post colonial writers after year 2000


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post colonial writers after year 2000

  1. 1. 1ASSIGNMENT OF: post colonialASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED TO: DR.saiymaTOPIC: post colonial writers after year 2000ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED BY: sitara ayazROLL NO: 1386 MA F11DATE: 24May, 2013
  2. 2. 21. A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNSBY KHALED HOSSEINIPublished May 22nd 2007 by Riverhead HardcoverA Thousand Splendid Suns is a breathtaking story set against the volatile events of Afghanistanslast thirty years, from the Soviet invasion to the reign of the Taliban to post-Taliban rebuildingthat puts the violence, fear, hope and faith of this country in intimate, human terms. It is a tale oftwo generations of characters brought jarringly together by the tragic sweep of war, wherepersonal lives, the struggle to survive, raise a family, find happiness, are inextricable from thehistory playing out around them.Propelled by the same storytelling instinct that made The Kite Runner a beloved classic, AThousand Splendid Suns is at once a remarkable chronicle of three decades of Afghan historyand a deeply moving account of family and friendship. It is a striking, heart wrenching novel ofan unforgiving time, an unlikely friendship, and an indestructible love, a stunningaccomplishment.Like diamonds and roses hidden under bomb rubble, this is a story of intense beauty and strengthburied under the surface of the cruel and capricious life imposed upon two Afghani women.―She remembered Nana saying once that each snowflake was a sigh heaved by an aggrievedwoman somewhere in the world. That all the sighs drifted up the sky, gathered into clouds, andthen broke into tiny pieces that fell silently on the people below. As a reminder of how peoplelike us suffer, shed said. How quietly we endure all that falls upon us.‖Staggeringly beautiful, deep, rich, sad, frightening and infuriating, Afghanistan certainly fit thatdescription, which makes me feel a significant amount of personal shame given how intertwinedthe country has been with the history of the U.S. over the last 30 years. That same time frame isalso the primary focus of the novel so I feel like I got a real taste of the history of this mysterioustime.That said, the historical events described in the novel are merely spice for the narrative and areclearly not the entrée at this literary feast.
  3. 3. 3The story revolves around two women, Mariam and Laila, born 20 years apart, but whose livesare intertwined through the events of the novel. Mariam (born in 1959) is the illegitimatedaughter of a wealthy merchant named Jalil who has 3 wives and 9 ―legitimate‖ children.Mariam‘s mother, Nana, was a servant in Jalil‘s house whose affair with Jalil resulted in Mariam.As you might expect, the 3 wives were less than enthused and Nana and Mariam were forced tolive on the outskirts of town, making Nana a bitter often cruel person to Mariam.The other main character is Laila (born in 1978) who lives in the same area as Mariam. Laila‘sstory begins with her close friendship with a boy named Tariq who loses a leg to a Soviet landmine when he‘s 5 years old. Years later, with Kabul under constant rocket attacks, Laila‘s familydecides to leave the city. During an emotional farewell, Laila and Tariq make love. Later, as herfamily is preparing to depart Kabul, a rocket kills her parents and severely injures Laila. Througha series of mostly tragic circumstances, Mariam and Laila both end up married to a seriousscumbag named Rasheed. I want to clarify that last remark because I think it goes to the mostchilling aspect of the novel for me. One of the novel‘s primary strengths is the bright light theauthor shines on the nasty way women are treated in countries like Afghanistan.Now not being knowledgeable enough about the culture to make a well-informed analysis, Istrongly suspect that the character of Rasheed, while made somewhat worse for dramatic effect,is close enough to what was ―the norm‖ as to be positively sickening.Bottom-line, Rasheed is an ignorant, mean-spirited, petty little pile who will make even the mostserene and passive reader feel like loading the .45 with hollow points and performing agunpowder enema on his sorry, wretched chair cushion.Anyway, once Mariam and Laila find themselves together, the story deepens as these twowomen slowly learn first to live with each other and later to depend upon each other as they facealmost daily challenges, mostly from their abusive husband.She lived in fear of his shifting moods, his volatile temperament, his insistence on steering evenmundane exchanges down a confrontational path that, on occasion, he would resolve with
