JUL – DIS 201123126Z: PERSONAL SKILLSDEVELOPMENTPart 1:TRANSFERABLE SKILLSPrepared by:Pn. Noor Zilawati SabtuJabatan Sains KuantitatifKPM Beranang
TRANSFERABLE SKILLSGeneric (or general) transferable skills are those skills, abilities and personalattributes which you can use in a wide range of activities, both in and out ofemployment, and that are not specific to the subject you studied.There exist many transferable skills, but most can be summarized under four mainheadings:•communication and presentation skills (oral, written and graphic);•teamwork or interpersonal skills (e.g. negotiating, listening, sharing,empathizing);•management or organizing and planning skills (including self managementskills such as integrity, honesty and ethical behavior); and•intellectual and creative skills (such as problem solving and thinking beyond thesquare).Skills that you have developed in a specific subject area at university (e.g.sociology, psychology, archaeology) may be transferred from that context intoanother (e.g. another topic or a community role or a employment-related task).
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS – AN EXAMPLELets discuss that more fully though the example of writing.The ability to communicate effectively in writing is an example of atransferable skill area that you may have develop through different kinds ofexercise at university. These could include those assignments that requireyou to write essays, fieldwork reports, laboratory reports, or text for posters.Whilst you may develop your ability to communicate in writing in a particularcontext (for example, within your particular disciplinary area or within thecontext of university assignments) your various abilities can be transferredacross (used in) several contexts. You will probably find that you need to,or will, develop these skills to progressively higher levels in your work andcommunity life to produce, for example, policy papers, annual reports,published articles, or books and to present your ideas at conferences,board meetings or public forums.
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS – THE IMPORTANCEWhy are they important?1.Transferable skills empower you to use and effectively apply the specificknowledge you develop through higher education. For example, expertisewith MS-Excel or SPSS enables you to use and present discipline-specific data effectively.2.Transferable skills enable you to perform different work or professionalroles from those for which you have been educated. For example, well-developed transferable skills might allow the social work professional tomove from social work practice into hospital policy.3.Transferable skills are mutually supportive. For example, interpersonalskills (such as how well you listen) are often closely connected to yourability to communicate effectively (such as how much impact your written orspoken word has on others).
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS – THE IMPORTANCEWhat do employers say about transferable skills?Employers often differ as to the skills they expect of graduates as well asthe way they prioritise those skills. Many major employers also have theirown competency-based system for recruitment, in-house training andpromotion decisions. For example, in its recruitment and promotiondecisions, one large, well-known firm operating in Australia focuses on sixPersonal Qualities, in particular:1. personal impact.This means having presence and credibility, making a strong impact, beinggood with words, and having polished communication skills and influence.2. relating to people.Are you an effective relationship builder and networker, who canempathise, consult, listen, respect, give consideration, use tact anddiplomacy, who can promote consensus and is concerned about team
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS – THE IMPORTANCECONTINUE…3. self motivation.The self-motivated person is someone who readily tackles demandingtasks, willingly offers to get involved, and seeks out new/extraresponsibilities.4. quality orientation.Are you someone who takes pride in the quality of your work and are seenby others to have integrity and business ethics?5.adaptability.This refers to the ability to respond appropriately to continually changingcircumstances. It suggests a person who welcomes suggestions for doingthings differently and is regarded by others as being open to change.6. Resilience. This means being able to cope with stress, work underpressure, show stamina and tenacity whilst remaining stays cool headed.
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS – THE IMPORTANCECONTINUE…What transferable skills do you have?You may be one of those fortunate people who has a well-developed senseof your own abilities and the ability to make those known to other people.However, because transferable skills are often developed implicitly withinuniversity topics, some students and graduates do not realize the extent towhich they have developed skills through study and other aspects ofuniversity life (e.g. part-time work, extracurricular activities). Very often, thisproblem becomes most evident when graduates respond to requests forinformation from prospective employers at the end of their studies.
