GROUP # 6HASEEMA ZAFARBUSHRA AFTABSHAMSA NOREENMOBEEN JAMSHAIDSONIA SANASANA SAFEER
Naipaul usesthe sharp imagesvery ironic tonefor Pakistan and Pakistanileaders as he says; “it could beseen as a fragmentedcountry, economicallystagnant, despotically ruled, withits gifted people close to hysteria
• By giving a reference of anarticle in the Tehrantimes, Naipaul asserts thatPakistan and Iran, both areusing the logic of religion togain power because they arelacking behind in the concernsof science, which is the abilityto run a twentieth- centurystate.
• He gives ethnographic detailse.g. “iran, with a population…while Pakistan, with twice thepopulation, earns one hundredforty millions a month”. so, hesays that pakistan‟s economyis dwindling day by day and toauthenticate his argument, hegives examples ofadvertisements in Dawn.
• He gives historicalperspectives of foundation ofPakistan that it came in tobeing on the name of religion• Besides, using his analyticskills to convince the readersof his idea Naipaul alsoignores the influence of Britishrule• he also hides the injusticesdone by British to Muslims ofthe sub-continent
• He further quotes hisdialogues, with some natives ofPakistan, to prove himself aseeker who is on the quest tosearch the truth and says thatpeople are still dissatisfied withtheir present conditions and faith.• We see three characterscaricatured by him• Poet• Maulana• driver
all people talk about Islam butexpect from others to doassumptions in a quite orderedplan. He has chosen all thosecharacters that were withoutmystics or intellectual bent.
Autobiographical features:he was an atheistHistorical perspectiveAhmad was born in northern India inlast centuryJournalistic techniquesPLOT TO MAKE PAKISTAN A FOREIGNSTOOGE from the Morning News
Ethnographic details:It had cotton carpet thatwas worn, its red and whitepatterns are full of dust andtearing noise of a scooterthat makes smokes
Charactersmr. Mirza, Mr. deen, Mr.Salahuddin,Mr.sherwani, the officer in a green sari,AhmedIMAGERYa dead cockroch carried off by antsThemestheme of islamic laws in actionpoverty.
Naipaul has used different formalaspects that makes his writing moreauthentic.narrative authorityeye witness experiences“we went first to a mosque to findsome people Ahmed thought I shouldmeet(pg:124)we were driving through Karachi, Isaw printed postures(125)
Naipaul has demonstrated acuity ofobservations in his writings“ahmed finished building his house; hepaid off all his debts”(127)“on his terrace, on an easychair, lay an elderly man in brown;he was paralyzed. He was thegrandfather, the head of thefamily, once the head of thefirm”(129)
Travelling strategies as one ofthem is detailed EthnographicreportingForty miles east was the littletown of Banbhorean ancient postsite dating back to the firstcentury b.c(124)The Ramadan month ends, and the Idfestival is proclaimed ,when the newmoon is sighted(124)
fictional elements used by NaipaulTone is satiricalDirt, old, dusty street, hot, filthy, sandytracks(125)Another element is characterizationAhmed, industrialist, police officers, oldman“he walked briskly to the edge of theroad, erect, military-looking in his grey-blue pakistani costume”(124-131)
eye witness experiencesHistory in Pakistan school books Ilooked at, begins with Arabia andIslam(142)Naipaul has used travel writingstrategies one of them isjournalistic techniqueAs he tells us complete history ofSind and Spain by readingCbacbnama that is written byPersian author(132)
CharactersHajjaj, Muhammad Bin Qasim, Dahar(131-142)ethnographic reportingAs he has described complete history of sindH. fictional elements used by Naipaulhis tone towards Muslim history is quitesatiricalthe imagery that he portrays of muslim‟shistory is harsh, pithy all about war,destruction, death and pessimism(132-139)
Naipaul used narrative authority inhis writings in order to convince hisreaders.eye-witness experiences:“and when I got to the circuithouse, where I thought I wasstaying, there was trouble. Two civilservants greeted me and told me that…my booking has been cancelled.”
