TOPIC 8: JIHAD
REFLECTION OF PROPHETIC HISTORY RKQS1051
Jihad: Meaning, and purpose.
A comparison between Islamic concept of Jihad and non-Islamic concept of war
L: Jihad means exertion and striving. It can be used in cause of Allah or
against. Qur’an said, “We have enjoined on people kindness to parents, but if
they strive (jahadaka) to make you ascribe partners with Me that of which
you have no knowledge, then obey them not” (29:8 & 31:15)
T: Jihad signifies the exertion of one’s power to the utmost of ones’ capacity
in the path of Allah.
In the ‘West’, jihad is generally translated as ‘holy war’, a usage the media
If we translate the word ‘holy war’ back into Arabic, we find ‘al-harbu al-
Unfortunately, some Muslims had also been deception by this propaganda
of the West.
Prophet PBUH said, “The best of jihad is the uttering of the word of truth in
the face of tyrannical ruler”.
Imam Raghib said : A Muslim is required to fight against three foes:
1) Against the visible enemy
2) Against the devil
3) Against himself
WHO ARE THE MUSLIMS’ ENEMIES?
Ibn Qayyim said:
“The jihad against the enemies of Allah with one’s life is only a part of the
struggle, which a true servant of Allah carries on against his own self for
the sake of his Lord. This striving against the devil tendencies, which have
dominated his mind and heart, is more important than fighting against the
enemies in the outside world.”
Ibn Rushd: Muslims may fulfill these three struggle in four ways:
1) By heart
2) By tongue
3) By hands
4) By sword
THE PURPOSES OF JIHAD
1) In conditions where the traditional weapons and bloodshed are not
involved, the purpose of jihad is to strive for goodness in sake of Allah. i.e:
liberating the soul from being a slave to Satan and lust, liberating the mind
by seeking for knowledge, liberating life sustenance by seeking halal rezeki,
2) If the traditional weapons and bloodshed are involved, then the jihad
breaks into two major situations:
a) Muslim country is in defensive position, invaded by the enemy,
either the enemy is a the army disbelievers, or Muslim bughah, then
the purpose of jihad here to preserve the life and dignity of the
people. In this situation, every Muslim soul must take arm to defend
the country. Even women and children are encouraged to join. A
slave can go to war without asking permission from the master, a
son from parent, a person in debt from the lender, etc.
i.e: Battle of Uhud, Battle of Ditch.
b) Muslim country is in offensive position. The purpose of jihad at this time must
I. To defend Muslim country or individual from offensive threat from the
enemy. The country where the Muslims army want to invade must be
possessing a threat to Muslim nations. If their scheme is validated, brave
Muslims nations should choose to defend themselves by attacking the enemy
• Battle of Badr (2H): The Quraish was exercising economic sanction against
Muslims in Madinah.
• Battle of Banu Qainuqa (2H): The Jews insulted a Muslim girl and killed a
• Battle of Banu Nadhir (4H): The Jews tried to assasinate Prophet
• Banu Mustaliq (5H) : Their leader al-Harith bin Abi Dhirar already
made agreement with various Arab tribes in the north to create a
coalition army to attack Madinah.
• Battle of Khaibar (7H): The Jewish of Khaibar already made
agreement with Quraish to join the next coalition army.
• Battle of Tabuk (9H): The Roman already in motion to assemble
army to attack Madinah.
II. To help Muslims’ allies or to teach enemy lesson for not honoring the
treaty with Muslims. i.e:
• Banu Quraizah (5H): They joined Ahzab army in the attack to
Madinah, even when they already have an agreement with Muslims
in opposite of what they did.
• The Conquest of Makkah (8H): Quraish were supporting Banu
Bakar to attack Banu Khuza’ah who were Muslims’ ally. Quraish
already made a treaty with Muslim through Hudaibiyah Treaty of
avoid such act.
What are the differences between Islamic Jihad and non-Islamic war?
1) In the cause of war. Muslims’ intention must be for the sake of Allah. Thus,
Muslims must never excess God’s decree.
i.e: Story of Ali who didn’t kill the enemy that spit on him.
2) Try to avoid the bloodshed, while never allowing Muslims to become the
victims of bully by having mental, physical and weaponry preparations, and
punish heavily any act of treacherous.
i.e: Banishment of Bani Nadhir.
3) Avoid going into wars as much as we can and seeking peace in
every way possible.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Don’t wish to meet the enemy but if
you meet them, be patient” (Muslim).
4) Treat the other party with an equal treatment similar to that with
which they treat us.
