GROUP DYNAMICSPERSONAL SKILLSDEVELOPMENT -23126Z
GROUP DYNAMICS is the study of groups, and also a general termfor group processes a group is two or more individuals who areconnected to each other by social relationships. understanding of the behavior of people ingroups, such as task groups, that are trying tosolve a problem or make a decision.
KEY THEORISTS Gustave Le Bon Sigmund Freud Jacob L. Moreno Kurt Lewin William Schutz Bruce Tuckman
TUCKMANS MODEL :5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT1) Forming :characterized by some confusion anduncertainty .2) Storming :likely to see the highest level ofdisagreement and conflict3) Norming : recognition of individual differencesand shared expectations4) Performing: group has matured and attains afeeling of cohesiveness5) Adjourning: the dissolution of a group
STAGE 1: FORMING The major goals of the groups have not beenestablished Task or leadership has not been determined An orientation period when members get toknow one another and shared expectations Trust and openness has not been developed
STAGE 2: STORMING Members challenge group goals Vie for leadership position Voice concern and criticism If conflict cannot be resolved, the group willdisband or continue existence ineffectively.
STAGE 3: NORMING Recognition of individual differences andshared expectations Develop a feeling of group cohesion andidentity More cooperative among members of thegroup Responsibilities are divided among members
STAGE 4: PERFORMING Everyone knows each other well enough tobe able to work together Trusts each other enough to allowindependent activity. Conflict is resolved through group discussion Make decisions through a rational processnot emotionally.
STAGE 5: ADJOURNING Completion/accomplishment of a task Disengagement- individuals deciding to gotheir own ways Often experience feelings of closure andsadness
GROUP TYPESFormalEstablished by an organization toachieve its goals.InformalFormed naturally in response tothe common interests and sharedvalues of individuals
Formal Groups1) Command Groups : specified by organizational chart2) Task Groups : consists of people working together to achieve acommon task3) Functional Groups : created by organization to accomplish specificgoals within an unspecified time frame
Informal Groups1. Interest Group: Continue over time and maylast longer. Members may not be part ofthe same department but arebound together by commoninterestEg study group for a specificclass
INFORMAL GROUPS –1. Interest group: Continue over time and may last longer. Members may not be part of the samedepartment but are bound together bycommon interest Eg study group for a specific class
Informal Groups2. Friendship Groups: Formed by members who enjoy similar socialactivities, political beliefs, religious value Enjoy each other’s company Eg. Exercise group, softball team, potluck lunchonce a month
Informal Groups3. Reference Groups: People use to evaluate themselves Social validation: allows individuals to justify theirattitudes and values social comparison: evaluate own actions bycomparing to others Strong influence on members’ behaviour Family, friends and religious affiliation are strongreference groups for most individuals.
GROUP STRUCTURE A pattern of relationship among membersthat holds the group together to achieve itsassigned goals. Can be described as Group size Group roles Group norms Group cohesiveness
Group Size Vary from 2 people to a very large number Small groups of 2 – 10 people are moreeffective because of ample opportunity toparticipate Increasing the size of the groups results indecreased satisfaction because it is difficultto experience cohesion.
GROUP ROLES Work roles: task oriented activities thatinvolve accomplishing the group’s goals Maintenance roles: social-emotional activitiessuch as harmonizer who will reduce tensionin the group. Blocking roles: activities that disrupt thegroup such as aggressor criticizes members’value and make jokes in a sarcastic manner.
Group Norms Norms define the boundaries of acceptableand unacceptable behaviour. Reflect the level of commitment, motivation,and performance of the group.