The process of designing an esp writing course for engineers in a pakistan (autosaved) (autosaved)


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The process of designing an esp writing course for engineers in a pakistan (autosaved) (autosaved)

  2. 2. 2Topics Page No.1. Abstract ……………………………………………………………. 22. Introduction ……………………………………………………… 3-43. AIMS………………………………………………………………….. 44. Literature Review………………………………………………… 5-75. Need Analysis…………………………………………………….. 7-96. The Learning Needs……………………………………………..9-107. Principles For Analyzing Learner Needs…………….. 10-128. The Information Gathering Process/Methodology……..129. Questionnaires………………………………………………………..1310.Analysis Of Questionnaires………………………………….14-2011.Authentic Data Analysis……………………………………….22-2712.Limitation Of The Study……………………………………..27-2813.Teaching Methodology………………………………………….28-29
  3. 3. 314.Syllabus…………………………………………………………………… 2915. Course Outline……………………………………………………30-3216. The Suggested Organization…………………………………3217. Conclusion…………………………………………………………..3218. Designed Course…………………………………………………..32-3319. Objectives………………………………………………….………..3320. Strategies……………………………………………………………..34-3521. References……………………………………………………………3622. Method Of Instruction………………………………………. 3623. Teaching Staff……………………………………………………3624. Attendance……………………………………………………………3725. Code Of Academic Conduct……………………………………3726. Grading ……………………………………………………………………3727. OVERVIEW OF TIME TABLE………………………….38-4028. Lesson Plan ………………………………………………………40-4829. MATERAILS …………………………………………………………43-6030.Appendix……………………………………………………………61-65
  4. 4. 431. Bibliography………………………………………………………66-68THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING AN ESP WRITING COURSE FORENGINEERS IN A PAKISTANAbstractThe aim of this research is to have an overview of the needs and thereby design Englishfor Special Purposes (ESP) writing course outline, for a group of engineers working in Pakistan.The key stages in the research are goal-setting, situation analysis, needs analysis, and courseoutlines. Having determined the engineers needs through the two research tools I have used,namely a questionnaires and authentic data analysis, discussion took place around my secondaim, that of determining the outline for the technical writing course. The questionnaires weredistributed between the targeted group (engineers) and authentic data analysis was taken fromengineers working place. My decision to investigate these particular writing needs is based onrequest of my dear brother who is currently serving as an engineer at Makkays Pvt. Ltd andobserving their enormous needs to develop written and spoken English, as within technical fieldEnglish is used as medium of communication. This does not imply that other language skills arenot important, thus this study could form the basis of future investigations in determining skillsneeds.
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 61.1IntroductionThe role of engineering in society, our relationship with the environment, and thepotential and importance our work holds for people cannot be neglected As Maurice Strong,Secretary General of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,said, "Sustainable development will be impossible without the full input by the engineeringprofession."As we enter the twenty-first century, we must embark on a worldwide transition to amore holistic approach to engineering. This will require: (1) a major paradigm shift from controlof nature to participation with nature; (2) an awareness of ecosystems, ecosystems services, andthe preservation and restoration of natural capital; and (3) a new mindset of the mutualenhancement of nature and humans that embraces the principles of sustainable development,renewable resources management, appropriate technology, natural capitalism (Hawken et al.,1999), biomimicry (Benyus, 1997), biosoma (Bugliarello, 2000), and systems thinking(Meadows, 1997).Engineering students have specific English needs. Engineering students and engineershave expressed long-term dissatisfaction with their English ability (Wattanasakunpusakon,1996; Kittidhaworn, 2001).This innovative course is designed to foster excitement forengineering through projects that combine creativity and logical methodology. Effective use ofwritten, oral, and graphic professional communication is developed as the term progresses. Thedesign components are used as a methodology to accomplish several of the learning objectives. Itis a vehicle for understanding and practicing problem solving and for developing effective skills.In addition, design problems naturally require a holistic approach to problem solving that takesinto account social, environmental, and human factors as design constraints.In other words, its just like any other English course. The only difference is thateverything is done in the context of the ESP field. The ESP field exists in the course primarily asa means of keeping the course interesting and relevant. The paper will then discuss how thecourse materials were developed in the form of a class textbook and finally conclude bycontending that the course is effective in developing low-level Science and Engineering
  7. 7. 7Graduate students‟ English scientific presentation skills and that the course could easily beadapted to meet the needs of students from other faculties as well.“Rhetoric – an art of influencing the soul through words” (Plato)1.2 AIMSThe course objective is to start encouraging students right away in first year to synthesizeand integrate their knowledge in the broader engineering context. To equip students with avariety of reading techniques and strategies so that they might achieve a higher level of reading/i.e. better comprehension and more efficient reading/ for professional purposes. A needsanalysis will be used to determine the key components necessary for designing a writing course.A course outline will then be designed to accommodate these needs. The design process isintroduced and hands-on projects give students a chance to grapple with the challenges ofengineering design. Writing and reading, as engineering activities, are introduced.The aim of the course is to bump your students up to a higher level of global languageproficiency hat means teaching all the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation that all otherlanguage learners have to study. And making sure your students understand the languagestructures at that level and can use them as well as others of the same level. It also meansworking on the four skills - to improve reading speed and listening comprehension, spokenconfidence and written style.2.1Literature ReviewESP (English for Specific Purposes) is one important branch of the EFL/ESL (English asa Foreign/Second Language) system that functions as the main branch of English languageteaching ELT. Therefore, ESP is not a particular kind of language or methodology, but rather anapproach to language learning whereby the content and method are based on the learnersparticular needs to learn the language (Hutchinson, and Waters, 1987).To distinguish ESP fromEGP (English for General Purposes) we could say that ESP is more focused . ESP can be dividedinto two main areas: (EAP), (EOP), under these two types there are further divisions forexample, (EST) and (EMP).
  8. 8. 8ESP is an “attitude of mind”, with the following absolute Characteristics such as; tomeet specific needs of the learners, makes use of underlying methodology and activities of thediscipline it serves ,centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of grammar,lexis, register, study skills, discourse and genre.According to (Dudley-Evans, 1997) ESP posses variable characteristics as well .ESPmay be related to or designed for specific disciplines .It may use, in specific teaching situations,a different methodology from that of General English .ESP is likely to be designed for adultlearners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however,be for learners at secondary school level. It is generally designed for intermediate or advancedstudents. Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system.ESP is a course of study that involves teaching students the English and consequent skillsnecessary to function within their specific field of study or work. As such, ESP courses are morenarrowly defined than general English courses and focus on more specific and identifiable needsthan general English (Brandt, 2009).English for Specific Purposes; on the other hand, puts a much greater focus upon thespecific linguistic knowledge and communication skills necessary in order to accomplish specificpurposes (Orr, 1998) within a specific discipline or profession. An ESP course needs tointroduce and/or reinforce specific language or skills needed within a particular disciplineincluding the grammar, lexis, discourse, pragmatic knowledge and genre in order tocommunicate effectively. In other words, ESP focuses on enabling students to function withintheir chosen academic community and/or the professional community they will ultimately beentering. In short, the content should lead language and the language studied must address thespecific learning needs students have for their field of study and work (Lowe, 2009).Graddol (1996) indicates that a quarter of the world‟s population is fluent or competentin English and no other language in the world today can match the steadily growing spread of theEnglish language.What gives the English language this status is not its linguistic system. Rather, Crystal(2003) argues that the current status of English results from the power of the people speaking it.