َلَع ىَدَتْعا انَمَف ٌاص َصاق ُاتَمُرُحْلاَو اماَرَحْلا ارْهَّلش اِب ُماَرَحْلا ُْرهَّالشاَم اْلثاماب اهْيَلَع اوُدَتْعاَف ْ ُُكْيْ ُُكْيَلَع ىَدَتْعاَّنَأ اوُمَلْعاَو ََّاَّلل اوُقَّتاَو
َياقَّتُمْلا َعَم ََّاَّلل
God says in the Quran “The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the
prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisâs). Then whoever
transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him.
And fear Allâh, and know that Allâh is with Al-Muttaqûn.” (al-Baqarah: 195)
5) Prevent plundering the properties of innocents.
It was narrated that the Prophet was once travelling with his
companions and they suffered from extreme exhaustion and hardship so
they found a herd of goats so they took it and their pots were boiling
when the Prophet came leaning against his bow and extinguished the fire
of the pots with his bow and threw dust on meat saying “Plundering is
not less prohibited than eating the meat of dead animals” (Abu Dawud).
6) If enemy leans for treaty, hasten in accepting the invitations
َّنِإ ِ َّاَّلل ىَلَع ْلَّك َوَت َو اَهَل َْحنْاجَف ِمْلَّسلِل واُحَنَج ْنِإ َوُمعِلََْال ُُعَِِّسال َوُُ ُه
“But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in
Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.”(al-‘Anᶜa>m: 61)
7) Refrain from committing treachery and betrayal.
ِك ْوَت َدََْب َانَِْعَ ْاْل واُضُقْنَت ََل َو ْمُتْدَُاَع اَذِإ ِ َّاَّلل ِدْهََِب واُف ْوَأ َوْعَلَع َ َّاَّلل ُمُتْلَََج ْدََ َو َاُِدعا َّنِإ اعًلِفَك ْمُكَونُلََْفَت اَِ ُمَلََْع َ ََّّلل
“And fulfill the Covenant of Allah (Bai’a: pledge for Islam) when you have
covenanted, and break not the oaths after you have confirmed them, and indeed you
have appointed Allah your surety. Verily! Allah knows what you do.(16:91)
8) Punish the defeated army in war if there is some signs they may do it
to prevent betrayal of others.
َ َّاَّلل َّنِإ ٍاء َوَس ىَلَع ْمِهْعَلِإ ْذِبْناَف اةَناَع ِخ ٍم ْوََ ْنِِ َّنَفَاخَت اَِِّإ َوَعنِنَِِاخْال لا ِحُع ََل
“So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to
disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson.” (al-‘Anfa>l:
Prophet PBUH punished the each tribe of Jews in Madinah according to their crimes.
9) Protecting the right of civilians and those which Muslims vowed
ًَلَك ََُِْسَع ىَّتَح ُه ْر ِجَأَف َك َارَجَتْسا َعنِك ِرْشُِْال َنِِ ٌدَحَأ ْنِإ َوَأِب َكِلَذ ُهَنَِْأَِ ُهْهِلْبَأ َّمُم ِ َّاَّلل َمُهَّنَونَُِلََْع ََل ٌم ْوََ ْم
“And if anyone of the Mushrikun seeks your protection then grant him
protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur’an), and then escort
him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not.”(al-
10) Don’t destroy the civilizations, properties and infrastructure, or
torture the people, physically or mentally (by burning corpse, etc.)
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) advised war leaders saying, “Don’t
exaggerate, or betray or mutilate” and in another hadith the Prophet said,
“Don’t torture people”.
11) Mercy in treating war captives and forbidding any assaults on
ااعرِسَأ َو ااِعِتَع َو اانعِكْسِِ ِهِبُح ىَلَع َامَََّالط َونَُِِْطُع َو(8)ِرُن ََل ِ َّاَّلل ِهْج َوِل ْمُكَُِِْطُن اََِّنِإااورُكُش ََل َو اءا َزَج ْمُكْنِِ ُدع(9)
“And they give food, inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him),
to Miskin (poor), the orphan, and the captive, (Saying): “We feed you seeking
Allah’s Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.” (al-
It was reported through Abu ‘Aziz ibn ‘Umayr, the brother of Mus’ab ibn
‘Umayr, that he said, “I was among the war captives in the day of the battle of
Badr so the Prophet said, “Be good to the captives” and then Abu ‘Aziz
continue narrating that he was held captive and remained with a group of the
Ansar and whenever the time of lunch or dinner comes, they would serve him
dates while they ate wheat in compliance with the Prophet’s advise of treating
the captives with goodness.