Made by: Fatima Al-Zahraa
To: Miss Ashraf
• Reproduction is the process by which animals and plants produce
Types of Reproduction
Reproduction in Plants
• Flowering plants are plants that can reproduce more than one way
like sexual and asexual.
• Nonflowering plants are plants that reproduce using spores/
Types of Flowers
i. Complete Flower
i. Incomplete Flower
ii. Bisexual Flower
iii. Unisexual Flower
iv. Regular Flower
v. Irregular Flower
•Flowers which have all the four parts of the flower (
petals, sepals, carpel, stamen) are known as
• Flowers that lack one or more parts of a flower is known as an
E.g. Black walnut
• Flowers that have both sexes ( stamen and carpel) are known as
• Flowers which have only one sex ( carpel or stamen) are known as
• Flowers that are radially symmetrical are known as regular flowers.
• Flowers that are bilaterally symmetrical are known as irregular
Parts of the Flower
•Four parts which are
• The sepals protect the flower during bud condition.
•Petals are large and bright coloured.
•Its function is to attract insects for pollination.
•Stamen is the male reproductive organ as it contains
the male gametes.
Parts of Stamen
• Anther It contains pollen which contains male gamete
• Filament It supports the anther
•Stores the male gamete and is the male reproductive
• It is the female reproductive organ as it contains the ovum.
Parts of the carpel
Stigma: It is the receiving surface of pollen
Style: It connects the stigma with the ovary
Ovary: It contains and protects ovules.
It contains the ovum and is the female reproductive organ in the plant.
•It is where the flower starts developing.
• Reproduction in plants can’t occur without pollination. Pollination
is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower.
Self pollination occurs when the pollen is transferred from the anther
of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or another flower of the
• Cross pollination occurs when the pollen is transferred from the
anther to a stigma of another flower of another plant of the same
Ways of Pollination
Wind Pollination Insect Pollination
Adaptations of Wind-pollinated
•Petals are dull or absent
•No scent or nectar
•Anthers dangling outside flower
•Stigma is feathery
•Pollen is small and light weight
Adaptations of Insect-pollinated
• Petals are large and colourful
• Scent and sweet nectar is present
• Filaments are short so stamens are inside flower
• Stigma is smooth
• Pollen is large, spiky and sticky
• After pollination takes place fertilisation occurs.
• When the pollen is on the stigma the sticky, sugary solution (
indicates that ovules are mature and ready for fertilisation)
stimulates the pollen to grow a pollen tube.
• This pollen tube is the path through which pollen travels to the
•The pollen enters the ovule through the
•The male gamete unite with the female
gamete. This is known as fertilisation.
• After fertilisation takes place the ovule becomes a seed and the
ovary becomes the fruit.
•Simple fruits form from a carpel.
•These are formed by fusion of a pistil of one flower.
• E.g. Cherimoya
•These fruits are formed by fusion of several separate
pistils of several grouped flower.
•Some fruits, such as apples, are called false fruits
because their fleshy part does not grow from part of
the flower but from the receptacle on which flower
•It occurs only with one parent and offspring
produced are genetically identical to their parent.
Ways of asexual reproduction
Ways of asexual
Runners Tubers Bulbs
•These are side branches of some plants that grow
along the surface of the soil. Roots grow down from
buds on the runners. These develop into a new plant.
•A swollen, fleshy, usually underground stem of a
plant, such as the potato, bearing buds from which
new plant shoots arise.
• E.g. Potatoes
• A short, modified, underground stem surrounded by
usually fleshy modified leaves that contain stored
food for the shoot within: an onion bulb.
Advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
and their disadvantages
•This method involves making a cut into the stem of a
tree. A small stem from another tree which has buds
is fitted into the cut.
•This method involves cutting small piece of the stem
which has leaves, the cutting is then placed in water
until roots develop. Then this plant is place in the soil
and develops into a new plant.
•To speed up the process hormone rooting powder
can be used.