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TOPIC 8: JIHAD
REFLECTION OF PROPHETIC HISTORY RKQS1051
Jihad: Meaning, and purpose.
A comparison between Islamic concept ...
Definition:
L: Jihad means exertion and striving. It can be used in cause of Allah or
against. Qur’an said, “We have enjoi...
Misconception:
In the ‘West’, jihad is generally translated as ‘holy war’, a usage the media
has popularized.
If we transl...
Imam Raghib said : A Muslim is required to fight against three foes:
1) Against the visible enemy
2) Against the devil
3) ...
Ibn Rushd: Muslims may fulfill these three struggle in four ways:
1) By heart
2) By tongue
3) By hands
4) By sword
THE PURPOSES OF JIHAD
1) In conditions where the traditional weapons and bloodshed are not
involved, the purpose of jihad ...
2) If the traditional weapons and bloodshed are involved, then the jihad
breaks into two major situations:
a) Muslim count...
b) Muslim country is in offensive position. The purpose of jihad at this time must
be:
I. To defend Muslim country or indi...
• Battle of Banu Nadhir (4H): The Jews tried to assasinate Prophet
Muhammad SAW.
• Banu Mustaliq (5H) : Their leader al-Ha...
II. To help Muslims’ allies or to teach enemy lesson for not honoring the
treaty with Muslims. i.e:
• Banu Quraizah (5H): ...
What are the differences between Islamic Jihad and non-Islamic war?
1) In the cause of war. Muslims’ intention must be for...
3) Avoid going into wars as much as we can and seeking peace in
every way possible.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ...
5) Prevent plundering the properties of innocents.
It was narrated that the Prophet was once travelling with his
companion...
7) Refrain from committing treachery and betrayal.
ِ‫ك‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫د‬ََْ‫ب‬ َ‫ان‬َِْ‫ع‬َ ْ‫اْل‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ض‬ُ‫ق‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫َل‬...
9) Protecting the right of civilians and those which Muslims vowed
to protect:
َ‫ًل‬َ‫ك‬ ََُِْ‫س‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ت‬َ‫ح‬ ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫...
11) Mercy in treating war captives and forbidding any assaults on
them:
‫ا‬‫ا‬‫عر‬ِ‫س‬َ‫أ‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ِ‫ع‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ع‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ا...
C8 - Jihad
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C8 - Jihad

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RKQS 1051 - REFLECTION ON PROPHETIC HISTORY
KIRKHS, IIUM

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  • What propagandist baloney! You defend yourselves by being offensive towards anyone who breaks a treaty or insults the Prophet? This is what is being suggested here. That defense is actually reactionary offense. And that the murder of innocent tribes for collective ideas is okay.
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C8 - Jihad

  1. 1. TOPIC 8: JIHAD REFLECTION OF PROPHETIC HISTORY RKQS1051 Jihad: Meaning, and purpose. A comparison between Islamic concept of Jihad and non-Islamic concept of war
  2. 2. Definition: L: Jihad means exertion and striving. It can be used in cause of Allah or against. Qur’an said, “We have enjoined on people kindness to parents, but if they strive (jahadaka) to make you ascribe partners with Me that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not” (29:8 & 31:15) T: Jihad signifies the exertion of one’s power to the utmost of ones’ capacity in the path of Allah.
  3. 3. Misconception: In the ‘West’, jihad is generally translated as ‘holy war’, a usage the media has popularized. If we translate the word ‘holy war’ back into Arabic, we find ‘al-harbu al- muqaddasah’. Unfortunately, some Muslims had also been deception by this propaganda of the West. Prophet PBUH said, “The best of jihad is the uttering of the word of truth in the face of tyrannical ruler”.
  4. 4. Imam Raghib said : A Muslim is required to fight against three foes: 1) Against the visible enemy 2) Against the devil 3) Against himself WHO ARE THE MUSLIMS’ ENEMIES? Ibn Qayyim said: “The jihad against the enemies of Allah with one’s life is only a part of the struggle, which a true servant of Allah carries on against his own self for the sake of his Lord. This striving against the devil tendencies, which have dominated his mind and heart, is more important than fighting against the enemies in the outside world.”
  5. 5. Ibn Rushd: Muslims may fulfill these three struggle in four ways: 1) By heart 2) By tongue 3) By hands 4) By sword
  6. 6. THE PURPOSES OF JIHAD 1) In conditions where the traditional weapons and bloodshed are not involved, the purpose of jihad is to strive for goodness in sake of Allah. i.e: liberating the soul from being a slave to Satan and lust, liberating the mind by seeking for knowledge, liberating life sustenance by seeking halal rezeki, etc.