  9. 9. 9Therefore, the global power of the English language is related to the historic political, cultural,socio-economic and technological dominance of England and the United States. Other languagesthroughout history such as Greek, Arabic, Spanish and many others had held similar positions asworld languages of commerce and scholarship.Nationalists in different places of the world often resist the spread of the power code.This resistance is exemplified in the post colonial era by those who refuse to use the language oftheir former colonial power in order to promote the indigenous language to emphasize theirindigenous identity. For example, Ngugi wa Thiong‟o (1986), a Kenyan writer who refuses touse English in his work, argues that colonial languages impose cultural aspects on the indigenouslanguage leading to a distorting of the local identity.World English can be argued to be shaped through linguistic imperialism where thespread of English is viewed as language imposition (Phillipson, 1992). However, learningEnglish can also be seen as an investment. The technological revolution in today‟s digital worldand the way people are using the Internet make English emerge as a global medium ofcommunication. The revolution in communication extends cultural interaction between peoplebeyond their local speech communities (Warschauer, 1999). Three quarters of the world‟semails are currently in English and 90% of the materials on the Internet are in English (Crystal2003).Resistance to English cannot stop the spread of the English language simply becausealternative solutions such as translation are expensive and impractical. Many countries thusbelieve that learning another language is a source of development. Choosing a foreign languageto be taught in schools depends on what people would gain from this investment. For example, in1996 Algeria, a former French colony, replaced French with English as the chief foreignlanguage in schools reflecting the demand for English as a key for development. LearningEnglish is viewed as an investment to enable people to access the resources represented by theEnglish language.This concept of language investment views the exposure of learners to a new language asadding a new discourse to the primary one rather than imposing a superior code. Norton (2000)indicates that when people speak a language, they are investing in an identity as speakers of that
  10. 10. 10language. Learners invest in a second language in the hopes of gaining access to resources suchas education, friendship, and money. The degree of L2 learning is a reflection of the degree ofinvestment (Norton, 1995).In other words, L2 learners need to deal with discourses from different languages in orderto fulfill their communicative needs. This process gives them a choice to expand their previousdiscourses to include new ones. This bilingual standpoint enables L2 learners to contributedifferent aspects from their L1 to the English language in a process leading to the use of Englishas a lingua franca.Kantonidou (2008) conducted the research on ESP for electrical engineering curricula.He highlighted that theoretical evidence should be reconciled with hard facts through thecooperation of all the stakeholders. Furthermore, he recommended that if ESP students will notbe provided the opportunities, it can de-motivate the students.2.2 A Needs analysisIn designing an ESP course it is imperative to carry out a needs analysis to determine thespecific reasons for learning the language (Hutchinson, and Waters, 1987,) or to specifyexactly, what students need to achieve through the medium of English(Robinson 1991).According to Nunan techniques and procedures for collecting information to be used in syllabusdesign are referred to as a needs analysis (Nunan, 1988: 13). In more formal terms a needsanalysis is the process of determining the needs for which a learner or group of learners requiresa language and arranging the needs according to priorities (Richards, and Platt, 1992:242).2.2 (a) Approaches to needs analysisInfluential models of needs analysis include a sociolinguistic model (Munby, 1978), asystemic approach (Richterich & Chancerel, 1977), a learning-centered approach (Hutchinson& Waters, 1987), learner-centered approaches (Berwick, 1989; Brindley, 1989) and a task-based approach (Long 2005a, 2005b).
  11. 11. 112.2(b) A sociolinguistic modelMunby (1978) develops an influential sociolinguistic model for defining the content ofpurpose-specific language programs. His model can be used to specify valid „target situations‟(Jordan, 1997; West, 1994) that target communicative competence. A profile of communicationneeds is presented, comprised of communicative events (e.g. discussing everyday tasks andduties), purposive domain (e.g. educational), medium (e.g. spoken), mode (e.g. dialogue),channel of communication (e.g. face-to-face), setting of communication, main communicator/s,person/s with whom the communicator/s communicate, dialect, attitudinal tone (e.g. informal),subject content and level of English ability required for the communication2.2(c) A systemic approachRichterich & Chancerel (1977) propose a systemic approach for identifying the needsof adults learning a foreign language. This approach fills the gaps in the sociolinguistic model interms of flexibility and shows a distinct concern for learners. They are the centre of attention,and their „present situations‟ (Jordan, 1997) are thoroughly investigated. The emergent natureof learner needs is also taken into account. Context of investigation and multiple perspectives aregiven prominence.2.2 (d) A learning-centered approachHutchinson & Waters (1987) offer an often-cited learning-centered approach to ESP.They argue that other approaches give too much attention to language needs, whereas moreattention should be given to how learners learn. They suggest that a learning needs approach isthe best route to convey learners from the starting point to the target situation. Learner needs areapproached from two directions; target needs and learning needs. Target needs are defined as“what the learner needs to do in the target situation” (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p. 54).They are broken down into three categories: necessities, lacks and wants. Necessities areconsidered to be “what the learner has to know in order to function effectively in the targetsituation” (p. 55). Lacks are defined as “the gaps between what the learner knows and thenecessities (p. 56).” Wants are described as “what the learners think they need” (Nation,2000, p. 2).
  12. 12. 122.2 (e) Learner-centered approachesBerwick (1989) and Brindley (1989) are leaders in contributing learner-centeredapproaches to needs analysis. Three ways to look at learner needs are offered: perceived vs. feltneeds; product vs. process oriented interpretations; and objective vs. subjective needs.„Perceived needs‟ are from the perspective of experts while „felt needs‟ are from the perspectiveof learners (Berwick, 1989). In the product-oriented interpretation, learner needs are viewed asthe language that learners require in target situations. In the process-oriented interpretation, thefocus is on how individuals respond to their learning situation, involving affective and cognitivevariables which affect learning Chamnong Kaewpet (Brindley, 1989)2.2 (f) A task-based approachLong (2005a) recommends taking a task-based approach to needs analysis as well aswith teaching and learning based on the argument that “structures or other linguistic elements(notions, functions, lexical items etc.)” should not be a focal point of teaching and learning.“Learners are far more active and cognitive-independent participants in the acquisitionprocess than is assumed by the erroneous belief that what you teach is what they learn, andwhen you teach it is when they learn it”.2.3 The learning needsThe learning needs refer to the learner‟s language difficulties, their learning objectives,their styles of learning etc (Jolly and Bolitho.1998). It is the starting point or the route andanswers the question. To understand the learning needs we should find answers for the followingquestions.� why are the learners taking the course?� how do the learners learn?� what resources are available?� who are the learners?
