13 gender in a globalising world january 2014


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  • Hegemonic Masculinity – marriage, heterosexual, hard work , strength, physical toughness
    Complicit masculinity –
    Subordinated masc
  • 13 gender in a globalising world january 2014

    1. 1. Gender in a globalizing world
    2. 2. Ask your partner • What is the link between sexual activity and your identity? • Is gender just biological reductionism? If not, in what ways are ‘femininity’ and ‘masculinity’ socially constructed? • On a global level, how do ideologies about gender affect your life chances?
    3. 3. Human Rights Act 1998 • The General Synod voting on women bishops November 2012 • The Act preserves the European Convention on Human Rights into UK Law and convention rights are now enforceable through UK courts. • Article 14: • Convention rights must be protected without discrimination on any grounds such as, sex, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth, disability, and mental status.
    4. 4. Today Sexual identities • What is the link between sexual activity and your identity? The social construction of masculinities and femininities • Is gender just biological reductionism? If not, in what ways are ‘femininity’ and ‘masculinity’ socially constructed? The global gender order • On a global level, how do ideologies about gender affect your life chances? Key words: gender order; patriarchy; biological reductionism; • The study of sexuality may be the most personally threatening topic: – The links between sexual desire, sexual activity and sexual identity are far from simple
    5. 5. Harassment and violence ‘The harassment suffered by those who are ...trans are part of a continuum of the gender violence that took the lives of Brandon Teena, Matthew Shepard and Gwen Aruajo’ Judith Butler Undoing Gender (2004:6)
    6. 6. SEXUAL IDENTITIES Researching sexualities
    7. 7. Researching Sexuality • Kinsey (1948. 1953). Very famous study • 70% men had visited a prostitute • 84% had had premarital sexual experiences • BUT • 40% men expected their wives to be virgin! Double standards! • 90% of males – masturbation • 60% of males – oral sex • 50% women – premarital sex • 60% women - masturbation/oral sex • Lots of heterosexual men had experienced homosexual feelings! • Gap between public attitudes and actual behaviour
    8. 8. Researching sexual behaviour • Rubin (1990) 1,000 Americans 13-48 – Sexual activity beginning at earlier age than previous generation – Sexual practises of teenagers as varied and comprehensive as adults – Women come to expect/actively pursue sexual pleasure in relationships. Expecting to receive sexual satisfaction. – Most men found female assertiveness difficult to accept: felt ‘inadequate’, found it ‘impossible to satisfy women these days’ • Unexpected findings: men dominate in most spheres, are much more violent to women. Is masculinity a source of burden as well as reward? If men stopped using sexuality as control, men and women would benefit? • Holmstrom (1975) criminologist. Rape is an exertion of power rather than sexual; masculinity
    9. 9. Sexual Identities • The links between sexual desire, sexual activity and sexual identity are far from simple • Social interaction is shaped around a presumed norm of heterosexuality (the ‘heteronormative’) • Biology and Sexual Behaviour – Challenging area to study; anatomic differences – Barash (1979) evolutionary explanation to why men tend to be more sexually promiscuous than women. – Rose et al (1984) human behaviour is shaped more by environment due to long infancy spent with parents/ before adulthood – However: human sexual behaviour is meaningful. Humans use/ express sexuality in various different ways. Sexuality is symbolic: performative (Butler)
    10. 10. Forms of sexual practices; sexual orientations
    11. 11. Sexual Desire and Orientation • Sexual activities towards others of the same sex exist in all cultures • Sexual preferences are not choice/ have a firm basis in desire: – Bell et al (1981) biology predisposes – Healy (2001) inconclusive and controversial Bailey & Pillard (1991: Bailey 1993) twins – Plummer (1975) – the link between participation in same-sex activity and the adoption/ imposition of the social identity ‘homosexual’ is a complex and far from direct one. • Casual passing encounter; schoolboy crushes; situated activities; regularly carried out, but don’t become individuals overriding preference; personalized homosexuality preference but are isolated from groups in which this is accepted; way of life individuals who have come out, members of gay cultures, distinct lifestyles • Sexual orientation is extremely varied; attitudes towards orientation are also culturally and historically specific
