(Dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics i


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(Dr. saleem) overview of metabolism & bioenergetics i

  1. 1. We have indeed created man in the best shape (Holy Quran) Lecture # 1 Biochemistry Foundation Module November-2010
  2. 2. Aims of Medical Sciences <ul><li>To obtain the Knowledge of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal pattern of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormalities of life (Diseases). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures to prevent Diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures to treat Diseases. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What life means to a Biologist? <ul><li>A variety of thoughts about life. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria of life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definite capability to grow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in weight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Cells are made up of Specific Chemical Compounds <ul><li>Different components of cells such as cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane are made up of specific chemical compounds </li></ul>
  5. 5. An uncountable variety of chemical compounds are related to life, e.g., Bacteria may contain over 5000 varieties. <ul><li>Familiar examples in human body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins (Haemoglobin, Collagen, Keratin, Albumin etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates (Glucose, Ribose, Chondrotin, Heparin etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Growth and Reproduction are based on Chemical Compounds and Reactions <ul><li>Chemical Compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportional arrangement of specific chemical compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of necessary compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of necessary energy. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Biological Concept of Life <ul><li>Life is a biologic phenomena in which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain specific chemical compounds are present in a definite proportion and in a planned manner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still further hundreds of planned reactions are involved in growth and reproduction. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Basis of Health - Disease - Death <ul><li>HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>So long the chemical reactions are not disturbed system remains healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations within certain limit doesn’t kill the system but make it abnormal (disease). </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>Changes beyond a limit ceases whole process and the system is dead. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aim of studying Biochemistry? <ul><li>Understanding the normal pattern of life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get a sound knowledge of chemical compounds and reactions related to life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding the diseases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To know what, when, how & why abnormal changes takes place (Environmental, Nutritional, Genetic). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnose & Treatment of diseases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To know how these changes can be prevented & corrected. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hundreds of planned chemical reactions are involved in life process <ul><li>Oxidation of compounds to generate energy e.g., Glucose, Fats etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of compounds necessary for life e.g., Proteins, Nucleic Acids Hormones, Cholesterol etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. A Chemical Reaction Taking Place In Living Cell is Called Metabolic Reaction. <ul><li>Two types of metabolic reactions On the basis of final outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic Reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolic Reactions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Anabolic Reactions build up the tissues <ul><li>Synthesis of higher and complex biological compounds from smaller molecules e.g., synthesis of proteins from Amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Result in synthesis of complex molecules and build up of tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consuming reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant during growth and development period. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Catabolic Reactions generate energy <ul><li>Breakdown of higher and complex biological compounds to simple smaller molecules e.g., Oxidation of Glucose to Water and Carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy generation during catabolism of nutrients (Glucose, Fats etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant during chronic debilitating disease (TB, Cancer etc.) and old age. </li></ul>
  14. 14. In a living cell both Anabolic and Catabolic reactions take place simultaneously according to the requirements and demands <ul><li>A particular setup of metabolic reactions in a cell is called the Metabolism of the cell . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolic reactions are collectively called Anabolism . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolic reactions are collectively called Catabolism . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. During life time balance of Anabolism and Catabolism shifts according to circumstances <ul><li>Growing age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism is dominant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adulthood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism and Catabolism run parallel and remains balanced. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Old age and prolonged diseases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism is dominant. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Energy is fundamental requirement of living systems <ul><li>Chemical energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For synthetic reactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For contraction of muscles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For maintenance of temperature. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Energy can be produced by actual burning of organic substances in air (Oxidation or Combustion). <ul><li>Such energy is not suitable for living systems because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not be controlled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not be stored. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires drastic conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. In living system energy is generated by precise chemical methods <ul><li>Energy produced by such chemical methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is Precisely controlled and regulated according to requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be stored for use at a proper time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not require drastic conditions of Temperature, Pressure and pH. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Bioenergetics (Biochemical thermodynamics) <ul><li>Study of the energy changes accompanying biochemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Study of generation, storage and utilization of energy in living system. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sources of Energy In Human cells <ul><li>Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation of energy-rich organic compounds (Cellular respiration): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats (Glycerol & Fatty acids). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Storage of energy in living system <ul><li>Free or useful energy is released during catabolic reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>This energy is captured and stored as high energy phosphate bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds having high energy bonds are called high-energy compounds. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the most commonly used Energy Storing Molecule Adenine | Ribose_______P Adenosine Monophosphate ~ P ~ P High Energy Phosphate Bonds
  23. 23. Capture of Energy as ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Energy generated by oxidation of food stuffs is utilized for the formation of High- energy phosphate bonds. ADP is converted to ATP
  24. 24. Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P ~ P Hydrolysis of terminal  Generates 7300 Calories. ATP is Converted to ADP
  25. 25. Release of energy by ATP <ul><li>Phosphate bond splits to release free energy Approximately 7300 cal/mol. for each of two terminal phosphate groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) are formed respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate bond of AMP is a low-energy bond. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Release of energy by ATP Adenine | Ribose_______P ~ P + Pi Energy generated is utilized for: 1. Metabolic Reactions. 2. Muscle Contraction. 3. Heat.
  27. 27. An Overview of Energy Storage Adenine | Ribose__P Adenosine Monophosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P Adenosine Diphosphate Adenine | Ribose__P __P __P Adenosine Triphosphate Catabolism of Nutrients CO2 + H2O Energy
  28. 28. Organic molecules (Nutrients Such as Glucose & Fats) contain energy, stored in their molecular structure <ul><li>Breakdown (Catabolism) of these </li></ul><ul><li>molecules generate the energy to </li></ul><ul><li>synthesize High energy Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>bonds (ATP) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Generation and utilization of energy in human tissues is an important concern in medical science <ul><li>Medical problems due to energy imbalance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unavailability of Energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excess Storage of Energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marasmus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy imbalance due to Malnutrition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus, Diseases of Thyroid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cellular Respiration is the Main Source of Energy <ul><li>The overall process of energy generation by breakdown of food is called Cellular Respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which the chemical energy of food molecules (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins) is released and captured in the form of ATP. </li></ul>
  31. 31. ATP / ADP Cycle Adenine | Ribose — P ~  ~  ATP Adenine | Ribose — P ~  ADP 7300 cal/mol
  32. 32. <ul><li>ATP as energy currency </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>ATP acts as currency </li></ul><ul><li>of energy, when energy </li></ul><ul><li>is gained from high-energy </li></ul><ul><li>molecules, is stored in </li></ul><ul><li>this form and it pays it to </li></ul><ul><li>low-energy molecules, </li></ul><ul><li>when required. </li></ul>