  13. 13. 13� when/Where will the course take place?The new educational pedagogy emphasizes the importance of the learners and theirattitudes to learning (Hutchinson, and Waters, 1987, pp 59). Satisfying learner‟s needs andinterests has an important influence on the learners‟ motivation and therefore achievements.Moreover, this approach gives learners the opportunity to participate in the syllabus design. In acontext where the nature of the work changes and the linguistic needs change too, the importanceof this approach increases. As MacKay and Mountford (1978) stated, adults who need Englishfor academic or professional purposes are more aware of what they want to use English for.In fact, the results of a needs analysis are not absolute but relative. There are a number offactors that could affect the outcomes: for instance: who to ask; what the questions are; and howthe responses are interpreted (Dudley-Evans and St. John1998).2.3 (a) Principles for analyzing learner needsBased on the survey of approaches to needs analysis presented in Section 2 as well as theauthor‟s personal teaching experience, learner needs should embrace the following principles: Give first priority to communication needsCommunication needs come to attention when it is believed that what learners are taught shouldbe specifically what they will really use, and that this should determine the contents of ESPcourses (Munby, 1978; Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998). It is also argued that specificknowledge concerning English language alone is insufficient. The ability to communicate alsoinvolves understanding the discourse practices where the language is situated and in whichlearners must operate (Long, 2005a, 2005b; Orr, 2002) Give equal importance to learning needsCognitive and affective variables as well as learning situations are influential in determining themanner in which a language is learned or should be learned (Berwick, 1989; Brindley, 1989).Hutchinson & Waters (1987) argue that the study of language descriptions, namely, the studyof communication needs, does not enable someone to learn a language. Learning situations
  14. 14. 14comprising several learning factors must also be taken into account. In fact, a thorough study ofboth descriptions will help elaborate learner needs more thoroughly. Take „context‟ into accountContext influences the teaching and learning of ESP (Holliday & Cooke, 1982; Jordan, 1997;Richterich & Chancerel, 1977). Language teaching and design that do not consider particulargroups of students is likely to be either inefficient or inadequate (Long, 2005b). Finally, teacherfactors influence the way ESP courses are run for engineering students. For example when ESPcourse aim at teaching all four skills; a given teacher may believe that reading and writing shouldbe emphasized more than listening and speaking. Teaching style, conservatism, and personalityare also vital factors that influence every learning situation. Invite multiple perspectivesLearners‟ English needs depend on various expectations, interpretations and individual valuejudgments (Berwick, 1989; Brindley, 1989). Vandermeeren (2005) points out that“researchers, too, have attitudes concerning language needs, which inevitably influencetheir choice of research objectives and their interpretation of the findings” Employ multiple data collection methodsUse of multiple data collection methods is recommended when dealing with complex needs andfor validating data (Gilabert, 2005; Hutchinson & Waters, 1987; Jasso-Aguilar, 2005;Richterich & Chancerel, 1977). Jasso-Aguilar‟s (2005) study revealed that some of thelanguage needs of hotel maids could not have been found if participation observation had notbeen employed in addition to the study of task force predictions. Long (2005a, 2005b) calls formore attention to „methodological options‟ in needs analysis. It is also recommended thatlimitations of data collection methods should be dealt with both before and during the researchprocess. Treat needs analysis as an ongoing activityLearner needs should be analyzed on an ongoing basis because they are likely to change overtime, depending on contextual and human affective variables (Brown, 1995; Holliday, 1994;
  15. 15. 15Hutchinson & Waters, 1987; Nunan, 1988; Richterich & Chancerel, 1977). This principleexpands the A Framework for Investigating Learner Needs 215 attention of needs analysis toinclude both curriculum development and action research.The purpose of needs analysis is to identify learner needs, taking place at a relativelytheoretical level outside of classes, yielding recommendations on how a course should bedesigned. Yet, at a more profound level, needs analysis is actually a process in curriculumdevelopment (Brown, 1995; Richards, 2001); it can and should be extended to curriculumdevelopment because many other important variables are connected with learner needs inauthentic teaching and learning.2.4 The Information Gathering Process/MethodologyRobinson (1991) lists a number of different methods for conducting needs analysis.These include questionnaires, interviews, case studies, tests, and authentic data collection (e.g.analyzing actual manuals and written assignments). Jordan (1997) adds to these methodsadvanced documentation (e.g. requesting extra information that includes educationalbackground, previously attended courses, and other relevant aspects), language tests at home,self-assessment, class progress tests, direct monitoring, structured interviews, learner diaries,previous research comparisons, and follow up investigations.To create a strong overall needs analysis a combination of two information gathering processprocedures had been used in my research which are as follows� Questionnaires: to determine the learner‟s purpose for learning the language (Nunan, D.1989).�Authentic data analysis: to determine the features of the genre of the text required for the ESPcontext.
  16. 16. 162.4 (a) QuestionnairesQuestionnaires were determined to be the best means of investigation in this study. Theywere selected as the source of data collection for the following reasons.1- The number of participants was expected to be fairly large.2- They require minimal time from participants and provide a flexible and convenient way toparticipate in the study.3- Participants could be assured of a certain degree of anonymity in their responses and couldrespond candidly.Questionnaires are more efficient for gathering information on a large scale than any otherapproach (Brown1995).As can be seen in (Appendix 1) the questionnaire is divided into three sections. Each sectionwill be looked at separately with a brief discussion around the questions within that section.It is significant to note that the purpose of this questionnaire is not to determine theimportance of any skill in specific. This is a foregone conclusion since all their reports are inEnglish. The aim is to support my needs analysis findings, and therefore help me to determinewhat elements are to be included in the course which I would design later on.2.4 (b) ParticipantsIn fact, engineers were the only participant group whose written documents I analyzed,and then designed a questionnaire for. Twenty engineers were involved in the study, most of whowork in departments of their company.Different nationalities were involved in this study. In addition to Saudis there were someEgyptians, Pakistanis, and Indians.