DEVELOPING SKILLSCONTINUE…What transferable skills do you have?You may be one of those fortunate people who has a well-developed senseof your own abilities and the ability to make those known to other people.However, because transferable skills are often developed implicitly withinuniversity topics, some students and graduates do not realize the extent towhich they have developed skills through study and other aspects ofuniversity life (e.g. part-time work, extracurricular activities). Very often, thisproblem becomes most evident when graduates respond to requests forinformation from prospective employers at the end of their studies.
DEVELOPING SKILLSTransferable skills menu‘There are a number of activities which you may undertake, both at KPMBeranang and outside - for example, in the workplace, as a communityvolunteer, in a social or sports club and within the family - from which youcan draw to create your own transferable skills portfolio. The experiencesyou encounter on- and off-campus will enable you to develop these skillsboth at a basic and advanced level. It is important to remember thatdevelopment of your portfolio of skills is a lifelong process. You will notencounter the experiences you require to develop all skills in each topic orextracurricular activity you undertake. Your skill development will occurover time, through the many activities you undertake, and in developmentalstages, from the attainment of a basic level of competence in particularskills to more advanced achievement. The following menu of transferableskills elaborates those skills KPM Beranang expects of its graduates.
DEVELOPING SKILLSContinue…The menu outlines what those skills mean and suggests some activities(sources of opportunity) in which you might develop them. You will be ableto draw on these sources of opportunity to demonstrate (provide evidenceof) your own achievements in your skills portfolio. It is important to note thatthe menu is neither comprehensive nor prescriptive. It is meant instead tobe a guide to help you reflect on the level of competence you haveachieved in each of the four main skill areas.1.Communication and presentation skills2.Teamwork or interpersonal skills3.Managing or organising/planning skills (including self-management)4.Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills
DEVELOPING SKILLS1. Communication and presentation skillsHaving communication and presentation skills means being able to express ideasand information either in written form (e.g. on paper, on computer, usinggraphics) or orally. Communication skills are often closely connected tointerpersonal skills (e.g. your sensitivity to others, enthusiasm, how well youlisten).
DEVELOPING SKILLS1. Communication and presentation skillsHaving communication and presentation skills means being able to:•Speak in an interesting way, with confidence, formally and informally, on aone-to-one basis and/or in a group setting.•Present ideas effectively in a formal situation using appropriate technologicalaids to understanding (e.g. overhead projectors, slides, video, or audiocassettes, computer applications).•Articulate relevant ideas and opinions in discussion.•Use and define terms adequately/correctly.•Communicate appropriately with professional colleagues and with the public,displaying sensitivity to the needs of the audience being addressed.•Give and receive constructive feedback.•Utilise a foreign (non English) language.
DEVELOPING SKILLS1. Communication and presentation skills – Continue…Sources of opportunity to develop your communication and presentation skillsinclude:•Contributing to small group (tutorial and seminar) discussions.•Giving a tutorial, seminar or conference presentation.•Involvement in public speaking groups, debating clubs, political associations;chairing meetings; participating in role playing exercises.•Contributing to public forum discussions.•Participating in exercises where you are required to provide feedback to otherstudents work-in-progress presentations, or to their tutorial presentations.Some people may have developed their feedback skills to an advanced levelthrough their work experiences (e.g. in assessing the reports, theses, orfieldwork of others).•Undertaking formal foreign language tuition.•Developing your foreign language skills experientially (e.g. through using a[non-English] language at home/with friends).•DIY foreign language tuition (e.g. self teaching through tapes/CD ROMs).
DEVELOPING SKILLS1. Communication and presentation skills – Continue…Writing/report writing skillsHaving writing/report writing skills means being able to:• Write/report findings in a grammatically correct, well reasoned, succinct andstructured manner.• Cite information sources correctly.• Use appropriate terminology.• Use relevant graphics (e.g. graphs, charts, pictures, maps) as part of an argumentor in a report.• Use relevant numerical and statistical information as part of an argument or in areport.Sources of opportunity to develop your writing and report writing skills include:• Producing essays, project reports, thesis/dissertations, poster presentations atconferences.• Subject-specific appropriate terminology will be developed over time as you developyour subject knowledge competence.• Writing, including report-writing skills, may also be developed in the workplace.• Use of numerical and statistical information will be developed by preparing andusing flow charts, maps, graphs, tables, grids, formulae etc. and by calculating
DEVELOPING SKILLS1. Communication and presentation skills – Continue…Word processing and other computer skillsHaving word processing and other computer skills means being able to:• Use word processing packages and other applications to present visual andwritten information.• Employ other Information Technology (IT) skills appropriate to your workcontext such as databases, spreadsheets, GIS, and WWW design.• Use e-mail, the internet, electronic library catalogues, and other informationretrieval systems.
