FATIMA GUL&SUMAIRA BIBIUSE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES INPAKISTANI LITERATURE ANDBRITISH LITERATURETOPIC
Review of English Primary AuxiliaryVerbs by Some GrammariansPaul and Arthur (1969) describe the English primaryauxiliary verbs as words that occur with verbs toform verbal groups or verbal phrases. Insteadof classifying the English primary auxiliary verbs asother authors have done, they decided to subgroupthem according to the form of verb with which itoccurs. Through this method of classification,they reveal the English primary auxiliary verbsand their various uses.
The element unique in my researchis that I have selected the novel ofPakistani writer, by MohammedHanif, A Case of ExplodingMangoes .On the contrary I havepicked a novel of William Goldings,Lord of the flies by British writer .Myresearch work will solely focus notonly on the language but inparticular the attitudes generated bythe usage of model auxiliaries .Comparing this will help me as aresearcher to analyze the attitude ofwriters of contrastive regions, provingthat whose language is more declarativeand authoritative by the use of thesemodels.
Research questions1. Do Pakistani writers usemodals differently?2. Does the frequency ofthe use of these modelsalso differ and in whatways
A METHODOLOGY IS DEVELOPED BEFORECARRYING OUT THE RESEARCH, PRAGMATICALLY.A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, WHICH COMESTHIRD IN SEQUENCE OF THE COMPONENTS OF ARESEARCH STUDY, IS CONSIDERED THE BACKBONEOF ANY RESEARCH.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
MethodTHE METHOD I WILL CHOSE FOR MY WORK IS DISCOURSEANALYSIS. THE STUDY OF THE WAYS IN WHICH LANGUAGE ISUSED IN TEXTS AND CONTEXTS. DEVELOPED IN THE 1970S,DISCOURSE ANALYSIS "CONCERNS ITSELF WITH THE USE OFLANGUAGE IN A RUNNING DISCOURSE, CONTINUED OVER ANUMBER OF SENTENCES, AND INVOLVING THE INTERACTIONOF SPEAKER (OR WRITER) AND AUDITOR (OR READER) IN ASPECIFIC SITUATIONAL CONTEXT, AND WITHIN AFRAMEWORK OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONVENTIONS"
Variable• VARIABLES OF MY RESEARCH ARESPECIFICALLY LANGUAGE. WOULD ANDCOULD ARE THE TWO VARIABLES THATWOULD BE ANALYZED THROUGHOUT THETEXTS AND THAN THEIR VARIABILITY WILL BEASSED.
Novel the lord of flies comprises of61059 words in total and according tothe data analyzed by Antconc softwarewould is used 111 times and could isused161 times which gives thepercentage of 0.18% and 0.26%.
“These breezes reached the platform the palmfronds would whisper, so that spots of blurredsunlight slid …”In this line it can be observed that the situationis not clear and beauty of nature is highlighted.As we know that phenomena of nature cannotbe predicted so an element of uncertainty isalways found discussing about nature. It can besaid that the writer has used the modalauxiliary to hint upon the uncertainty ofnature, yet emphasizing the beauty of nature.
He used to blow it and then his mum wouldcome is another quoted text that hints uponthe nostalgic feelings of one of charactermade by writer. Here the use of would throwslight on the fact that the character is homesick and more especially misses his mum.Status of would in this suggested line isdepicting the strong past embedded withalluring memories which keep on flashing inhis mind and never leave him alone .
He paused for a moment, not sure if Ralph would takehim seriously is another example alluding todifferent usage of would in the specific context.Expressing the conditional mood of characterthat will the other person be able to take himseriously or not. This shows the complexity ofmind in character implying through the use ofwould. Would also indicate the hidden desire incharacter to be taken as seriously andimportantly.
“.• Three were playing at the other boy had gone homein an aircraft, he would have accepted the statementwithout fuss or… his natural state and this imperfectcovering would soon go, like the velvet on a youngstags antler know what the time was."These couple of lines draws our attention to the ideaof acceptance. The narrator used would to emphasizethe idea of acceptance. The writer used wouldspecifically to tell his reader’s that he wants his ideasto be naturally accepted without any fuss. Althoughwould also tells about the improbability lingering inthe mind of writer about his idea of acceptance butstill he is hopeful and compassionate towards his ideaby using a simple word would .
“Was it better to fetch Piggys glasses, orwould the ship have gone? Or if theyclimbed on,…His voice was vicious withhumiliation.”Would used here in the center of line indicates thepsychic division of writer created in his characters toshow that modern man is always uncertain about hisaction . In this we can analyze that the characters arenot sure to perform an action. They are in the middleof situation and their mind is not composed to actproperly. Would underscore the significance of dividedstate of mind where the character is unable to performthe required function. Would also bring to light theirresponsible behavior and dwindling of decisionamong the characters. It not only delays their actionbut also publicize the negligent nature of characters.
