Theories of IR-4-globilization


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Theories of IR-4-globilization

  1. 1. Globalization & Global Politics
  2. 2. Globalization - Definitions Globalization: the Widening, Deepening & speeding up of World Wide interconnectedness Globalization is a Contentious issue in the study of World Politics The intensification of worldwide social relations which links distant localities in such a way that local happening are shaped by events occurring many miles away & vice
  3. 3.  ‘The integration of the World-economy’ (Glipin 2001: 364) ‘De-territorialization – or ….the growth of supraterritorial relations between people’ (Scholte 200: 46) ‘Time- space compressions (Harvey 1989)
  4. 4.  Concept of Hyper globalists. Bringing about the demise of sovereign ‘Nation States’ - as global forces undermine the ability of govts to Control their own economies & societies Sceptics View point. Rejects the idea of globalization as so much ‘globaloney’ – argue that state & Geo – Politics remain the Principle forces shaping World Order Transformationalist Perspective. As per this thought Hyper globalists & Sceptics alike exaggerate their arguments & misconstrue the Contemporary World Order
  5. 5.  While transformationalist takes globalization seriously; they believe that, it is leading not so much to demise of sovereign state, but to a globalization of Politics Itis emergence of conspicuously Global politics in which the traditional distinction between domestic & international affairs is not terribly meaningful
  6. 6. Making Sense of Globalization
  7. 7. Over the last three decades: the sheer scale & scope of global interconnectedness has become increasingly evident in every sphere from the economy to the cultural World economic integration has intensified with the expansion of global commerce, finance & productions Globalization links together the fate of nations
  8. 8.  Crises in one region, are felt anywhere in the world alike;  the collapse of the Argentinean economy in 2002  East Asian recession- 1997  A slowdown in the US economy  Global recession and food crises-2008  Effects of all felt everywhere from Birmingham to Bangkok All these acts take their toll on jobs, production, savings, & investment many thousands of miles away
  9. 9.  Transnational corporations accounts for 25 to 33% of world output, 70% world trade & 80% intl investment Organization & mobilization of like minded people across the globe through new modes & infrastructure of global communication Transnational spread of ideas, cultures & information As globalization has proceeded so has the recognition of transnational problems requiring global regulation, climate change to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction
  10. 10.  Move of the people like migrants or otherwise legal and illegal for the search of better living brings along their culture, ideas business etc. 600 millions tourists move each year Movements from South to North and East to West Growing awareness of the multiple ways in which the Security & prosperity of communities in different regions of the World is bound together
  11. 11.  In conclusion the Globalization is variously defined in the literature as: The intensification of worldwide social relations which links distant localities in such a way that local happening are shaped by events occurring many miles away & vice versa
  12. 12. Summary Over the last three decades the sheer scale, scope of global interconnectedness has become increasingly evident in every sphere from economic to the cultural Skeptics do not regard this as evidence of globalization if that term means something more than simply international interdependence, i.e. linkages between countries
  13. 13. Conceptualizing Globalization
  14. 14. Taking globalization as the process characterized by: 1stly, A stretching of social, political & economic activities across the political frontiers so that events, decisions, & activities in one regions of the World come to have significance for individuals & communities in distant regions of the globe-civil wars & conflicts in poor regions effects richer areas 2ndly, The intensification or the growing magnitude of interconnectedness, in almost every sphere of social existence – intensification of world trade to spread of WMD- SARS virus
  15. 15.  3rdly, The accelerating pace of global interaction & processes as the evaluations of worldwide systems of transport & communications increases the rapidity or velocity with ideas, news, goods, information, capital & technology move around the world 4thly, The growing extensity, intensity, & velocity of global interactions is associated with a deepening enmeshment of the local & global in so far as local events may come to have global consequences & global events can have serious local consequences of the world as a shared social space, that is globality or globalism
  16. 16.  But, this not the end. Indeed, there is more to the concept of globalization than simply interconnectedness What is that? It is: dissolution of the significance of borders & boundaries which separate the world into 193 independent constituent states or national economic & political spaces Question: would states let that happen? Answer : No, but how?