DEVELOPING SKILLS1. Communication and presentation skills – Continue…Sources of opportunity to develop your word processing and other computer skillsinclude:• Using software such as Word, Word Perfect, and PowerPoint for simple letterwriting or to present essays, tutorials, theses, and to support oral presentations.• Integrating IT tools into your research/work by making use of (or creating)databases and spreadsheets (e.g. using SPSS for statistical analysis ofresearch data);• Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).• Using e-mail for communicating with friends or tutors, to request information orsend documents, or to establish mailing lists.• Using the internet to retrieve information (e.g. using WWW to get details ofuniversity topic materials and other Flinders-related information or byundertaking simple or complex WWW searches for research.• Using the librarys on-line catalogue (Investigator) or other Universityscatalogues (e.g. Universities of Adelaide, South Australia) or other electronicresources (e.g. data bases such as Ovid, FirstSearch or Lexis Nexis) forresearch purposes.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal SkillsThis set of skills enables people to manage their relationships with otherpeople. They are the skills used to deal with others and include, forexample, negotiating, reasoning, explaining, listening, directing, acceptingdirection, sharing and being open, handling and resolving conflict, beingassertive, empathising, networking, and getting on with all sorts of people.Someone with teamwork skills will have the ability to work in a teamenvironment, including those environments where the team is made up of avariety of people and disciplines.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills – Continue…Capacity for cooperation and teamworkHaving the capacity for cooperation and teamwork means being able to:• Listen effectively to, and cooperate and work with, others; and toincorporate a give and take attitude to achieve group results.• Present, discuss, and defend views as well as negotiate solutions whenopinions differ within a group setting.• Share ideas and responsibility.• Understand your own and others role in a group.• Recognise and utilise skills and knowledge of team members.• Recognise your own strengths and limitations as well as those ofothers.• Take initiative in a group where appropriate.• Accept direction.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills – Continue….Capacity for cooperation and teamworkSources of opportunity to develop your cooperative and teamwork skillsinclude:• Participating in small groups (tutorials, workshops) and in group workand group projects (at University, in the workplace or the community).• Being involved in activities where consensus is sought (makingdecisions with others) or where members values require clarification(where members have/may have different value assumptions).• Undertaking the facilitating role in tutorials/meetings in which youparticipate.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills – Continue….Management and supervisory skillsHaving management and supervisory skills means:• Being able to lead or represent a group where appropriate. Thisrequires being able to think strategically (to achieve an overall goal),listen, give direction (e.g. establish an agenda [prioritised]), makeunpopular decisions, operate under stress, supervise, motivate andencourage others, delegate, promote productive cooperation, andrepresent the views of others.• Having the capacity to manage people and resolve conflicts.• Being able to manage group resources.• Being able to develop networks and make contact with new people.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills – Continue….Management and supervisory skillsSources of opportunity to develop your management and supervisory skillsinclude:• Being a project leader or research team leader.• Undertaking a leadership position of a social, sporting or communitygroup.• Being employed in an supervisory position at work.• Being a student representative on University committees (e.g.ConCom).• Involvement in group projects or negotiation exercises.• Management of family finances, of social/sporting/community group orbusiness finances (e.g. as Treasurer).• Networking/making new contacts at conferences, meetings.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills – Continue….Capacity to appreciate different viewpoints and cultural perspectivesHaving the capacity to appreciate different viewpoints and culturalperspectives means being able to:• Understand group dynamics within and between groups, institutions, orcompanies.• Empathise with, and appreciate, differences arising from language,culture, social history, opportunity or place.• Work successfully in multi-disciplinary and cross cultural settings.