You could see now that he might make aboxer, as far as wid…In this sentence we can distinguish that the useof modal auxiliary is quite significant. Couldhere denote that the person is capable ofdoing something but dint do it. It can beconsidered that he might hints on the adeptnature of character but we can examine thathas not made a boxer yet. Duplicity in thenature and ambitions of characters isrepresented through the use of word could.
Then he lifted his chin and spoke. I couldswim when I was five. We can use could tospeculate about what has happened. Orsometimes to talk about that has nothappened. In these lines it can bespeculated that either the character wasable to swim back at five or this gestureonly remain confined to the dreams. Thisvague idea is picked out because of theuse of cold by character.
None of the boys could have found good reasonfor this; what intelligence.Could use in the above line underscore the ideaof criticism on boys. Writer has used wordcould in order to censure the intelligence ofboys which has been certainly of no usebecause they have not find any good reason.The use of could emphasize the scorningattitude of writer towards its knittedcharacters.
• THE LORD OF FLIES• TOTAL WORDS 61059• MODAL AUXILIARY• FREQUENCY• PERCENTAGE• WOULD• 111• 0.18%• COULD• 161• 0.26%
00.050.10.150.20.250.3would couldthe lord of the fliesthe case of exploding mangoes
The case of exploding mangoesTotal words 105929 case 0.27%could1960.18%Modal auxiliaryFrequency PercentageWould 296 0.27%could 196 0.18%The case of exploding mangoesTotal words 105929
I assumed he would come straight to the paradesquare.Here in the above mentioned sentence "would" havebeen used to show the possibility of the action, it canbe assumed that there are some other options as wellbut the most preferred situation is that he wouldcome to the parade square. But in this sentenceHanif has utilized it to ensure the possibility ofaction. In this line writer has tried to highlight theuncertainty in the minds of characters through theuse of would . would here not only suggestuncertainty but also a symbol of positive hopedeveloped by the character that the other characterwill come.
I hear the voice. I would recognise it from my coffin."Under Officer Ali?". . . that its very painful for you.Would can be used to demonstrate hope andpresumption. Here in the above mentioned sentenceMuhammad Hanif has used "would" to demonstrate thepresumption. but at the same time it can be said thatwriter might used it to show some sort of hope. It alsoshows the character is so over-powered by his consciousand unconscious thoughts that if he is in the coffin, thenhe will recognize it. The character has been in great griefand anguish that he can identify that person who hurthim.
if he started changing into his uniform he wouldbe late for his prayers. Not that it mattered,because the imam would wait for him to turn upbefore starting the prayer.In this sentence the use of would indicatesthe possibility. this line depicts that the charactertries to fulfil the rules of Islam, he didnt evenchange the uniform. The use of would shows thatthe character is so obsessed with the assumptions,that he even not prefer to change his uniform. Thecharacter is so paranoid that he didntacknowledge his value, that the imam would waitfor him, here in the next half of the sentence, theuse of would indicates that the imam is compelledto wait for him before starting the prayer, becausethat man might have been in some sort ofauthoritative place, and if the imam ignored thenit may cause some harm to him.
Not that I could afford to miss. Not that I wasgoing to be given...and were two differententities. I could make them work togetherbetter.Could is used to talk about theoreticalpossibility and is often used for emphasis. thewriter has used "could" to illustrate the lossthat is unaffordable, or it can be said that ithas been used by the writer to highlight theimportance of the thing, that is unbearableto lose.
They shifted in their seats and before hecould declare the meeting open, theNaval Chief said, that the training hadprepared them for many tasks.Could is used as the past tense ofthe can, and in the above mentionedsentence writer have used it to showsome sort of possibility and ability aswell. The character has the ability todeclare the meeting but navel chiefhave interrupted and made a remarkthat the training has prepared them toconfront any sort of danger and threat.
So unexpected was the attack that Obaidcould only whimper. His knees buckled andhe fell on the ground and breathe deeply. Iwish I could afford the luxury of passing out.This is the another example thatdemonstrates the certain possible situationaccording to certain context. the writer hasmade a different usage of could in certaincontext. The use of "could" in the midst of thesentence reveals the intensity of the attack,and it also indicates that the attack was sosudden and unanticipated, that the characterwas unable to restore his energy to breatheeven. In this sentence the use of "could"denotes the characters inner inability orweakness.