    12. 12. Ideologies • Attitudes are not uniform globally; western attitudes shaped by Christianity for 2,000 years • 19th C religious presumptions replaced by medical ones: masturbation makes you go blind! • Sexual hypocrisy of Victorians still exists Barret-Ducrocq (1992)
    13. 13. Victorian ideologies • Ideologies of masculinity and femininity that define men as aggressive, women as passive and sexuality as deviant are still powerful in the 21st century. • Modern gender roles emerged in the 17th century alongside a developing capitalism. • The Victorians created them precisely because they disliked the irreligion and licentiousness of their Georgian forbears. Work –Ford Maddox Brown 1854- 65
    14. 14. Attitudes towards that which is outside the ‘heteronormative’ • Homophobia aversion or hatred of homosexual people or practices • Rejection of effeminacy by gay men leads to – Camp masculinity – Macho image (Bertelson 1986)
    15. 15. http://www.newint.org/features/2000/10/05/facts/ 2000 New Internationalist
    16. 16. Normalizing of Homosexuality • Influence of second wave feminism; human rights legislation • Redman 1996 increased visibility has called into question universalism of heterosexuality • Rutherford & Chapman 1988 hysterical and paranoid responses: – In order to preserve heteronormative, homosexuals are marginalized and vilified – Example: The Phelps family • Increase in civil partnerships • Increase in legal rights • Legislative change and social policy don’t always follow public opinion but can change public opinion
    17. 17. Why do gay people stay ‘in the closet’? • Fear of losing jobs • Fear of losing families • Fear of losing friends • Fear of verbal abuse • Fear of physical abuse • The Stonewall Riots 1969 – Weeks 1977; D’Emilio 1983 New York’s gay community fought police for two days after continual police harassment – 1994; 25th Anniversary of Stonewall, 100, 000 people attended International March on United Nations to Affirm the Human Rights of Lesbian and Gay People
    18. 18. Gay and Lesbian Civil Rights • Seidman (1997) in some areas (such as gay marriage) the lives of gay men and women have been normalized to a large extent: Manchester, New York, Brighton, San Francisco, Sydney... Large gay communities • There are enormous differences between countries in the degree to which homosexual acts are legally punishable (see earlier map) • International Lesbian & Gay Association (ILGA) 1978 international conferences, convinced Council of Europe to require all its member nations to get rid of laws banning homosexuality • Frank & McEneany (1999) active lesbian & gay social movements thrive in countries which emphasize individuals rights and liberal policies – December 2013 High Court of Australia reversed a decision to allow gay marriages in Canberra (ACT) after just one week, because it contradicted national law which defined marriage as between a man and a woman
    19. 19. How do gay and lesbian groups work together? Interaction between lesbianism and feminism • Rich (1981) a distinctive brand of lesbian feminism emerged which promoted the spread of ‘female values’ and challenged the established, dominant institution of male heterosexuality • Seidman (1997) many gay women view lesbianism as less a sexual orientation and more as a commitment to and a form of solidarity with other women: politically, socially and personally. • Against what…patriarchy?
    20. 20. Patriarchal Action Movie
    21. 21. Patriarchy – Men on top Much gender theory concentrates on women, but increasingly sociology is interested in men and the idea of masculinity. The feminist concept of patriarchy is useful to explaining the prevalence of gender orders throughout the world. Connell’s Gender Order puts both patriarchy and masculinity into wider gender relations. ‘Masculinity is a vital part of the gender order’
    22. 22. R.W. Connell (1981,2001,2005) Hegemonic Masculinity marriage, heterosexual, hard work , strength, physical toughness More powerful Less powerful Complicit Masculinity Subordinated Masculinities Homosexual Masculinity Subordinated Femininities Emphasized Femininity Resistant Femininity
    23. 23. Gender Orders • Connell (Gender & Power 1987) • Western capitalist sex relations are defined by patriarchy • the dominance of men over women. Rathwyn Connell – Born Robert Connell in 1944.