  4. 4. 4punches, slaps, kicks, and sometimes try to make amends for with polluted apologies, andsometimes not.The lives of these women are an epic journey in every sense of the word and I felt like I was on ajourney of my own as I road along with them.While there is much of darkness and pain throughout the book, Hosseini never allows theemotional tone of the story to descend in melodrama. There is little self-pity or wallowing ingrief. There is pain, there is loss but there is no surrender. Instead, these women absorbtremendous blows (both figuratively and literally) and continue to live.There is a great passage near the end of the book because it reveals the final fate of one of thecharacters, but it is simply a perfect summation of the strength and dignity that is the heart of thisstory.Some of the important quotes from text are as follows―One could not count the moons that shimmer on her roofs,Or the thousand splendid suns that hide behind her walls.‖Marriage can wait, education cannot.‖Behind every trial and sorrow that He makes us shoulder, God has a reason.‖―A mans heart is a wretched, wretched thing. It isnt like a mothers womb. It wont bleed.It wont stretch to make room for you.‖―Perhaps this is just punishment for those who have been heartless, to understand onlywhen nothing can be undone.‖ 11
  5. 5. 52. Postcolonial Whiteness: A Critical Reader on Race and EmpireAlfred J. LopezSUNY Press, 2005Postcolonial Whiteness examines the interrelations between whiteness and the history ofEuropean colonialism, as well, as the status of whiteness in the contemporary postcolonial world.It addresses two fundamental questions: What happens to whiteness after empire, and to whatextent do white cultural norms or imperatives remain embedded in the postcolonial or postindependence state as a part-"acknowledged or not-"of the colonial legacy? Presenting a widerange of critical and theoretical responses, the contributors explore these questions by focusingon such diverse topics as the legacy of Princess Diana; queer self-expression; the changingsituation of Gypsy, or Romani, minorities in Eastern Europe; literature, including JosephConrads "Heart of Darkness, Carryl Phillipss "Cambridge, and Gothic impact on the literatureof Australia; reconstruction of white South African social identity; cross-cultural discussions ofmental illness; Freuds case history of the Wolfman; and Australias national anthems.It has been almost fifty years since Harry Levin, who after World War II was a leader inreinvigorating comparative literature in the United States, published The Power of Blackness.Given that ―black‖ was not then widely recognized as a racial term, this myth-oriented study ofAmerican fiction did not address race in any detail, analyzing instead an array of archetypalundercurrents in Melville, Hawthorne, and Poe. The contrast with ―whiteness studies,‖ asillustrated by the two books under review here, could hardly be greater, for this new field facesracial issues head on, thinks in terms of historical contingencies rather than mythic continuities,and stresses sociocultural and political contexts in addition to or even more than literary orlinguistic specificities. This final characteristic reflects the challenge (registered in the 1993Bernheimer Report) that cultural studies began to pose for comparative literature two decadesago and, more broadly, recalls familiar tensions between the humanities and the social sciences.When framed in these terms, some comparatists may wonder whether this line of research hasanything to offer their field. Yet one fountainhead for whiteness studies is Toni Morrison‘splaying in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (1993), which credits ―somestudents of comparative literature,‖ among others, for contributing to its insights (12). Based onthree lectures given at Harvard, this path breaking book looks at the charged scenes involving
  6. 6. 6black characters in American literature, most notably in fiction by Poe, Twain, Cather, andHemingway. Morrison‘s point, however, is not to explore what these situations imply aboutblacks, in a directly representational, ―realistic‖ manner of storytelling. Instead, taking apsychological approach that turns our attention back toward the author, she aims to identify what―racial ideology does to the mind, imagination, and behavior of ornament21 Review Essay 19masters,‖ rather than to analyze what racialization did to its victims. This reversal of perspective,which refuses to take the white viewpoint for granted, is one defining gesture of whitenessstudies. Drawing on her experience as a novelist with narrative perspective and figurativelanguage as well as with nuances of characterization, Morrison goes on to ask what thesesituations reveal about the authors‘ unvoiced, even unconscious assumptions while writing in aculture where whiteness alone can confer automatic authority and power. In thus crossingboundaries—though not between two literatures in different national languages, but