DEVELOPING SKILLS2. Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills – Continue….Capacity to appreciate different viewpoints and cultural perspectivesSources of opportunity to develop your capacity to appreciate differentviewpoints and cultural perspectives include:• Working in groups• Studying topics with a global perspective, which provide someunderstanding of how the world works economically, culturally, andecologically.• Participating in multi-disciplinary teams or in tutorials associated withcross-disciplinary topics.• Being involved in exercises/situations which involve exchangesbetween people from different cultures, language groups, regions, andsocial backgrounds.• Travelling.
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management)People with management and planning skills have the ability to organisetheir work, work out priorities sensibly, make realistic plans, andmanage time and resources effectively. They are able to work on highpriority tasks first and to delegate roles to other people. People withpersonal management skills have self-discipline, are able to motivatethemselves, work with minimum supervision, be punctual andprofessional, and will be characterised by integrity, honesty and ethicalbehaviour. Self-management skills also include the ability to cope wellwith change (e.g. being able to learn new skills and procedures, beingprepared to challenge basic assumptions, being adaptable).
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management) – Continue….Capacity to work with minimum supervisionHaving the capacity to work with minimum supervision means:• Being self-reliant yet also knowing when to ask for help• Being an independent thinker• Being able to manage or organise yourself• Having the self confidence to know what you are doing is appropriate and ofhigh standard• Behaving ethically despite the absence of any other members of your moralcommunity• Accepting responsibility for your own work and acts• Carrying the moral community into your self-management (good citizenship)• Taking initiative for your own learning• Doing what you say you will do despite the obstacles (integrity andperseverance)
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management) – Continue…Capacity to work with minimum supervisionSources of opportunity to develop your capacity to work with minimum supervisioninclude:• Undertaking thesis/dissertation/individual project research.• Active participation in the opportunities for learning offered through topics youundertake.• Maintaining a reflective journal.
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management) – Continue…Time managementBeing able to time manage means being able to:• Spread your workload/balance your workload between university commitments/family/employment.• Work to deadlines.• Set realistic time frameworks for achievement of goals.• Deal efficiently and quickly with tasks.Sources of opportunity to develop your time management skills include:• Completing assignments by their due date.• Revising for examinations.• Completing recommended reading for each topic.
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management) – Continue…Management/supervisory skillsHaving management/supervisory skills means being able to:• Set and recognise priorities, sort out what is important and what is urgent(ranking of priorities).• Ration scarce financial and other resources amongst competing claims.• Establish course(s) of action to meet specific goals - to plan realistically, designstrategies, implement plans/strategies, have contingency plans, monitor,evaluate (show a clear and attainable framework for achievement).Sources of opportunity to develop your management/supervisory skills include:• Planning and organising activities involving more than one person (e.g.conferences, group projects).• Strategic planning activities (through workplace/community groups).• Designing, planning and completing essays or a thesis.
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management) – Continue…Adaptability/capacity to cope with changeBeing adaptable/having the capacity to cope with change means being able to:• Deal with the unexpected, cope with change and be prepared to act in newways.• Learn new skills and procedures.• Transfer skills learned in one context to another.• Deal appropriately with ambiguity.• Think laterally, which may involve finding new ways to approach problems.• Be prepared to challenge/ question basic assumptions about the ways thingsare done/ have been done.• Treat new situations as opportunities rather than impediments.• Assess and reflect on ones own actions and learn from the mistakes of others(i.e. have a lifelong approach to learning).Accept and provide constructive feedback.
DEVELOPING SKILLS3. Managing or organising/planning skills (includingself-management) – Continue…Adaptability/capacity to cope with changeSources of opportunity to develop your adaptability and change management skillsinclude:• Undertaking study/activities to enable changes in career direction.• Taking advantage of any available opportunities to learn new skills orprocedures (including in-house training in your place of employment).• Taking advantage of learning opportunities in work placements.• Modifying oral or written presentations on basis of assessor comments.• Coping with unusual or new approaches to teaching and learning (e.g. WebCT).• Dealing appropriately with different kinds of advice about strategies for essaywriting, poster-presentation or citing sources• Coping with group-work situations from which some participants withdraw.