  7. 7. 2) If the traditional weapons and bloodshed are involved, then the jihad breaks into two major situations: a) Muslim country is in defensive position, invaded by the enemy, either the enemy is a the army disbelievers, or Muslim bughah, then the purpose of jihad here to preserve the life and dignity of the people. In this situation, every Muslim soul must take arm to defend the country. Even women and children are encouraged to join. A slave can go to war without asking permission from the master, a son from parent, a person in debt from the lender, etc. i.e: Battle of Uhud, Battle of Ditch.
  8. 8. b) Muslim country is in offensive position. The purpose of jihad at this time must be: I. To defend Muslim country or individual from offensive threat from the enemy. The country where the Muslims army want to invade must be possessing a threat to Muslim nations. If their scheme is validated, brave Muslims nations should choose to defend themselves by attacking the enemy first. i.e: • Battle of Badr (2H): The Quraish was exercising economic sanction against Muslims in Madinah. • Battle of Banu Qainuqa (2H): The Jews insulted a Muslim girl and killed a Muslim man.
  9. 9. • Battle of Banu Nadhir (4H): The Jews tried to assasinate Prophet Muhammad SAW. • Banu Mustaliq (5H) : Their leader al-Harith bin Abi Dhirar already made agreement with various Arab tribes in the north to create a coalition army to attack Madinah. • Battle of Khaibar (7H): The Jewish of Khaibar already made agreement with Quraish to join the next coalition army. • Battle of Tabuk (9H): The Roman already in motion to assemble army to attack Madinah.
  10. 10. II. To help Muslims’ allies or to teach enemy lesson for not honoring the treaty with Muslims. i.e: • Banu Quraizah (5H): They joined Ahzab army in the attack to Madinah, even when they already have an agreement with Muslims in opposite of what they did. • The Conquest of Makkah (8H): Quraish were supporting Banu Bakar to attack Banu Khuza’ah who were Muslims’ ally. Quraish already made a treaty with Muslim through Hudaibiyah Treaty of avoid such act.
  11. 11. What are the differences between Islamic Jihad and non-Islamic war? 1) In the cause of war. Muslims’ intention must be for the sake of Allah. Thus, Muslims must never excess God’s decree. i.e: Story of Ali who didn’t kill the enemy that spit on him. 2) Try to avoid the bloodshed, while never allowing Muslims to become the victims of bully by having mental, physical and weaponry preparations, and punish heavily any act of treacherous. i.e: Banishment of Bani Nadhir.
  12. 12. 3) Avoid going into wars as much as we can and seeking peace in every way possible. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Don’t wish to meet the enemy but if you meet them, be patient” (Muslim). 4) Treat the other party with an equal treatment similar to that with which they treat us. َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬َ‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ف‬ ٌ‫اص‬ َ‫ص‬‫ا‬‫ق‬ ُ‫ات‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ر‬ُ‫ح‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ْ‫ه‬َّ‫لش‬ ‫ا‬‫ِب‬ ُ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫ْر‬‫ه‬َّ‫الش‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ْل‬‫ث‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ُ‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫ف‬ ْ ُ‫ُك‬ْ‫ي‬ْ ُ‫ُك‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬َ‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ع‬‫ا‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ُ‫م‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ ََّ‫اَّلل‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ُ‫ق‬َّ‫ت‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ َ‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ق‬َّ‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ َ‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ََّ‫اَّلل‬ God says in the Quran “The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisâs). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allâh, and know that Allâh is with Al-Muttaqûn.” (al-Baqarah: 195)
  13. 13. 5) Prevent plundering the properties of innocents. It was narrated that the Prophet was once travelling with his companions and they suffered from extreme exhaustion and hardship so they found a herd of goats so they took it and their pots were boiling when the Prophet came leaning against his bow and extinguished the fire of the pots with his bow and threw dust on meat saying “Plundering is not less prohibited than eating the meat of dead animals” (Abu Dawud). 6) If enemy leans for treaty, hasten in accepting the invitations for peace. َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ِ َّ‫اَّلل‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ْ‫ل‬َّ‫ك‬ َ‫و‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ ْ‫َح‬‫ن‬ْ‫اج‬َ‫ف‬ ِ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬َّ‫س‬‫ل‬ِ‫ل‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ن‬َ‫ج‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫م‬‫ع‬ِ‫ل‬ََْ‫ال‬ ُُ‫ع‬َِِّ‫س‬‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ُُ ُ‫ه‬ “But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.”(al-‘Anᶜa>m: 61)