between tworacial groups within a single literature—she is pursuing a recognizably comparative project.When she speaks of black Americans as ―a population that has always had a curiously intimateand unhingingly separate existence within the dominant one‖ (12), she defines her subject matterin a way that has clear affinities with such familiar topics in our field as Franco–German literaryrelations or Slavic–Western ones. Alfred J. López‘s reader Postcolonial Whiteness bringstogether ten essays that, along with the editor‘s substantial introduction on theoreticalframeworks for broadening the geocultural scope of whiteness studies, extend this inquiry tomuch of the English-speaking world and to Eastern Europe as well. The topics covered areusually less specifically literary than those in Playing in the Dark, tending instead to applyliterary, psychological, or filmic modes of analysis to cultural issues that exhibit a lingering butdubious fixation on whiteness. More than Morrison, the precursors most often acknowledged arethe black therapist cum postcolonial theorist Franz Fanon and the film critic Richard Dyer, withthe anthropologist Arjun Appadurai, the comparatists Edward Said, the media critic Ella Shohat,and the postcolonial.23. The Post-colonial Studies ReaderBill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen TiffinRoutledge, 20062
  7. 7. 7The essential introduction to the most important texts in post-colonial theory and criticism, thissecond edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to include 121 extracts from key worksin the field.Leading, as well as lesser known figures in the fields of writing, theory and criticism contributeto this inspiring body of work that includes sections on Nationalism, Hybridity, Diaspora andGlobalization. The Readers wide-ranging approach reflects the remarkable diversity of work inthe discipline along with the vibrancy of anti-imperialist writing both within and without themetropolitan centers. Covering more debates, topics and critics than any comparable book in itsfield, The Postcolonial Studies Reader is the ideal starting point for students and issues a potentchallenge to the ways in which we think and write about literature and culture.The book has fourteen sections, each dealing with a major concept or issue in post-colonialtheory. Each section is introduced by the editors and includes up to seven extracts from varioustheorists. As well as fundamental postcolonial issues, such as Language, Place, History andEthnicity, it also assesses the similarities and differences with postmodernism, explores conceptssuch as Hybridity and The Body and Performance, and also examines the very importantmaterial practice? of Education, Production and Consumption, and the modes of Representationand Resistance. The uniqueness of this volume is in its range and comprehensiveness. Bybringing together nearly ninety extracts from over fifty different writers, it demonstrates the vastspread of post-colonial theory, the degree to which such theory is emerging outside themetropolitan intellectual centers, and the significance such theory has in the practical politicalissues of living in this range of societies. This book makes accessible the full range of
  8. 8. 8postcolonial theory, which otherwise would be either difficult or impossible for students,teachers or researchers to fully utilize.34.The Cambridge Companion to Postcolonial Literary StudiesEdited by Neil LazarusThis book offers an introduction to post colonialism; this Companion examines differentaspects of postcolonial thought and culture that have had a significant effect on contemporarycritical thought. Topics discussed by experts in the field include post colonialism‘s relation tomodernity, and its significance and relevance to literature, film, law, philosophy, and moderncultural studies. Additional material includes a guide to further reading and a chronology.Cambridge companion to post colonial studies proposes a lucid introduction andoverview of one of the most important strands in recent literary theory and cultural studies. Thevolume aims to introduce the key concepts, methods, theories thematic concerns andcontemporary debates in the fields. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines, contributors explainthe impact of history, sociology and philosophy on the study of post colonial literatures andcultures. Examined topic in the book include from anti-colonial nationalism and decolonizationto globalization, migration flows and the ‗brain drain‘ which constitute the past and present of‗the post colonial condition‘. It also takes into account the sociological and ideologicalconditions surrounding the emergence of post colonial literary studies as an academic field in3
  9. 9. 9late 197os and early 1980s. The Companion turns as authoritative, engaged and discriminatinglens on post colonial literary studies.44