  17. 17. 172.4 (c) Analysis of questionnairesAnalysis of each statement is as follows;1. How far English is important in your opinion?a. Very important b. somehow important c. no importance96%4%abc
  18. 18. 182. To what extent you have to communicate with people in English?a. Frequently b. occasionally c. No communication3. With whom you have to communicate in English?a. With boss b. with colleagues c. with native customersd. with foreign customers e. with other departments g. with all74%24%2%abc10%3%1%80%6%abcde
  19. 19. 194. Do you think that your profession requires the practice of skills, such as reading,writing, listening and speaking?a. Yes b. no5. Which type of speaking skill is required in your profession?a. Formal speaking b. presentation skill c. informalcommunication d. all of the above89%11%ab86%4%3%7%abcd
  20. 20. 206. Which type of writing skill your profession requires?a. Technical writing b. business letter writing c. report writing d. above all7. Which type of material you have to read?a. Reports b. advertisements c. manuals d. documentse. agreement f. bills g. invoice h. delivery notes50%20%30%10%abcd532720763 2abcdefgh
  21. 21. 218. Is listening problematic for you, at any situation?a. Yes b. no c. don‟t know9. What is the weak area in which you want to be proficient in English?a. technical vocabulary b. grammar c. pronunciation4%96%abc50%4%36%abc
  22. 22. 2210. Which time of the day is convenient for you, to attend this course?a. From 9 a.m- 11 a.m b. from 3 p.m – 5 p.m c. from 7 p.m- 9 p.m11. Which day of the week is suitable for you, to attend this course?a. Saturday - Sunday b. Friday- Sunday c. Tuesday- Wednesday1%40%59%abc82%10%6%abc
  23. 23. 2312. In which methodology of teaching you will want to learn English?a. Through text books b. through discussion sessionb. through lecture delivery methodology13. In your opinion, which method of evaluation will be useful?a. Daily base assignments b. daily base class testc. only one test at the end of the course d. only one projecte. no proper evaluation criteria10%50%40% abc10%20%50%20%abcd
  24. 24. 24All the open ended questions were filled by the engineers, specific data cannot be presented butthe fact is they have helped us, to deeply analyze the current situation of our future learners.2.4 (d) Findings from the questionnaireThe findings and analysis of the questionnaire are interpreted and presented in three maincategories as follows: the needs, in which I will look at the engineers and their work needs; the present level and the target level; the suggested type of course.Firstly, the questionnaire established that it is necessary for engineers to write in English andthe majority of engineers considered English to be highly important in carrying out their worksuccessfully and efficiently. Furthermore, all the reports collected were written in English; Iwould therefore like to suggest that the need for designing an ESP course to develop writingskills for these people is imperative. The questionnaire responses clearly demonstrate that reportwriting is the most common activity of engineers in communications. In the open-endedquestion, engineers continually emphasized, their need to learn how express themselves inreports. In addition most engineers stated that it is their managers to whom they write, whilst62.5%said that this communication was of a more formal nature. This explains the necessity ofhaving a good level of language accuracy.Secondly, the questionnaire, as completed by the engineers, gave an indication of theirlevel of writing skills. It demonstrated that half were happy, whilst most (80%) saw themselvesas either good or very good at writing. On the other hand, the questionnaire elicited the responsethat writing is the second most important skill that engineers are anxious about or need toimprove. In actual fact, if we look at this issue carefully, it could be said that although theengineers are presently satisfied, they certainly would like the opportunity to improve their levelof accuracy. It shows that most of the engineers want to improve different accuracy skills such as
  25. 25. 25linking ideas, and summarizing ideas. It is important to note that within Pakistani culture it is notacceptable for highly educated people to admit weaknesses in any skill, even if the skill isunrelated to their field of study. Furthermore, the entire Makkays Engineers who participated inthis questionnaire said they wished to improve their writing skills. This might explain thelanguage variation in reports written by these engineers, where some of the reports which werewritten by non -Pakistani have very accurate use of language.Thirdly, analysis of the questionnaire has provided me useful information for designing acourse. According to the questionnaire, the majority of engineers prefer short courses between 2and 6 weeks. The questionnaire revealed that most of the engineers edit as they write beforeproducing a fair copy. In other words, engineers usually have time to correct their work andperhaps invite someone to read and comment. In this respect, I prefer to approaches in teachingwriting which I will discuss in the teaching methodology section. The process-genre approachgives engineers an opportunity to practice writing in a real social context. It also allows learnersto exchange their written work with colleagues in order to read, improve and learn from eachother.2.5 Authentic data analysisTo have a comprehensive analysis I intend to apply the three known language analysisapproaches. In the main, I will adopt the framework suggested by Ellis and Johnson 1994 (seeappendix1). In the next section I will demonstrate how this framework was used to analyzeextracts of the engineers work. Interestingly, these extracts highlighted the present level of theengineers understanding of English and helped in determining their weaknesses or areas fordevelopment. Below is the suggested framework:
  26. 26. 26Table 1: adaptation of framework suggested by Ellis and Johnson
  27. 27. 272.5 (a) Collecting the authentic documentsIn order to obtain these documents, I took help of my brother engineer (Waqar Ahmad)working for Makkays pvt .ltd. After explaining the aim of the study, he agreed to e-mail mesome extracts of engineers‟ authentic written documents.2.5(b) Report writingIn fact report writing is considered to be one of the most common activities engaged in byengineers, especially given that there are many different types of reports for instance: inspectionor trip reports, laboratory report, and progress report (Beer,and McMurrey 1997).According to Beer, and McMurrey, all reports are similar in that all start with a prologueand end with a conclusion. In fact, this is not always the case, as the reports in this study willshow. However, Beer, and McMurrey state that the bodies of different reports are likely to vary,as demonstrated in the table below.
  28. 28. 28Table 2: different types of reports functions(Beer, and McMurrey 1997).
  29. 29. 292.5(c) Summary of findings from the authentic data documentsAnalyzing samples of the engineer‟s written work revealed that all documents collectedwere written only in English, and that all these documents were reports.The documents appeared to suffer from language problems, specifically withorganization, sentence structure, and grammar. However, these problems seem not to be sofundamental that a short course could not help rectify them. The table on next page summariesthe most important features of these documents and will indicate the framework required for acourse of study in writing.For most of my investigation the collected data was complementary: some of theinformation in the questionnaire supported the information emerging from the language analysis.However, at the same time there was some contradiction between the resultant data.
  30. 30. 30Table 3: shows the implantation of the suggested framework by Ellis andJohnson2.6 Limitation of the StudyDespite some of the limitations this project has, I believe the results of the study will helpin establishing the key components necessary for designing a writing course outline.Firstly, this study looked only at the engineers needs, whilst there were other people whoshould have been involved in the needs analysis. According to Brown, administrators andteachers are two important sources for information, in addition to the target group (Brown,1995). Unfortunately, due to word limitation in this project, other groups were not addressed.
  31. 31. 31Secondly, questionnaire and document analysis alone were not enough to carry out acredible needs analysis (McDonough and McDonough, 1997). Interviews and observationsoffer direct interaction with the participants, where questionnaire and language analysis do not.Also, an analyst can clarify some detailed points through chatting with participants or observingthem (McDonough and McDonough, 1997). Geographical distance precluded me frominterviewing or observing participants in this study.2.7 Teaching MethodologyThere are three main approaches relative to the teaching of writing: the productapproach, the process approach, and the genre approach (Badger, R. and White G 2000).2.7(a) Process Genre ApproachSince each of these approaches have their strengths and weaknesses this has led to thedevelopment of an effective method, which engages both process and genre. This approach aimsto look at each approach and tries to adapt it for a particular situation (Key, and Dudley-Evans,1997).2.7(b) Principles for teaching writingTo sum up it is important to emphasize the main principles to be taken into considerationwhen designing an ESP writing course:1. Conduct a needs analysis to determine the learner‟s purpose for learning the language (Nunan,D. 1989).2. Conduct a language analysis of authentic data e.g. reports, to determine the features of thegenre of the text required for the ESP context.3. Decide on an approach to the teaching of writing which will suit the learners writing purposeand text type.