  17. 17.  Contrary to sceptics view of interdependence & internationalization, between discrete bounded national states, globalization deals with the shift in human affairs Globalization is the structural change in the scale of human, social and political activities which used to be organized at local or national scale are now organized at transnational or global scale Central to this structural change are contemporary informative technologies & infrastructures of communication & transportations
  18. 18.  Although geography & distance still matter, it is nevertheless the case that globalization is synonymous with a process of time – space compressions –literally a shrinking world – in which the source of even very local developments, from unemployment to ethnic conflict, may be traced to distant conditions or decisions Globalization is a process of de- territorialization of social, political & economic activities no longer organized
  19. 19.  In summary : globalizations is a process which involves much more than simply growing connections or interdependence between states It is rather a historical process involving a fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial scale of human social organizations that links distant communities & expands the reach of power relations across regions & continents
  20. 20.  Globalizations is evident in the growing extensity, intensity, velocity, & deepening impact of worldwide interconnectedness Globalizations denotes a shift in a scale of social organizations, the emergence of the world as a shared social space, the relative detteritorialization of social, economic & political activity, & the relative detteritorialization of power
  21. 21.  Globalizations can be conceptualized as fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities & expands the reach of power relations across regions & contents Globalizations is to be distinguished from internationalization & regionalization
  22. 22. Contemporary Globalization
  23. 23.  ‘The era of globalizations is over’ (Naim 2002) States have reasserted their power & borders have been sealed, however imperfectly, in response to the perceived worldwide terrorist threat Skeptics conclude that not only has globalization been highly exaggerated but it is a myth which has concealed the reality of a world which is less interdependent One of the problems of the sceptical arguments is that it tends to conflate globalizations solely with economic trends
  24. 24. The Skeptical View of Globalizations
  25. 25.  Skeptical accounts of globalizations tend to dismiss its significance for the study of world politics on the ground that:  By comparison with the period 1870 to 1914, the world is much less globalized economically, politically & culturally  Rather than globalization, the contemporary world is marked by intensifying geopolitics, the regionalization, & internationalizations  The vast bulk of international economic & political activity is concentrated within the group of OECD states
  26. 26.  By comparisons with the heyday of European global empires, the majority of the world’s populations & countries in the south are now much less integrated into the global system
  27. 27. Patterns of Contemporary Globalization
  28. 28. Globalization, to varying degree, is evident in all the principal sectors of social activity ; Economic: in the economic sphere, patters of worldwide trade, finance, & productions are creating global markets &, in the process, a single global capitalist economy- what Castells (2000) calls ‘global informational capitalism; multinational corporation organize productions & marketing on a global basis while the operation of global financial markets determines which countries get credit & upon what terms Military: in the military domain the global arms trade; the proliferations of weapons of mass destructions, the growth of transnational terrorism, the growing significances of traditional military corporations & the discourse of global insecurity point to the existence of a global military order
  29. 29.  Legal: The expansions of transnational & international law from trade to human rights alongside the creations of new world legal institutions such as International Criminal Courte is indicative of an emerging global legal order Ecological: a shared ecology involves shared environmental problems, from global warning to species protections, alongside the creations of multilateral responses & regimes of global environmental governance
  30. 30.  Culture: involves a complex mix of homogenization & increased heterogeneity given the global diffusions of popular culture, global media corporations, communications networks, etc., ethnicity & difference But few culture are heretically sealed off from cultural interaction Social: shifting patterns of migrations from South to North & East to West have turned migration into a major global issue as movements come close to the record levels of great nineteen- century movements of people
  31. 31. The Engines of Globalization
  32. 32. Globalizations focus on three interrelated factors Techniques: Central to any account of globalization since it is a truism that without modern communications infrastructure, in particular, a global system or worldwide economy would not be possible Economics: Crucial specially Economic Logic Capitalists insatiable requirement for new markets & profits lead inevitably to the globalization of economic activity
  33. 33.  Politics: - Shorthand here for ideas, interests, & power- constitutes the third logic of globalizations If technology provides the physical infrastructure of globalization, politics provides its normative infrastructure Government, such as those of the USA & the UK, have been critical actors in nurturing the process of globalization
  34. 34. Three Waves of Globalization
  35. 35.  In the first wave, the age of discovery (1450- 1850), globalization was decisively shaped by European expansions & conquest The second wave (1850- 1945), evidenced a major expansions in the spread & entrenchment of European empire Third wave; by compressions, contemporary globalizations (1960 on) marks a new epoch in human affairs Just as the industrial revolutions & the expansion of the West in nineteen century defined a new age in world history -So today the microchip & the satellite are icons of a globalize world order
  36. 36. Summary The contemporary phase of globalizations has proved more robust in the aftermath of 9/11 than the skeptics recognize Contemporary globalization is a multidimensional, uneven, & asymmetrical Contemporary globalization is best described as a thick form of globalizations or globalism
  37. 37. A World Transformed: Globalization & Distorted Global Politics
  38. 38. The Westphalian Constitution of world politics
  39. 39.  Territoriality: humankind is organized principally into exclusive territorial (political) communities with fixed borders Sovereignty: within its borders the state or government has an entitlement to supreme, unqualified & exclusive political & legal authority Autonomy : the principle of self- determination or self – governance constructs countries as autonomous containers of political, social & economic activity in that fixed borders separate the domestic sphere from the world outside
  40. 40. From State Centric to Geocentric (Geopolitics to Global politics)
  41. 41. The Post- Westphalian Order Territoriality: Borders & territory still remain important, not least for administrative purposes Under conditions of globalizations, however, a new geography of political organizations & political power is emerging which transcends terrorists & borders State sovereignty: The sovereign power & authority of national government – the entitlement of states to rule within their own terrorist space- is being transformed but not necessarily eroded Sovereignty today is increasingly understood as the shared exercise of public power & authority between national, & global authorities
  42. 42.  State autonomy: in more interdependent world, simply to achieve domestic objectives national governments are forced to engage in extensive multilateral collaboration & co – operation But in becoming more embedded in system of global & regional governance states confront a real dilemma: in return for more effective public policy & meeting their citizens’ demands, whither in relations to the drugs trade or employment, their capacity for self – governance – that is state autonomy – comprised
  43. 43. Summary Globalizations is transforming but not burying the Westphalian ideal of sovereign statehood. It is producing the disaggregated state Globalization requires a conceptual shift in our thinking about world politics from a primarily geopolitical perspective to the perspective of geocentric or global politics of worldwide social relations Global politics is more accurately described as distorted global politics, because it is afflicted by significant power asymmetries
  44. 44. From Distorted Global Politics to Cosmopolitan Global Politics
  45. 45.  Globalization creates a double democratic deficit in that it places limits on democracy within states & new mechanisms of global governance which lack democratic credentials Global politics has engendered its own global political theory which draws upon cosmopolitan thinking
  46. 46.  Cosmopolitanism offers as account of desirability & feasibility of the democratization of global politics Distorted global politics can be interpreted as expressing a contest between the forces of stateism & cosmopolitanism in the conduct & management of world affairs