ASSIGNMENT OF: post colonialASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED TO: DR.saiymaTOPIC: post colonial writers after year 2000ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED BY: maryam tariqROLL NO: 1401MA F11DATE: 24May, 2013
1. The Cambridge Companion to Postcolonial Literary StudiesEdited by Neil LazarusThis book offers an introduction to post colonialism; this Companion examines differentaspects of postcolonial thought and culture that have had a significant effect on contemporarycritical thought. Topics discussed by experts in the field include post colonialism‟s relation tomodernity, and its significance and relevance to literature, film, law, philosophy, and moderncultural studies. Additional material includes a guide to further reading and a chronology.Cambridge companion to post colonial studies proposes a lucid introduction andoverview of one of the most important strands in recent literary theory and cultural studies. Thevolume aims to introduce the key concepts, methods, theories thematic concerns andcontemporary debates in the fields. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines, contributors explainthe impact of history, sociology and philosophy on the study of post colonial literatures andcultures. Examined topic in the book include from anti-colonial nationalism and decolonizationto globalization, migration flows and the „brain drain‟ which constitute the past and present of„the post colonial condition‟. It also takes into account the sociological and ideologicalconditions surrounding the emergence of post colonial literary studies as an academic field inlate 197os and early 1980s. The Companion turns as authoritative, engaged and discriminatinglens on post colonial literary studies.11http://www.google.com.pk/url?q=http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Cambridge_Companion_to_Postcolonial.html%3Fid%3DX66n_xiHn9EC&sa=U&ei=QgyfUcSQFpS5hAfi4YBY&ved=0CBkQFjAA&usg=AFQjCNH0GQCY2QveB4-Vg9FPmmSgPZQISQ
2.Homi Bhabha by David HuddartHomi K. Bhabha (born 1949) is the Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English andAmerican Literature and Language, and the Director of the Humanities Center at HarvardUniversity. He is one of the most important figures in contemporary post-colonial studies, andhas coined a number of the fields neologisms and key concepts, such as hybridity, mimicry,difference, and ambivalence. Such terms describe ways in which colonized peoples have resistedthe power of the colonizer, according to Bhabhas theory. In 2012, he was awarded the PadmaBhushan award in the field of literature and education by the Indian government.Being the most highly renowned figures in contemporary post-colonial studies, thisvolume Homi Bhabha By David Huddart, explores Homi‟s writings and their influence onpostcolonial theory, introducing in clear and accessible language the key concepts of his work,such as ambivalence, mimicry, hybridity and translation. David Huddart draws on a range ofcontexts, including art history, contemporary cinema and canonical texts in order to illustrate thepractical application of Bhabhas theories. This Introductory book throws light on cultural andpostcolonial theories.David Huddart draws examples from a range of fields including cultural theory, film andliterary studies in order to illustrate the practical application of Bhabha‟s thought. Offering astarting point for readers new to this crucial theorist‟s sometimes complex texts, or support forthose who wish to deepen their understanding of his work, this guidebook is ideal in the fields ofliterary, cultural and post-colonial theory.
Cultural theory has often been criticized for covert Eurocentric and Universalisttendencies. Its concepts and ideas are implicitly applicable to everyone, ironing over anyindividuality or cultural difference. Postcolonial theory has challenged these limitations ofcultural theory, and Postcolonial Theory and Autobiography addresses the central challengeposed by its autobiographical turn.Despite the fact that autobiography is frequently dismissed for its Western, masculinebias, David Huddart argues for its continued relevance as a central explanatory category inunderstanding postcolonial theory and its relation to subjectivity. Focusing on the influence ofpost-structuralist theory on postcolonial theory and vice versa, this study suggests thatautobiography constitutes a general philosophical resistance to universal concepts and theories.23. Post-Colonial Literatures: Expanding the CanonEdited by Deborah L. MadsenDeborah Madsen remarks on the "privileged texts and [. . .] national and regionalliteratures" that comprise "the post-colonial canon" from which America is excluded, which,exclusion, then,Post-Colonial Literatures seeks to redress. Unlike Hulme who views"postcolonial" as a "useful word" that "refers to the process of disengagement from the colonialsyndrome, which takes many forms and probably is inescapable for all those whose worlds havebeen marked by that set of phenomena", Madsen confines the usefulness of the term "post-colonial" to "the ethnic literatures of the United States." In so doing, she confines its deploymentin the case of America to comparisons that can be drawn (based on their putative "colonized"status) between "writers of color, publishing in America" and "post-colonial writers of Africa2http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/109493.David_Huddart