  32. 32. 324. Ensure that the overall activities focus on promoting the type of writing outlined in theinformation gathering process.Having finish with the first three steps towards course design I will use the outcome data tosummarize the propose course outline.2.8 SyllabusHutchinson and Waters give us a list of different syllabus types. This list includes thefollowing syllabus types: topic syllabus, structural/situational syllabus, functional/notionalsyllabus, skills syllabus, situational syllabus, functional/task-based syllabus, discourse/skillssyllabus, and skills and strategies. What these different types really are a differentorganizational means for designing syllabus. So for example a topic syllabus is obviously asyllabus that is based, or is organized along the concept of different topics. Rare, particularly thearea of general English, are the discourse/skills syllabus and the skills syllabus. This brings to theidea that a syllabus for ESP class is necessarily going to have to have a different focus ordifferent organizational design than a syllabus for a general English course. In particular, sinceskills are so highly stressed in ESP, one will often find a lot more skills based syllabus than onewould find in a general English course. This is important to note both for practical reasons andalso because it tells us a little bit more about the very nature of ESP as a particular type oflanguage learning and language teaching experience. People need everywhere need because thevast majority of textbooks are written in English. Even if the learners study in their homecountry, they still need to be able to deal with English in the form of reading. If they want to goto an English-speaking university program, and increasingly more non-English-speakingcountries are offering courses in English only, anywhere in the world, they will have to haveacademic skills geared toward English. Also, since most publications are carried out in English,people need to be able to write textbooks, articles, and do presentations for their respective fieldsin English.
  33. 33. 332.9Course outlineHaving determined the engineers needs through the two research tools I have used,namely a questionnaire and authentic data analysis, the discussion will take place around,determining the outline for the technical writing course.2.9(a) Aims and objectivesAs a result of the needs analysis as a whole and by combining the findings of thedocuments and questionnaires, I have drawn up the following points:The Aims of the course will beTo promote engineers ability to write different types of reports1. Inspection reports2. Specification reports3. Instruction reportsThe objectives of the course will be as follows:� Recognize the organization of different report genre.� Use appropriate grammatical structures, and functions.� Write a full report with 80% accuracy.� Assess each other‟s writing.� Use the appropriate technical and semi-technical vocabulary.� Use appropriate layout and punctuation.� Employ the process of editing and drafting.
  34. 34. 34� Using linking devices, where appropriate, to produce cohesive text.� Express a variety of functions in writing.� Promoting writing fluencyBy looking at the findings of the authentic documents analysis, it is possible to decide thecontent of the course. Hence, the course content should include the most frequent functions,structures, and lexis, and it should also specify the type of genre,2.9(b) ContentFunctionsBy the end of the course the engineers should be able to: Describe the condition of something, e.g. piece of equipment. Give instructions or orders Suggest actions to be taken. Clarify actions that have been taken.These functions, as mentioned earlier, are in themselves course objectives.The structureEngineers should be able to use the following structures with a fair degree of accuracy: Present continuous Present simple Modals (shall, should) Modals + passive infinitive Simple present passive Past simple Simple past passive
  35. 35. 35The vocabularyThe course will cover technical and semi-technical vocabulary. There will be specificvocabulary input such as areas that may be problematic or unknown to the engineers e.g.spelling, multi-word verbs, and compound nouns.2.10The suggested organizationThe suggested course will be a four week program running from Friday to Sunday, from11 am to 1 pm. The course consists of 80 hours (across that period), divided into 20 hours aweek. Each day has three sections and a break. The first class will be from 10 am to 11 am, thesecond class will be from 11: 00am to 12:00 pm, and the last class will be from 12:30 to 1pm.The group number should not be more than 5 participants with at least one trainers working inthe group.ConclusionThis project has been concerned with ESP and the importance of a needs analysis at anearly stage of designing a course. We also looked at the different methods for gatheringinformation. In addition, attention focused on the teaching of writing in an ESP context, payingspecial attention to the importance of teaching report writing skills. In the last section I tried toput together all the results and findings to come up with a reliable writing course. According to atheory developed by Lave and Wenger (1991), learning is social and involves participation in acommunity of practice. According to this theory when people first join a community they are onthe outer borders of it and learn from the periphery. As they become increasingly competent theycan move towards the centre of the community. A community of practice can be described as agroup of people sharing common concerns, problems and interests and who increase theirknowledge and expertise in the area by interacting with each other (Wenger, McDermot andSnyder, 2002). Wenger et al. give examples of such communities of practice – engineers whodesign with a particular type of electronic circuit and who find it important to get together tocompare designs and soccer mums and dads who use game times to share advice aboutparenting. The groups may not necessarily work together or meet on a daily basis but they dointeract because they find it useful to do so: As they (members of the group) spend time together,
  36. 36. 36they typically share information, insight and advice. … They may create tools, standards, genericdesigns, manuals, and other documentation – or they may simply develop a tacit understandingthat they share. … Over time, they develop a unique perspective on their topic as well as a bodyof common knowledge, practices and approaches. They also develop personal relationships andestablished ways of interacting. (Wenger et al., 2002, p. 5)Designed courseCourse Code/Name: Eng 401 ESP for EngineersLevel: GraduateType of the Course: CompulsoryObjectives:Upon successful completion of the course, the students should be able tobecome familiar with the basic principles of “Paragraph Writing”learn and practice the key concepts of paragraph writing such as Topic Sentence,Supporting Sentences, Concluding Sentence, Unity and Coherencegain insight into the essential principles of “Essay Writing”learn the key concepts of essay writing such as Subject, Purpose, Audience, ThesisStatement, Introduction, Body, and Conclusiongain an understanding of the Process of Writing an Essay and learn the stages ofEssay Writinghave a clear idea about technical writing including the definition, purpose anddistinctive features of Technical Writinggain insight into the Process of Writing a Technical Reportlearn the outline of Technical Report Formatgain an understanding of presentation techniquesgive a fifteen-minute presentation about a technical subjectwrite a report on a technical subject in compliance with format requirements
  37. 37. 37Components:Strategies:As advocated by many authors (Wenden and Rubin, 1987, Oxford, 1990, O‟Malley andChamot, 1990, Wenden, 1998), language learning strategies of different types (cognitive,metacognitive, social, communication, socioaffective, depending on the classification), byraising learners‟ awareness, promoting self-directed learning and exploiting both implicit andexplicit aspects of the learning process, can lead to making students better learners, have acompensating effect for less able or less effective learners, and create necessary conditions forlearner autonomy. Resourcing, or finding, evaluating and using different lexical tools availableonline, is one of the cognitive learning strategies, namely steps or operations used in learning orproblem-solving that require direct analysis, transformation or synthesis of learning materials. Itsimplementation in the foreign language classroom effectively changes the language testingsituation into the language teaching one, with the important role of teacher-directed strategytraining as an indispensable step towards building up a successful learner.Strategy training is the activity that should find its place in the foreign language classroom.