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskillsPeople also need broad intellectual and creative skills that can be appliedto ideas, to practical problems, to research, designing strategies or tomaking policy. These skills include being able to observe and record; tosummarise, assess and evaluate evidence; apply your judgement anddiscrimination; think laterally, to be pro-active and to have the capacity forvision (to "think beyond the square").
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills – Continue…Analytical/problem solving skillsHaving analytical/problem solving skills means being able to:•Think logically and critically (critical reasoning) and to apply this to a range ofproblems.•Identify/define researchable questions in the discipline or professional area. Thismight involve identifying issues, formulate questions or hypotheses, identify thecomplexity of issue(s) using your subject knowledge.Sources of opportunity to develop your analytical, problem solving skills include:•Writing essays, answering assigned questions.•Undertaking analytical laboratory work.•Active participation in workshops oriented to problem posing, solving, andreporting.•Contributing to group research tasks, brain-storming or cause and effectdiagramming activities and the like.
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills – Continue…Capacity to make decisionsHaving the capacity to make decisions means being able to:•Weigh up the relative merits of, and come to conclusions based on, contradictory orincomplete information.•Use existing knowledge in new/different situations and be able to evaluate what isrelevant to that new context.•Know who, when and what to consult.•Recognise the implications of various options to an overall plan/strategy.Sources of opportunity to develop your decision making skills include:•Voting at meetings.•Being involved in University committees (e.g. ConCom).•Choosing which topics suit your chosen career trajectory.•Making judgements about moral/humanitarian issues in an essay, poster, talk orthesis.
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills – Continue…Ability to think creativelyHaving an ability to think creatively means being able to:•Provide novel solutions; to be imaginative and have insight.•Maximise the range of opportunities available to you.•Take new approaches - look for new angles, evidence.•Use a variety of sources and resources in the research process.•Think independently.•Show entrepreneurial flair.Sources of opportunity to develop your creative thinking ability include:•Considering thoughtfully those new ideas/concepts/theories in your subject area towhich you are introduced.•Being involved in brain storming activities or focus group discussions.•Undertaking independent research.•Completing assignments to a high standard.•Securing your own work placement.
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills – Continue…Adequacy of knowledge in appropriate fieldsHaving adequate (specialised) knowledge and skills in the appropriate fieldmeans:•Being able to acquire and operate effectively with and upon a body ofknowledge to the extent of being ready to begin further study oremployment.•Understanding a whole disciplinary or professional area (its content andrange, paradigms, conceptual basis, limitations and boundaries,relationship to other frameworks)•Possessing an understanding of current research areas in the discipline orprofessional area.
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills – Continue…Adequacy of knowledge in appropriate fieldsSources of opportunity to develop your specialised subject knowledge andskills include:•Regular attendance at, and attendance to the subject matter of, scheduledlectures/tutorials.•Active participation where appropriate in planned activities (e.g. field trips).•Completion of assignments.•Active reading of the literature in your subject area.•Maintenance of a reflective journal (cumulative record of learning process,student reactions and responses).•Membership of professional organisations.
DEVELOPING SKILLS4. Intellectual (analytical, design or problem solving) and creativeskills – Continue…Ability to apply knowledge to the workplaceHaving an ability to apply knowledge to the workplace means being:•Workplace savvy (knowing and politics and culture of your organisation, as well asthe devices, techniques, codes and practices used in that workplace).•Able to apply theory/concepts to practical situations and provide workable solutionsor advice.Sources of opportunity to develop your ability to apply knowledge to the workplaceinclude:•Gaining workplace experience (part-time work/ placements as part fulfilment of yourcourse requirements).•Developing recommendations arising from research project or thesis research.•Undertaking fieldwork.•Undertaking case studies and simulation exercises.