and the Caribbean, and indigenous post-colonial writers of Canada and Australia and NewZealand" as they negotiate "the problems of marginalization and cultural erasure" in dominantsociety.Madsen remarks that she has organized the collection such that the "post-colonialliteratures of North America" appear "in relation to more familiar (British Commonwealth) post-colonial areas".The implication is that through this organization, where analyses of Americantexts appear check by jowl with those more conventionally regarded as postcolonial, thenecessity for deploying the term postcolonial for the former will become self-evident.By and large, however, the essays in the collection proceed as if postcolonial and ethnicliteratures are either synonymous (Patricia Linton, for example) or that there are such significantcontinuities between the two as to be self-evident. Despite some fine contributions on interestingsubjects (Debra Castillos essays, "Border Theory and the Canon," for example), there is, ineffect, no convincing case being made for the inclusion of America in any of the essays.34. PURPLE HIBISCUSBY CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIEPublished 2005 by Harper Perennial“Purple Hibiscus”, written by contemporary Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, tellsthe story of a lonely and reclusive 15-year-old girl, Kambili, in present-day Nigeria. Thetumultuous social, political, and religious climate, typical to that time in Nigeria, permeatesevery aspect of Kambili‟s life. But Kambili‟s situation is different than that of most of hercountrymen: her father is a rich newspaper publisher whose public façade is one of a brave and3http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ral/summary/v032/32.4needham.html
courageous man who dares to publish the truth about the military coup and the new government.Kambili‟s narration of a life shaken by domestic violence and turmoil reflects her painfully shyand submissive character. Only after she and her brother, Jaja, visit their outspoken AuntyIfeoma does Kambili break out of her shell and finally realize the unjustifiable cruelty of herfather.Kambili‟s father is a prominent member of society who always must sit in the front pew at massand donates huge sums of money to the poor. Everybody loves and respects him for hisgenerosity and compassion. But behind her father‟s wall of lies, resides a family of four livingunder his fanatical religious tyranny. Self-justified by Catholicism, Kambili‟s hypocritical fathermercilessly wipes out “sin” out of his life and out of everyone else around him. Dragged downby his fanaticism are his two children and his wife, whom he ironically beats ruthlessly. He setsnonsensically strict rules and regulations upon his household that restrict Kambili and Jaja fromeven speaking to each other. Just as he is attracted the conformity and rules of his religion, helikewise finds utter bliss in writing out individual schedules that dictates how each member ofthe household spends every minute of their day. Kambili is traumatized almost to the point of amental breakdown by her father‟s suppression and how he maliciously beats her mother. “Theblack type blurred, the letters swimming into one another, and then changed to a brightred, the red of fresh blood. The blood was watery, flowing from Mama, flowing from myeyes”. The craziness continues until the military coup, and Kambili‟s father‟s life is potentiallyendangered. He decides to send Jaja and Kambili to their Aunty Ifeoma‟s house.Aunty Ifeoma is a college professor at a local university who raises her children to challengeauthority and push ideological boundaries, an idea unheard of to Kambili. Aunty Ifeoma‟s homeis loud, noisy, and full of laughter and fluid conversation. Kambili is envious of her threecousins‟ ability to speak and make decisions on their own. Her cousins‟ freedom and libertygrowing up is new and alien to Kambili. She slowly acknowledges that there are other ways tolive your life other than by following her father‟s authoritarian daily schedules.Kambili, awkward and timid, slowly grows into a young adult who better understands heremotions and feelings. She is forced out of the confines of father‟s limitations and into the realworld.Some of the quotes from texts area as follow
“We did that often, asking each other questions whose answers we already knew. Perhapsit was so that we would not ask the other questions, the ones whose answers we did notwant to know.”“...he did not want me to seek the whys, because there are some things that happen forwhich we can formulate no whys, for which whys simply do not exist and, perhaps, arenot necessary.”“I was stained by failure.”“People have crushes on priests all the time, you know. It‟s exciting to have to deal withGod as a rival.”“Being defiant can be a good thing sometimes," Aunty Ifeoma said. "Defiance is likemarijuana - it is not a bad thing when it is used right.”“Papa sat down at the table and poured his tea from the china tea set with pink flowers onthe edges. I waited for him to ask Jaja and me to take a sip, as he always did. A love sip,he called it, because you shared the little things you loved with the people you love.” 44http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/126381.Purple_Hibiscus