    24. 24. Labour, Power, Cathexis The sexual division of labour:  both within the home (domestic responsibilities, childcare) and the labour market, with issues of labour segregation and unequal pay. Power:  social relationships of authority, violence, ideology in institutions like the state, the military, the police. Cathexis:  concerns the dynamics of intimate, emotional and personal relationships, marriage sexuality and childrearing. Women Workers New York 1946
    25. 25. The Gender Order: Power • Many state practices exclude, subordinate, or marginalize women • Practices are gradually being revealed and fought by "equal opportunity" programs. • Example: women in war
    26. 26. Invisible women vs comfort women • The Hague conventions on war (1907) intended to take women out of the way of combat • 1914 women to industrial labour, opportunity and patriotism: – In WW2 the same • The west have resisted women in combat, but in both WW1 and WW2 women in combat in the Red Army. • In January 2013, US congress lifted the 1994 ban on women serving in the Army (in combat) Marina Raskova, 1922-1943 a record- breaking aviatrix, organized the 588th night bomber squadron - composed entirely of women, from the mechanics to the navigators, pilot and officers
    27. 27. Education • Since 1920s the position of women has improved in the western world • 1960s when mass female university education became the norm. • knock on effects for the economy: – more women competed in the workplace – deferred having children. • Equally as the terms of trade turned against the unskilled working class in the west-men saw their jobs exported to LDCs so women took up much more of the burden of work.
    28. 28. Queer Theory: gender on a discourse level • Gender and sexuality = a discourse of sexuality, therefore socially constructed • Identity is fixed/assigned to people through socializing agents • Identity creation: therefore fluid • Key thinkers: Judith Butler, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Gagnon & Simon.
    29. 29. Quick Review: match the definitions 1. Gender 2. Sex 3. Sexuality a) Anatomical differences between men, women, and hermaphrodites. Physical characteristics of the body. b) Sexual behaviour of human beings c) Social expectations regarded as appropriate for members of each sex. Not physical attributes but socially formed traits of masculinity and femininity.
    30. 30. Match the definitions 1. Gender 2. Sex 3. Sexuality c) Social expectations regarded as appropriate for members of each sex. Not physical attributes but socially formed traits of masculinity and femininity. a) Anatomical differences between men, women, and hermaphrodites. Physical characteristics of the body. b) Sexual behaviour of human beings
    31. 31. Gender • Sex biological differences in the anatomy and physiology that define male and female bodies • Gender psychological, social and cultural differences; linked to socially constructed notions of masculinity and femininity; not necessarily a direct product of an individual’s biological sex • Many differences between males and females are not biological in origin • Three broad approaches: – Biological – Socialization and gender roles – Social Constructionism
    32. 32. Biological gender differences • Hormones, chromosomes, brain size, genetics are responsible for differences and inequalities between genders: popular at discursive levels Criticisms: • Elshtain (1987) levels of aggression between males varies widely between cultures; women are expected to be more gentle/passive in different cultures – This ignores cultural factors • Theories of natural difference rely on data from animal behaviour • Just because a trait is universal doesn’t mean it’s biological • As sociologists, we want to avoid biological reductionism
    33. 33. Gender Socialization and gender roles • Gender differences are culturally produced: learn sex roles • Guided by positive and negative sanctions: – What a brave boy you are! – Boys don’t play with dolls. • Critical Analysis: – Gender socialization is not smooth process (schools, family, peer groups etc) give conflicting ideas – Ignores individuals agency – to reject or modify – Humans are not passive objects – Statham (1986) parents committed to raising kids in ‘non-sexist way’ may find existing patterns difficult to fight – Connell (1987) children may refuse heterosexuality, may start dressing in drag, may construct fantasy world – Weitzman (1972) male characters on TV/in films tend to play more adventurous roles, whereas women are passive, expectant, domestically oriented.