“hyderabad _ a nondescript desert townwith low, ochre distempered concretebuildings baked…..the desert waswaterlogged.”he said that “the stone was heartshaped… people passed their hands overthe stone, caressed it, and then broughttheir hands to their lips and eyes, ortouched their heart; or they appearedto hug themselves.”
Naipaul used particular travel writingstrategiesIn this chapter of the text he has useddetailed ethnographic reporting“beyond hyderabad there were patches ofcultivation; patches of scrub, patches of sand.The brightness hurt the heat hurt. Villagedogs stood still in yellow waterlogged pools.We were in one of the famous river valleys ofearly civilization. But there was no feeling ofa valley”
fictional elementsThe theme which he mostly discusseddealt with themes ofpoverty, desolation, decay, inability anddecadenceHe presented totally negative imagerythat is dark, sharp, dirty and filthy, notpleasinghe said “the marble floor was grimy;there were babies, and many fly, seekingalways to settle on the floor and thebodies.”
He used satirical tone in his textto criticize others“he said that the pir was out andwould be back in three hours. InPakistan the standard unit ofstated delay was half an hour;three hours meant not that day”
BasicsIn this chapter Naipaul hasvisited twin cities Islamabad andRawalpindiIn this chapter he usesethnographic details, ironictone and description ofcharacters
In The Kaghan ValleyThis chapter is about Naipauls visitto the Kaghan valleyEthnographic details, acuteobservation, colonialgaze, narrative authority andfictional elements used by Naipaul
Chapter starts with the descriptionof condition of PakistanHe discussed social evils anddomestic atmosphere and theirimpact on children
narrative authorityeye witness experiencesthe minibuses plied between Rawalpindiand Islamabad had gone on a one-daystrike to protest against policeharassment. The bus drivers told thenewspaper that police wanted higherbribes. The police said the drivers hadbeen „misbehaving‟ with passengers
He gave minute descriptionof everything and he keenlyobserves his surroundingsand by giving the minutedescription Naipaulactually has presented areadable and impressingtext
Ethnographic reportingchildren growing up in a domesticatmosphere where smuggling, black-marketing and hoarding, bribery andcorruption….. are indulged in quiteblatantly, should not be expected toaccept discipline in any form
fictional elementsToneFirst element used by Naipaul istone, THAT is satiricalhe has used the wordsdirt, indiscipline, shame, old, dustystreet, hot, filthy, sandytracks, misbehaving with others, andsocial evils
characterizationAgha Babur, a retired militaryofficerHameed Sagher, AN ARTIST
CHAPTER starts with the descriptionof weather in Punjab, PakistanHe talked about Ahmadis, whoclaimed that that they are thepurest of Muslimsthe village was full of stagnantpools, some quite large and it shows thedirtiness of the people of that villageHe said that there is no greenery in thevillage
Rabwah hills stored andradiated heat. In summers therocks never cooled down
eye witness experiences by giventhe description of weather“the evenings were getting cooler inrawalpindi; the summer was nearly over”“lahore in the plains of the punjab wasto go down where it was still very hot.”
Ethnographic DETAIL“besides the hills was the chenabRiver, one of the rivers of the Punjab, ariver here of the Indo-Pakistansubcontinent”“the salt rocks of rabwah hills storedand radiated heat. In summer the rocksnever cooled down”.
colonial gaze“i thought this was strange thing tosay, until I understand that what wasbeing said was that, beforePakistan, the house had belonged to non-Muslim, now the villages was allMuslim, pure and at prayer time- thoughno call time- two of the men got up to themosque”.
Naipaul includes fictional elementsin his travel writing as his tonetowards Muslim history is quitesatiricalHe presented totally negativeimagery that is dark, sharp, dirtyand filthy it‟s not pleasing