  14. 14. 7) Refrain from committing treachery and betrayal. ِ‫ك‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫د‬ََْ‫ب‬ َ‫ان‬َِْ‫ع‬َ ْ‫اْل‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ض‬ُ‫ق‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫َل‬ َ‫و‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫د‬َُ‫ا‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫إ‬ ِ َّ‫اَّلل‬ ِ‫د‬ْ‫ه‬ََِ‫ب‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ف‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫أ‬ َ‫و‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ َ َّ‫اَّلل‬ ُ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ل‬َََ‫ج‬ ْ‫د‬ََ َ‫و‬ ‫َا‬ُِ‫د‬‫ع‬‫ا‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫عًل‬ِ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬َ‫ون‬ُ‫ل‬ََْ‫ف‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َِ ُ‫م‬َ‫ل‬ََْ‫ع‬ َ َّ‫َّلل‬ “And fulfill the Covenant of Allah (Bai’a: pledge for Islam) when you have covenanted, and break not the oaths after you have confirmed them, and indeed you have appointed Allah your surety. Verily! Allah knows what you do.(16:91) 8) Punish the defeated army in war if there is some signs they may do it to prevent betrayal of others. َ َّ‫اَّلل‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ٍ‫اء‬ َ‫و‬َ‫س‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ْ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ْ‫ذ‬ِ‫ب‬ْ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ع‬ ِ‫خ‬ ٍ‫م‬ ْ‫و‬ََ ْ‫ن‬ِِ َّ‫ن‬َ‫ف‬‫َا‬‫خ‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َِِّ‫إ‬ َ‫و‬َ‫عن‬ِ‫ن‬ِِ‫َا‬‫خ‬ْ‫ال‬ ‫لا‬ ِ‫ح‬ُ‫ع‬ َ‫َل‬ “So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson.” (al-‘Anfa>l: 57) Prophet PBUH punished the each tribe of Jews in Madinah according to their crimes.
  15. 15. 9) Protecting the right of civilians and those which Muslims vowed to protect: َ‫ًل‬َ‫ك‬ ََُِْ‫س‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ت‬َ‫ح‬ ُ‫ه‬ ْ‫ر‬ ِ‫ج‬َ‫أ‬َ‫ف‬ َ‫ك‬ َ‫ار‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫س‬‫ا‬ َ‫عن‬ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ش‬ُِْ‫ال‬ َ‫ن‬ِِ ٌ‫د‬َ‫ح‬َ‫أ‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ َ‫و‬َ‫أ‬ِ‫ب‬ َ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ ُ‫ه‬َ‫ن‬َِْ‫أ‬َِ ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ه‬ِ‫ل‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫أ‬ َّ‫م‬ُ‫م‬ ِ َّ‫اَّلل‬ َ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ون‬َُِ‫ل‬ََْ‫ع‬ َ‫َل‬ ٌ‫م‬ ْ‫و‬ََ ْ‫م‬ “And if anyone of the Mushrikun seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur’an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not.”(al- Taubah: 6) 10) Don’t destroy the civilizations, properties and infrastructure, or torture the people, physically or mentally (by burning corpse, etc.) Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) advised war leaders saying, “Don’t exaggerate, or betray or mutilate” and in another hadith the Prophet said, “Don’t torture people”.
  16. 16. 11) Mercy in treating war captives and forbidding any assaults on them: ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫عر‬ِ‫س‬َ‫أ‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ِ‫ع‬ِ‫ت‬َ‫ع‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ن‬‫ع‬ِ‫ك‬ْ‫س‬ِِ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ َ‫ام‬َََّ‫الط‬ َ‫ون‬َُِِْ‫ط‬ُ‫ع‬ َ‫و‬(8)ِ‫ر‬ُ‫ن‬ َ‫َل‬ ِ َّ‫اَّلل‬ ِ‫ه‬ْ‫ج‬ َ‫و‬ِ‫ل‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬َُِِْ‫ط‬ُ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ََِّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ور‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ش‬ َ‫َل‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ء‬‫ا‬ َ‫ز‬َ‫ج‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬ِِ ُ‫د‬‫ع‬(9) “And they give food, inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to Miskin (poor), the orphan, and the captive, (Saying): “We feed you seeking Allah’s Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.” (al- ‘Insa>n: 8-9) It was reported through Abu ‘Aziz ibn ‘Umayr, the brother of Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr, that he said, “I was among the war captives in the day of the battle of Badr so the Prophet said, “Be good to the captives” and then Abu ‘Aziz continue narrating that he was held captive and remained with a group of the Ansar and whenever the time of lunch or dinner comes, they would serve him dates while they ate wheat in compliance with the Prophet’s advise of treating the captives with goodness.

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