  38. 38. 38Demonstrating new strategies, evaluating the outcome of the activity with and without strategyuse, the observation of the activity process are all operations that add to learner awareness. Heretwo approaches for strategy training can be outlined:1. Oxford (1990):ask learners to do a language activity without any strategy training;have them discuss how they did it and ask them to reflect on how the strategies theyselected may have facilitated the learning process;suggest and demonstrate other helpful strategies and consider ways that they couldinclude new strategies in their learning repertoires;allow learners ample time to practice the new strategies with language tasks;show how the strategies can be transformed to other tasks;provide practice using the techniques with new tasks and allow learners to make choicesabout the strategies they will use to complete the task;Help students understand how to evaluate the success of their strategy use and to gaugetheir progress as more responsible and self-directed learners.2. O‟Malley and Chamot (1990):Planning: The instructor presents students with a language task and explains therationale behind it. Students are then asked to plan their own approaches to the task;choosing strategies that they think will facilitate its completion.Monitoring: During the task, students are asked to „self-monitor‟ their performance bypaying attention to their strategy use and checking comprehension.Problem-solving: As they encounter difficulties, learners are expected to find their ownsolutions.Evaluation: After the task has been completed, students are then given time to „debrief‟the activity, e.g. evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies they used during the task.
  39. 39. 39To these models, Dickinson (1987) adds two main areas of preparation for strategy training,which are to lead to self-directed learning: psychological preparation (i.e. building confidenceto work independently of the teacher) and methodological preparation (i.e. acquiring thenecessary abilities and techniques for such activities as self-evaluation). All of these need to beaddressed in teacher-directed instruction, skillfully interwoven with regular subject matterteaching.The awareness of the need for the implementation of strategy training along the lines outlinedabove is becoming an inherent feature of English language teaching, as represented in theattempts to include strategy training elements in ESP course books (see, for instance, NewOpportunities series by Pearson Education). Even though language learning strategies arebecoming a much better researched area, there is a particularly urgent need to formulate practicalrealizations of the theoretical assumptions. Thus, specific learner training proposals, especiallyESP-related, will need to be put forward, for instant implementation in the classroom.ReferencesNo specific course book will be followed. Course materials are to be provided by the coursegroup instructor(s).Method of InstructionLecture; team/class discussions; communicative/meaningful language exercises; in- and out-of-class reading/writing tasks; presentations; library research; online research; workshops.Length and period: 3 hrs a day, 6 weeks in totalTeaching Staff Fatima Gul (junior faculty members ) Sitara Ayaz (junior faculty members ) Maryam Tariq (junior faculty members )
  40. 40. 40 Abida Parveen (junior faculty members ) Rashid Sheikh (senior faculty member) Muhammad Tariq (senior faculty member) Ayaz Khan (senior faculty member)AttendanceStudents are required to attend classes, practice sessions, and examinations. Minimumrequired attendance is 70% for all class sessions per semester, which makes up 17 hours ofabsence at most. A student who does not fulfill the requirement for attendance is not allowedto take the final exam for the semester concerned and is to repeat the course. Students whomiss an exam will not be given a make-up exam unless they submit an approved medicalreport or any other official document proving their excuse.Code of Academic ConductCheating during the exams or presenting someone elses work as yours (plagiarism)will not be tolerated under any circumstances. Disciplinary action will be taken against anystudent who violates the code of academic conduct.Grading midterm exam: 25% active participation during the classes, attitude toward the course, preparation for thepre- assigned chapters, assignments handed in due time : 10%- Delivery of presentation: 20 %- Technical report writing: 20 %- Final exam: 25%* Students are required to submit assignments in due time. Late submissions without a validexcuse will be penalized.* Each student is required to be present on the assigned day of his/her presentation. If anyabsenteeism occurs, his/her presentation can only be delayed for one week, resulting in 5point loss off the total grade allocated for the presentation.
  41. 41. 41OVERVIEW OF TIME TABLEWeek 1TEACHERSMS FATIMA MS MARYAM MS SITARADATE TIME10am-11am 11am-12pm 12-12.3012.30pm-1 pm5 July.2013 Basic tenses PresentationskillBREAKReading skills6 July.2013 ParagraphwritingMaking ofslidesReading report7 July.2013 ReportwritingSpecific termsof the jobOral fluencyWEEK 2TEACHERSMR.RASHIDM. AYAZ BREAKM. TARIQ12 July.2013 Assessment Assessment Assessment13 July.2013 FormalspeechBusiness data Technicalcommunication14 July.2013 LeadershiptrainingEditorialEngineering:Tips to Takethe Pain outof WritingCreatingEffectiveTechnicalDocumentsWEEK 3
  42. 42. 42TEACHERSMS.ABIDAMR.RASHIDBREAKMS MARYAM19 July.2013 Assessment Assessment Assessment20 July.2013 Mastering theArt ofTechnicalTypes of UserDocumentationBuilding theArgument of theDocument21 July.2013 CriticalthinkingOrganizational strategiesEditing andProofreadingStrategiesWEEK4TEACHERSMS FATIMA MSSITARABREAKM. TARIQ26 July.2013 Assessment Assessment Assessment27 July.2013 TheMechanics ofWritingWorking withwordsTechnicalWritersWorkshopTechnicalWritersWorkshop28 July.2013 Methods ofdevelopmentProblems-methods-resultsEffect andcauseOrder ofimportanceDesigningYourDocumentPrototyping thedocumentTesting forsuccessLevels ofprototypesWEEK5TEACHERSMS.ABDA MS FATIMA BRM. AYAZ2August.2013 Assessment Assessment Assessment3 Differentiatin Organizing Writing longer
  43. 43. 43August.2013 g between“need toknow” and“nice toknow”informationthe writingtaskEAKreports andproposals4August.2013ResearchingInformationStructuringInformationGrammar andStyle forTechnicalCommunicatorsWeek 6TEACHERSMSSITARAMSMARYAMBREAKMS ABDA9August.2013Assessment Assessment Assessment10August.2013Reportsubmissionpresentation Oralcommunication test11August.2013Evaluation Evaluation EvaluationLESSON PLANObjectivesWriting Objectives for Lesson Plans Using Bloom’s Taxonomy and Associated Action orPerformance VerbsLearning level Associated action verbsKnowledge define, describe, state, list, name, write, recall, recognize,label, underline, select, reproduce, outline, matchComprehension identify, justify, select, indicate, illustrate, represent, name,formulate, explain, judge, contrast, classify
  44. 44. 44Application predict, select, assess, explain, choose, find, show,demonstrate, construct, compute, use, performAnalysis analyze, identify, conclude, differentiate, select, separate,compare, contrast, justify, resolve, break down, criticizeSynthesis combine, restate, summarize, precise, argue, discuss,organize, derive, select, relate, generalize, concludeEvaluation judge, evaluate, determine, recognize, support, defend,attack, criticize, identify, avoid, select, chooseParts of a performance objective: (*This is what I expect for your objectives!*)Objective: The students will be able to tell and record time on a digital clock and analog clock tothe hour and half hour by writing the times in a story.The students will be able to tell and record time on a digital clockand analog clock to the hour and halfhourby writing the times correctly in a story.Audience: Standardintroduction for an objective.Hint: Focus on what the studentsmust do not the teacher.Hint: Must specify observable and measurablebehaviors.Condition to be met by the students in order todemonstrate that the objective has beenachieved.Hint: Describes the circumstances, situation or setting.Behavior/Action Verb that ismeasurable and can be assessed.What is the learner to do?Content- description of thesubject matter to be learned.
