 23
  24. 24. 1953 – 69, Conflict, Cafeteria & Capering US forces in western Europe after Korea war Resent of west German – federal Rep of Germany by US, UK, for a 1954. Creative of war saw pad in 1955 1960 there Nuc Wpn in WEU alien 24
  25. 25. USSR threats with Nuc 1953- Death of stain & Refunds in Eastern EU + Hanging adverting that red Army attk & blood shot in Hunging Khrushchev policy towards EU- Mix of pol coexistence + delve café ion 25
  26. 26. Growth of hut org – cold war Crises in begin in 1961 & cube in 1962 Risk of Nuc War 1962 Ease after 1963 – pea Nuc wpn & Britain in 1952 for 1960 Chinese 1964 rusk in 1949 NPT – 1968 but Nuc Wpn cat their 1990 their date. 26
  27. 27. Rise & Fall of Détente 1969 – 1979 US cert in Victoria USSR PRC clash difference Foundation of death b/w USSR & USA Reproach b/w USA & Chinese  2nd Cold War 27

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