People all over the worldirrespective of thedifferences of class,region, society, gender andmode of speech exchangeinformation with oneanother.
Translation is a significant modethat provides a means for people tobe benefitted from the knowledgeof various nations and cultures.Latin word‘translatus‘carriedacross’
It refers to the act or process oftranslation that takes place in orderto convert the source or actual textwritten in a source language into atarget text with target language.
as ‘translation studies’ after the publication of Holmes’ paper entitledThe Name and the Nature of translation studies
The investigation of the aim of targettext, its communicative, semantic andthematic value, the place and the timein which it is written, its participantsand its tenor and mode of deliveringthe information are some of the issuesthat translator has to deal with.
TRANSLATION SHIFT APPROACH.It deals with the question thathow the message and themeaning of the source text isshifted into target language andhow the translator shifts form onetechnique or procedure oftranslation to some other strategyaccording to his requirementwhile handling the process oftranslation.
VINAY AND DARBELNETTRANSLATION IS DIVIDED INTO TWOSTRATEGIES THAT COVER SEVEN MAINPROCEDURES. DIRECT TRANSLATION ISTHE FIRST TECHNIQUE THAT THETRANSLATOR IS ADVISED TO USE. THISDIRECT TRANSLATION INCLUDES THREEPROCEDURES
• It is a special kind of borrowing in which the Wordsof the source language are translated into targetlanguage by adding a flavor. In this regard the mainword remains the same but usually connectors areliterally translated.
TranspositionIt corresponds to the alterationof parts of speech. In source textone lexeme belongs to one partof speech; but when it istranslated, it changes its placeaccording to the usage of targetlanguage.
MODULATIONIt refers to the semantic change between sourcelanguage and target language. If in language,certain expressions are abstract they show partwhole relationship, they are active sentences,their symbols are fixed; then these expressionsin another language will have a differentsemantic relationship like that of concreteexpressions, they will be passive sentence,their relationship is part to part relationship,there symbols are not fined and vice versa.
SEVEN PROCEDURES OF DIRECTAND OBLIQUE TRANSLATIONWORK.LEXEMESSYNTAX ORGRAMMATICALSTRUCTURESMESSAGETHEMECONNECTORSSUCH ASDEXISDEMONSTRATED PRONOUNSORDER OF THETEXT ORSEMANTICLEVELWORDS
servitudeServitude deals with thosechanges carried out bytranslators that are necessary forthe transference of message ofsource text.
OPTIONAL CORRESPONDSTo those alterations that the translatordecides to make by choosing anappropriate option from several availablesituations
Influenced by Fithian and Hallidayan linguistic models.
FORMAL CORRESPONDENCE• It gives value to the categories ofTL according to its system. Itfocuses that the aspects of TLshould occupy the same place asthe features of SL have a specificplace in ST
TWO TYPES OF SHIFTS• The first one is the shift of . It refersto the shift in which grammatical aspectsof SL become lexical features in TL or viceversa• The other aspect of shift is that of
THIS SHIFT OF CATEGORY ISSUB DIVIDED INTO FOURMAIN AREASis the majortype of shift. It takes intoaccount the transference ofgrammatical patterns betweentwo modes of speech
IS ANOTHER BRANCH OFCATEGORY SHIFT. THEALTERATION OF PARTSOF SPEECH OCCURS INTHIS SHIFT
Unit ora valuable shift under the domainof category shift. This shift occursas two languages have their ownhierarchal structures and theconstruction of linguisticexpressions sharply distinctivefrom one another.
last type of shift that falls underthe category shift. It throws lighton the point that although all ofthe languages of the world have asimilar system; all the languageshave parts of speech andgrammatical rules.
In translated text of Animal Farm, SyedIrfan Alihas played a significant part. Heis a mediator who has tried his level bestto bring reconciliation between Englishand Urdu language.
There are a numberby George Orwell. Itscontent and languageis simple that can easilybe interpreted. It has been chosen on accountof the shortage of time; for it has a smalllength; so that this project can fulfill therequired criteria by closely analyzing the text.
According to Jacobson aspect is anotherimportant factor due to which one languageseems different from the other. This can befeature examined in the texts of animal farm.Orwell comments upon the character ofBenjamin after the rebellion in these words, ‘OldBenjamin, the donkey seemed quite unchangedsince the Rebellion’. While in translation it is “. In English it isconveyed that Benjamin appears unchangedwhile in Urdu the sense of the verb ‘seemed’ ismissing.
Then, when Old Major decides todeliver his message of freedom to allother animals; in the beginning whilediscussing about his life he says, “I havehad a long life, I have had much time forthought”. While in Urdu, it is conveyedasHere the word „time‟ in English isneutral; while the word of Urdulanguage has masculine status that isapparent from the expression of.
Major advices animals that, “allmen are enemies. All animals arecomrades”. It has been translatedas “”. Here, there is a semanticdifference between “comrades”and “ ”; belongs tothe semantic field of kinship; while“comrade” is a term used forfriends.
Animals have developed sevencommandments that sum up the basicissues of farm. One of them is,“whatever goes upon four legs, or haswings is a friend”. Its conversion is “”.there is a great deal semanticdifference between “ ” and“legs”.
• Here the word “snoring” in the English is usedas verb’s it has been shown that she “wassnoring” but in Urdu version “ ”.Under the category of noun; for it is apparentfrom the expression of “”. The character of “Old Major he was alwayscalled, though the name under which he hadbeen exhibited was wellington beauty”. InUrdu text is appeared as wellington beauty
On the whole translation is like aroad that has many paths to moveforward. The more the time passes,the more the path and avenues comeinto existence. Many critics andscholars of translation are movingforward to find their destination.Many models and theories have theirown directions. However, all havesame destination, same end, samepurpose, but from different angles.
The class shift has also some role intranslation. But it is similar to thatof the concept of transposition underline by Vinay and Darbelnet.Another kind of shift that has adefinite effect to differentiate theAnimal Farm of English from AnimalFarm of Urdu language is the shift ofunit or rank. English and Urdu havetheir own hierarchical structures.