  45. 45. 45Objectives could include more criteria or partsABCDs of Writing ObjectivesA-Audience: The who. "The student will be able to…"B-Behavior: What a learner is expected to be able to do or the product or resultof the doing. The behavior or product should be observable.C-Condition: The important conditions under which the performance is to occur.D-Degree: The criterion of acceptable performance. How well the learner mustperform in order for the performance to be considered acceptable.Dont make writing objectives tedious, trivial, time-consuming, or mechanical. Keepthem simple, unambiguous, and clearly focused as a guide to learning. The purpose ofobjectives is not to restrict spontaneity or constrain the vision of education in thediscipline; but to ensure that learning is focused clearly enough that both students andteacher know what is going on.
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 504.SAFETY IN NUMBERS
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 52Chart no.1
  53. 53. 53Chart no. 2. Tenses in the active voiceSIMPLEPRESENTPRESENTCONTINUOUSPRESENTPERFECTPRESENTPERFECTCONTINUOUSMeaning 1: Habitual,regular action in thepresent.Timeexpressions:usually;every day; often;sometimes; rarely;never.Examples: I usuallywork till seven oclock.I often talk to him onthe phone. He visitsthem sometimes.Meaning 2: Stating afact, general truth, stateor condition.Examples: He lives inMoscow and works ata bank. He plays thepiano quite well. Herhouse is very small.The sun rises in theeast.Meaning 1: Theaction is going onright now.Timeexpressions: now;right now; at themoment.Examples: You arereading thismaterial now. Imwriting a letter atthe moment. Look!Anton is playingthe piano.Meaning 2: Theaction is going onat the presentperiod of time (butnot at the momentof speaking).Timeexpressions: now;at present; today;this year.Examples: She iswriting a newnovel now. He isstudying Germanthis year.Meaning 1: Theaction has justended.Timeexpressions:already; just; yet.Examples: He hasalready done it. Ihave just seen him.Meaning2: Reporting howthings havedeveloped by now.Timeexpressions: bynow; so far; never;ever; several times.Examples: So far,he has read fivebooks. He has neverbeen there.Meaning 3: Theaction has lasted forsome time by now.Timeexpressions: for ayear; since; lately.Example: He haslived here since1995.Meaning1: The actionhas lasted forsome time bynow and is stillgoing on.Timeexpressions: for an hour; for aweek; for fiveyears; all day;since.Examples: Hehas beensleeping for twohours already.She has beenworking as ateacher sinceshe graduatedfrom college.How long haveyou beenwaiting here?Meaning2: The actionhas been goingon lately.Examples: Allof them havebeen workingvery hard lately.I have beenthinking aboutstarting my ownbusiness.
  54. 54. 54Note: Simple presentcan replace the simplefuture with themeaning "according toschedule, timetable".Examples: The shiparrives next week. Heworks tomorrow.Note: Presentcontinuous canreplace the simplefuture with themeaning"preplannedaction".Examples: Imgoing to leavetomorrow. I amleaving tomorrow.Note: Presentperfect may replacethe present perfectcontinuous for theaction that has lastedfor some time bynow.Example: He hasworked in thiscompany for tenyears.Note: Presentperfectcontinuous inMeaning 2 isoften usedwithout timeexpressions.Example: It hasbeen rainingvery hard, andthe ground isstill wet.Note: Simple presentis used instead of thepresent continuouswith stative verbs.Examples: I see a littleboy now. I understandwhat you mean.Note: Stative verbs"know, understand,remember, like,love, hate, want,see, hear, seem,look", etc., are notused in thecontinuous tenses.Note: Presentperfect is usedinstead of thepresent perfectcontinuous withstative verbs.Examples: She hasknown them for sixyears. She has lovedhim all her life.Note: Stativeverbs "know,understand,remember, like,love, hate, want,see, hear, seem,look", etc., arenot used in thecontinuoustenses.SIMPLE PASTPASTCONTINUOUSPAST PERFECTPASTPERFECTCONTINUOUSMeaning: The actionhappened (started andended) in the past.Timeexpressions:yesterday;last week; last year; in1995; in 2009; twohours ago; four yearsago.Examples: I saw himan hour ago. He cameback last Friday. Shewent to the theateryesterday. They visitedLondon in 2009.Meaning: Theaction was goingon (1) whenanother past actionhappened or (2) atsome point of timein the past.Timeexpressions: while; when; at fiveoclock yesterday.Examples: Whenhe came in, I wasreading a letter. Wewere watching TVat three oclockyesterday.Meaning: Theaction happenedbefore another pastaction or beforesome point of timein the past.Timeexpressions: by thetime; before; after;by 1998; byyesterday; by lastSunday.Examples: By thetime he returned, shehad already left. Allresidents had left thevillage by last week.Meaning: Theaction lasted forsome timebefore anotherpast action orbefore somepoint of time inthe past.Timeexpressions: bythe time; before;after; byyesterday; by2005; for twohours; for along time.
  55. 55. 55Examples: Bythe time hereturned, I hadbeen workingfor six hours.By 2006, he hadbeen livingthere for twentyyears.Note: Use the simplepast for completed pastactions, including pastactions that lasted forsome time or happenedone after another.Example: He sold carsfor two years, and thenhe quit his job andbegan to write novels.Note: Use thesimple past insteadof the pastcontinuous withstative verbs.Example: Shelooked quite goodwhen I visited heryesterday.Note: Past perfectmay replace the pastperfect continuousfor the action thatlasted for some timebefore anotheraction in the past.Example: By thetime he returned, Ihad worked for sixhours.Note: Use thepast perfectinstead of thepast perfectcontinuous withstative verbs.Example: Shehad known himfor five years bythe time theygot married.SIMPLE FUTUREFUTURECONTINUOUSFUTUREPERFECTFUTUREPERFECTCONTINUOUSMeaning: The actionwill happen in thefuture.Timeexpressions:tomorrow; in a few days; nextweek; in 2025; in thefuture.Examples: I think hewill return next week. Iwill probably see himin a few days. Well behome after eight.Meaning: Theaction will begoing on (1) whenanother futureaction happens or(2) at some point oftime in the future.Timeexpressions: atthree tomorrow; atthis time next year;when.Examples: Hell besleeping at twooclock. When youcome to the library,Ill be sitting by thecentral window.Meaning: Theaction will happenbefore anotherfuture action orbefore some point oftime in the future.Timeexpressions: by thetime; by 2035; bytomorrow; before.Examples: By thetime I get there, shewill have left. By2050, scientists willhave found the curefor cancer.Meaning: Theaction will lastfor some timebefore anotherfuture action orbefore somepoint of time inthe future.Timeexpressions: bythe time; by2030; before;for two hours.Examples: Bythe time hereturns, I willhave beenworking fornine hours. By
  56. 56. 562025, he willhave been livinghere for fiftyyears.Chart no 3. Tenses in the passive voiceSimple present PresentcontinuousPresent perfect PresentperfectcontinuousMeaning 1: Habitual,regular action in thepresent.Timeexpressions: usually;every day; often;sometimes; rarely.Examples: Mail isusually delivered ateight oclock. This blogis updated every day.Meaning 2: Stating afact, general truth, stateor condition.Examples: English isspoken in manycountries. Water iscomposed of hydrogenand oxygen.Meaning: Theaction is going onnow.Timeexpressions: now;right now; at themoment.Examples: He isbeing examined bythe doctor at themoment. Thereport is beingtyped right now.Meaning 1: Theaction has just ended.Timeexpressions: already;just; yet.Examples: The letterhas already beensent. We have justbeen informed of hisarrival.Meaning2: Reporting howthings havedeveloped by now.Time expressions: bynow; so far; never;ever; several times;since; lately.Examples: So far, tenworkers have beenfired. He has neverbeen invited to theirhouse before.–Simple past Past continuous Past perfect PastperfectcontinuousMeaning: The actionhappened in the past.TimeMeaning: Theaction was going on(1) when anotherMeaning: The actionhappened beforeanother past action–
