Group dynamics


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Group dynamics

  2. 2. GROUP DYNAMICS is the study of groups, and also a general termfor group processes a group is two or more individuals who areconnected to each other by social relationships. understanding of the behavior of people ingroups, such as task groups, that are trying tosolve a problem or make a decision.
  3. 3. KEY THEORISTS Gustave Le Bon Sigmund Freud Jacob L. Moreno Kurt Lewin William Schutz Bruce Tuckman
  4. 4. TUCKMANS MODEL :5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT1) Forming :characterized by some confusion anduncertainty .2) Storming :likely to see the highest level ofdisagreement and conflict3) Norming : recognition of individual differencesand shared expectations4) Performing: group has matured and attains afeeling of cohesiveness5) Adjourning: the dissolution of a group
  5. 5. STAGE 1: FORMING The major goals of the groups have not beenestablished Task or leadership has not been determined An orientation period when members get toknow one another and shared expectations Trust and openness has not been developed
  6. 6. STAGE 2: STORMING Members challenge group goals Vie for leadership position Voice concern and criticism If conflict cannot be resolved, the group willdisband or continue existence ineffectively.
  7. 7. STAGE 3: NORMING Recognition of individual differences andshared expectations Develop a feeling of group cohesion andidentity More cooperative among members of thegroup Responsibilities are divided among members
  8. 8. STAGE 4: PERFORMING Everyone knows each other well enough tobe able to work together Trusts each other enough to allowindependent activity. Conflict is resolved through group discussion Make decisions through a rational processnot emotionally.
  9. 9. STAGE 5: ADJOURNING Completion/accomplishment of a task Disengagement- individuals deciding to gotheir own ways Often experience feelings of closure andsadness
  10. 10. GROUP TYPESFormalEstablished by an organization toachieve its goals.InformalFormed naturally in response tothe common interests and sharedvalues of individuals
  11. 11. Formal Groups1) Command Groups : specified by organizational chart2) Task Groups : consists of people working together to achieve acommon task3) Functional Groups : created by organization to accomplish specificgoals within an unspecified time frame
  12. 12. Informal Groups1. Interest Group: Continue over time and maylast longer. Members may not be part ofthe same department but arebound together by commoninterestEg study group for a specificclass
  13. 13. INFORMAL GROUPS –1. Interest group: Continue over time and may last longer. Members may not be part of the samedepartment but are bound together bycommon interest Eg study group for a specific class
  14. 14. Informal Groups2. Friendship Groups: Formed by members who enjoy similar socialactivities, political beliefs, religious value Enjoy each other’s company Eg. Exercise group, softball team, potluck lunchonce a month
  15. 15. Informal Groups3. Reference Groups: People use to evaluate themselves Social validation: allows individuals to justify theirattitudes and values social comparison: evaluate own actions bycomparing to others Strong influence on members’ behaviour Family, friends and religious affiliation are strongreference groups for most individuals.
  16. 16. GROUP STRUCTURE A pattern of relationship among membersthat holds the group together to achieve itsassigned goals. Can be described as Group size Group roles Group norms Group cohesiveness
  17. 17. Group Size Vary from 2 people to a very large number Small groups of 2 – 10 people are moreeffective because of ample opportunity toparticipate Increasing the size of the groups results indecreased satisfaction because it is difficultto experience cohesion.
  18. 18. GROUP ROLES Work roles: task oriented activities thatinvolve accomplishing the group’s goals Maintenance roles: social-emotional activitiessuch as harmonizer who will reduce tensionin the group. Blocking roles: activities that disrupt thegroup such as aggressor criticizes members’value and make jokes in a sarcastic manner.
  19. 19. Group Norms Norms define the boundaries of acceptableand unacceptable behaviour. Reflect the level of commitment, motivation,and performance of the group.