    34. 34. Social Constructionism • Both sex and gender are socially constructed products • The human body is a subject to which social forces shape and alter it • Individuals can choose to construct and reconstruct their bodies • Technology is blurring boundaries • Connell (1987), Scott & Morgan (1993), Butler (1990) – Gender identities and sex differences are inextricably linked within individual human bodies
    35. 35. Gender Regimes Connell’s schema is that is suggests relations: • happen at a number of different levels • a family, neighbourhood or country can have a multiplicity of Gender Regimes • these determine how people behave. Gender relations : • are not fixed • can be changed • the power of agency • Socially constructed
    36. 36. Connell’s crisis of masculinity Crisis of Instutionalisation  institutions supporting men’s power:  the family; the state; the church  undermined.  legitimacy of domination of women is weakened by legislation on:  divorce, rape, economic questions (equal pay acts) taxation and pensions. Crisis of Sexuality  Hegemonic heterosexuality is under attack from the queer and gay movements and the growing strength of women’s sexuality Crisis of Interest Formation  Interest groups are forming that contradict old gender order:  married women rights, gay sexuality, anti-sexist attitudes among men  all challenge the old orders
    37. 37. Critique of the male role • A genre of criticism of "the Male Role" was created in the 1970s. • the crisis itself would drive change forward. • 70s masculinity would be replaced by some kind of androgyny. • 2nd Wave Feminism • David Bowie
    38. 38. Connell: A World Gender Order Connell, R.W. (1998) Masculinities and Globalisation, Men and Masculinities, 1(1), pp 3-23 ‘transnational business masculinity’ MNCs: • Strong gendered division of labour • Masculine-aggressive management culture. The international state: • NGOs are gendered and are mainly run by men. Global media: • a highly gendered division of labour. Global markets: • capital, services, labour • all gender structured • reach deep into local communities. Globalisation: • interactions between local gender orders • new gender organisations
    39. 39. Modern Reproductive technologies • Contraception • Childbirth: – Sonogram – Assisted reproductive technologies (IVF) – Genetic engineering: designer babies? • The abortion debate: Pro-life or Pro-choice? • Abortion is always wrong because it is equivalent to murder vs the mother’s control over her own body is the primary consideration • Most Western societies have legalised abortion • Technology has made this debate more complex • We have come to place a high value on human life (a thing unknown before): – demography
    40. 40. Contraceptives and abortion • Availability of contraceptives in industrialised world • In Africa contraceptive prevalence is only 20% – Colonialism – Missionaries/religion • concomitant danger due to the spread of HIV/AIDS. • only available contraception can be abortion; risks, infection, death • Technology: cause of massive regional inequality.
    41. 41. Sex tourism and sex trafficking; a world Gender Order • Package tours oriented towards prostitution go to: – Thailand; The Philippines; Vietnam; Korea; Taiwan • Svensson (2006) ‘Extraterritorial accountability: an assessment of the effectiveness of child sex tourism laws’ (UN Special Report) – the USA has made at least 20 prosecutions for sex tourism; Japan has made 0. • International Labour Organisation (1998) – Up to 2 million prostitutes in Thailand – Cheaper global travel – Sex industry is connected to economic hardship • Lim (1998) sex tourism has serious implications for spread of AIDS, STDs, and is often associated with violence, drug trade, human rights violations
    42. 42. Sex Tourism; Sex Trafficking; A World Gender Order • international sex tourism • the prostitution of women of the periphery to men of the core industrialized countries.
    43. 43. Prostitution and Sex Work • Granting sexual favours for monetary gain – Ancient world: courtesans, concubines, slaves • UN resolution (1951) condemns those organising prostitution, but not prostitution itself • Dutch Parliament 1999 prostitution is legal profession: regulated, licensed, inspected • legislation rarely punishes clients • legislation normalises this as male sexual activity – condemns prostitutes – Gender order: power
    44. 44. To legalize and professionalize... or not? • International Union of Sex Workers (IUSW) – Sees unionization as first step towards professionalism of sex work • Weitzer (2000) – Sex workers are mostly female and can be: • Actors in pornos (Gender order: division of labour) • Nude modelling • Striptease • Lap dancers • Erotic massages • Phone sex workers • Home-based webcam sex – If financial gain is involved
    45. 45. To legalize and professionalize... or not? LEGALIZE • Union collectivism may help stop exploitation and abuse • Women sex workers can earn good money • Some enjoy their work • Not all fit stereotype of poor, sexually abused, drug addict (O’Neill 2000) • Can be independent women who have taken control of lives (Chapkis et al 1997) DON’T LEGALIZE • The sex industry is degrading to women • It is strongly linked to drug addiction • It is strongly linked to sexual abuse • Objectifies women: – it helps perpetuate tendency for men to treat women as objects to be used for sexual services • How would this help on a global level
    46. 46. Girls who kick ass!
    47. 47. R.W. Connell (1981,2001,2005) Hegemonic Masculinity marriage, heterosexual, hard work , strength, physical toughness More powerful Less powerful Complicit Masculinity Subordinated Masculinities Homosexual Masculinity Subordinated Femininities Emphasized Femininity Resistant Femininity
    48. 48. Today • The link between sexual activity and your identity • Avoiding biological reductionism: – ‘femininity’ and ‘masculinity’ are socially constructed • On a local, national and international level, ideologies about gender affect your life chances
    49. 49. Independent study • Seminar preparation • Cornell notes • Coursework essay and presentations