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Somalia

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Somalia

  1. 1. Somalia: a failed state?
  2. 2. Somalia • Independent since 1960, after the union of former Italian and British colonies • Ruled since 1969 by dictator Siad Barre • Disintegrated into civil war after the collapse of the Barre regime 1991
  3. 3. UN intervention in Somalia • In December 1992, Security Council Resolution 794 authorised a Unified Task Force to provide security and humanitarian intervention in Somalia (a broader interpretation of Chapter VII) • Between 1993 and 1994, the UN force (UNOSOM II) operated in the south of Somalia • In 1993, 18 US troops were killed in clashes with forces loyal to a local warlord, General Aidid (the Battle of Mogadishu) • The casualties led to the withdrawal of the UN force and destroyed US enthusiasm for foreign intervention
  4. 4. Somaliland: northern stability • Formerly a British colony, Somaliland was independent for five days before deciding to join the rest of Somalia in 1960 • Somaliland declared its independence in May 1991, after the collapse of the Somali government • Somaliland is stable and relatively prosperous, but the world does not recognise it as in independent state
  5. 5. Puntland • Puntland, in northeastern Somalia, was set up in 1998 by local leaders who wanted stability • Based on a confederation of local clans, Puntland regards itself as an autonomous federal state within Somalia • Puntland is able to provide basic government services, but it is far less stable than neighbouring Somaliland
  6. 6. The spread of Somali pirate attacks
  7. 7. The causes of Somali piracy • The breakdown of central authority in Somalia in 1991 means there is no policing of Somali waters • Illegal fishing boats take advantage of the absence of a Somali coastguard • Competing Somali authorities have made the problem worse by issuing too many fishing licences • The collapse of traditional fishing and other forms of economic activity encouraged a growth of piracy as a business
  8. 8. The cost of piracy • Somali piracy has meant increasing insurance costs for the international shipping industry, leading to higher prices for all goods shipped through high-risk regions • Every consumer pays for these costs indirectly • Some crew members have died as a result of pirate attacks
  9. 9. The cost of piracy • Somali piracy has meant increasing insurance costs for the international shipping industry, leading to higher prices for all goods shipped through high-risk regions • Every consumer pays for these costs indirectly • Some crew members have died as a result of pirate attacks

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