  57. 57. 57expressions: yesterday;last week; last year; in1996; in 2010; twohours ago.Examples: His housewas built a year ago.She was offered a goodjob last week. Thetelephone was inventedby Alexander Bell.past actionhappened or (2) atsome point of timein the past.Timeexpressions: while;when; at fiveoclock yesterday.Examples: When Icame to thehospital, Tom wasbeing examined bythe doctor.or before some pointof time in the past.Time expressions: bythe time; before;after; by 1990; byyesterday; by lastweek.Examples: By thetime I returned, thework on the projecthad been finished.By 1995, allapartments in thenew building hadbeen sold.Simple future FuturecontinuousFuture perfect FutureperfectcontinuousMeaning: The actionwill happen in thefuture.Timeexpressions: tomorrow;in a few days; nextweek; in 2025; in thefuture.Examples: The filmwill be released in amonth. This work willbe done tomorrow.– Meaning: The actionwill happen beforeanother future actionor before some pointof time in the future.Time expressions: bythe time; by 2035; bytomorrow; before.Examples: By thetime you return, thereport will have beentyped. By 2050 thecure for cancer willhave been found.–Material no .5Presenting information clearly and effectively is a key skill to get your message oropinion across and, today, presentation skills are required in almost every field.Whether you are a student, administrator or executive, if you wish to start up your ownbusiness, apply for a grant or stand for an elected position, you may very well be asked tomake that dreaded presentation.
  58. 58. 58If, in this position, the first thing you do is open up PowerPoint, then you shouldprobably first spend some time developing your presentation skills. Deliveringan inspirational or captivating presentation requires a lot of preparation and work, andyou may not even need PowerPoint at all!Many people feel terrified when asked to make their first public talk, but these initialfears can be reduced by good preparation which will also lay the groundwork for makingan effective presentation.Here you can learn how to develop your presentation skills, we recommend workingthrough our step-by-step guide: What is a Presentation?A presentation is a means of communication which can be adapted to various speakingsituations, such as talking to a group, addressing a meeting or briefing a team. To beeffective, step-by-step preparation and the method and means of presenting theinformation should be carefully considered. (See also Effective Speaking)Preparing a PresentationPreparation is the most important part of making a successful presentation. This is thecrucial foundation and there should be no short-cuts. Organizing the MaterialIrrespective of whether the occasion is formal or informal, always aim to give a clear,well-structured delivery. You should know exactly what you want to say and the order inwhich you want to say it. Clarity of ideas and good organisation should result in a lively,logical and compelling message. Writing Your PresentationThis article offers advice on how to write an effective presentation. Before you writeyour presentation, you should already have started to prepare by developing your ideasand selecting the main points to include. Deciding the Presentation MethodFew people are able to give a presentation without notes. You will need to know your
  59. 59. 59own abilities and decide how best to make the presentation. You might manage your talkby using full text, notes on cue cards, keywords on cue cards, or mind maps Working with Visual AidsMost visual aids will need advance preparation and should be operated with efficiency.Only use visual aids if they are necessary to maintain interest and assist comprehension:do not use them just to demonstrate your technological prowess. If visual aids are usedwell they will enhance a presentation by adding impact and strengthening audienceinvolvement, yet if they are managed badly they can ruin a presentation. Managing the EventThe practicalities of how you manage your presentation even can make a significantdifference to its success, and to your nerves! Coping with Presentation NervesIt is entirely natural to feel nervous before making a presentation. Fortunately, there aresome tried and tested strategies and techniques to manage your nerves so that you canconcentrate on delivering an effective and engaging presentation. Dealing with QuestionsAt the start of your presentation, you should make it clear whether and when you wouldprefer to deal with questions. Some speakers prefer questions to be raised as they ariseduring the presentation whilst others prefer to deal with questions at the end. Decide inadvance how and when you wish to handle questions.
  60. 60. 60Material no .6
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. 64Appendix 1This survey demeanor by students of International Islamic UniversityIslamabad, Faculty of English Language and Literature, to scrutinize EnglishLanguage in pragmatic fields. A project of English for Specific Purpose (ESP), toseek that how far English Language is imperative in the professional life ofEngineers.
  65. 65. 65Name: ______________________Age: ___________ Gender: __________Education: ___________________________ Profession: ________________________Working Experience: _____________________ Contact No_______________________Working Institution: _______________________________________14. How far English is important in your opinion?b. Very important b. somehow important c. no importance15. To what extent you have to communicate with people in English?b. Frequently b. occasionally c. No communication16. With whom you have to communicate in English?b. With boss b. with colleagues c. with native customersd. with foreign customers e. with other departments g. with all17. Do you think that your profession requires the practice of skills, such as reading, writing,listening and speaking?b. Yes b. no18. Which type of speaking skill is required in your profession?b. Formalspeaking b. presentation skill c. informal communicationd. all of the above19. Which type of writing skill your profession requires?b. Technical writing b. business letter writing c. report writing d. above all20. Which type of material you have to read?
  66. 66. 66b. Reports b. advertisements c. manuals d. documentse. agreement f. bills g. invoice h. delivery notes21. Is listening problematic for you, at any situation?b. Yes b. no don‟t know22. What is the weak area in which you want to be proficient in English?b. technical vocabulary b. grammar c. pronunciation23. Which time of the day is convenient for you, to attend this course?b. From 9 a.m- 11 a.m b. from 3 p.m – 5 p.m c. from 7 p.m- 9 p.m24. Which day of the week is suitable for you, to attend this course?b. Saturday - Sunday b. Friday- Sunday c. Tuesday- Wednesday25. In which methodology of teaching you will want to learn English?c. Through text books b. through discussion sessionc. through lecture delivery methodology26. In your opinion, which method of evaluation will be useful?b. Daily base assignments b. daily base class testc. only one test at the end of the course d. only one projecte. no proper evaluation criteria27. Why are you attending this course?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________28. What are your future expectations, after attending this course?
  67. 67. 67_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________29. Do you think fluency in English language can improve your status, at current job?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________30. Any suggestion you think that could be beneficial to improve our designed course?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Date:
  68. 68. 68Appendix 2
  69. 69. 69Bibliography
  70. 70. 70,d.bGE
  71. 71. 71