Reproduction in plants, biology, IG

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Includes:
1.Types of flowers
2.Parts of Flower
3.Fertilisation
4.After Fertilisation
5.Seed
6.Seed dispersal
7.Artificial and Asexual Reproduction

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Reproduction in plants, biology, IG

  1. 1. Made by: Fatima Al-Zahraa Grade: 7A Subject: Biology To: Miss Ashraf REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
  2. 2. Reproduction?? • Reproduction is the process by which animals and plants produce new individuals.
  3. 3. Types of Reproduction Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Artificial Reproduction
  4. 4. Reproduction in Plants Plants Flowering Plants Non-Flowering Plants
  5. 5. Flowering Plants • Flowering plants are plants that can reproduce more than one way like sexual and asexual. E.g. Tulips
  6. 6. Nonflowering Plants • Nonflowering plants are plants that reproduce using spores/ specialized gametes. E.g. Ferns
  7. 7. Types of Flowers i. Complete Flower i. Incomplete Flower ii. Bisexual Flower iii. Unisexual Flower iv. Regular Flower v. Irregular Flower
  8. 8. Complete Flowers •Flowers which have all the four parts of the flower ( petals, sepals, carpel, stamen) are known as complete flowers. E.g. Roses
  9. 9. Incomplete Flowers • Flowers that lack one or more parts of a flower is known as an incomplete flower. E.g. Black walnut
  10. 10. Bisexual Flowers • Flowers that have both sexes ( stamen and carpel) are known as bisexual flowers. E.g. Lily
  11. 11. Unisexual Flowers • Flowers which have only one sex ( carpel or stamen) are known as unisexual flower. E.g. Watermelon
  12. 12. Regular Flowers • Flowers that are radially symmetrical are known as regular flowers. E.g. Crocus
  13. 13. Irregular Flowers • Flowers that are bilaterally symmetrical are known as irregular flowers. E.g. Pea
  14. 14. Parts of the Flower •Four parts which are •Sepals/ calyx •Petals/ corolla •Carpel •Stamen
  15. 15. Sepals/ Calyx  Function? • The sepals protect the flower during bud condition. Sepals
  16. 16. Petals •Petals are large and bright coloured. Function? •Its function is to attract insects for pollination. Very attractive
  17. 17. Stamens •Stamen is the male reproductive organ as it contains the male gametes. Parts of Stamen • Anther It contains pollen which contains male gamete • Filament It supports the anther Function? •Stores the male gamete and is the male reproductive organ.
  18. 18. Stamen
  19. 19. Carpel • It is the female reproductive organ as it contains the ovum. Parts of the carpel Stigma: It is the receiving surface of pollen Style: It connects the stigma with the ovary Ovary: It contains and protects ovules.  Function? It contains the ovum and is the female reproductive organ in the plant.
  20. 20. Carpel
  21. 21. Receptacle •Function? •It is where the flower starts developing.
  22. 22. Pollination • Reproduction in plants can’t occur without pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower. Pollination Self pollination Cross pollination
  23. 23. Self Pollination Self pollination occurs when the pollen is transferred from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same plant.
  24. 24. Cross Pollination • Cross pollination occurs when the pollen is transferred from the anther to a stigma of another flower of another plant of the same species.
  25. 25. Ways of Pollination Wind Pollination Insect Pollination
  26. 26. Adaptations of Wind-pollinated flowers •Petals are dull or absent •No scent or nectar •Anthers dangling outside flower •Stigma is feathery •Pollen is small and light weight
  27. 27. Adaptations of Insect-pollinated flowers • Petals are large and colourful • Scent and sweet nectar is present • Filaments are short so stamens are inside flower • Stigma is smooth • Pollen is large, spiky and sticky
  28. 28. Fertilisation • After pollination takes place fertilisation occurs. • When the pollen is on the stigma the sticky, sugary solution ( indicates that ovules are mature and ready for fertilisation) stimulates the pollen to grow a pollen tube. • This pollen tube is the path through which pollen travels to the ovule.
  29. 29. •The pollen enters the ovule through the micropyle. •The male gamete unite with the female gamete. This is known as fertilisation.
  30. 30. After Fertilisation • After fertilisation takes place the ovule becomes a seed and the ovary becomes the fruit.
  31. 31. Seed Plumule Radicle Cotyledon Embryo
  32. 32. Parts of Seed I. Testa II. Plumule III. Radicle IV. Cotyledon
  33. 33. Testa/ Seed Coat •It is a hard covering which the seed develops to protect the embryo. Testa
  34. 34. Plumule and Radicle •Plumule is the part of the seed which grows to a shoot/ stem. •Radicle is the part of the seed which grows to a root.
  35. 35. Cotyledon •The cotyledon stores the minerals which the needs to germinate.
  36. 36. Germination • The plant need special conditions so that it can germinate. •Conditions i. Water ii. Oxygen iii. Warm temperature
  37. 37. Seed Dispersal Seed Dispersal Mechanical Dispersal Wind Self Water Zoological Dispersal Animal
  38. 38. Why dispersed? •Plants can’t grow in an overcrowding condition or in their parents’ shade. Seeds have to be dispersed so that they can germinate properly.
  39. 39. Wind Dispersal • Seeds that are wind dispersed are usually light in weight and have wing like structures which will help them to scatter by the wind. • E.g. Sycamore
  40. 40. Water Dispersal Plants that are water dispersed should float and should have a waterproof case. It also should be hollow. E.g. Coconut
  41. 41. Self Dispersal •Some fruits becomes so dry so as a result the fruit explodes and the seeds are scattered away from the parents. • E.g. Witch hazel
  42. 42. Animal Dispersal •Seeds that are animal dispersed are usually spiky, large and sticky. Some seeds are released during excretion. • E.g. Hooked Fruits
  43. 43. Fruits Fruits Simple Fleshy Fruits Dry Fruits Aggregate Multiple
  44. 44. Simple Fruits •Simple fruits form from a carpel. Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits Dry Fruits
  45. 45. Aggregate Fruits •These are formed by fusion of a pistil of one flower. • E.g. Cherimoya
  46. 46. Multiple Fruits •These fruits are formed by fusion of several separate pistils of several grouped flower. •E.g. Fig
  47. 47. False Fruits •Some fruits, such as apples, are called false fruits because their fleshy part does not grow from part of the flower but from the receptacle on which flower grows.
  48. 48. Asexual Reproduction •It occurs only with one parent and offspring produced are genetically identical to their parent.
  49. 49. Ways of asexual reproduction Ways of asexual reproduction Runners Tubers Bulbs
  50. 50. Runners •These are side branches of some plants that grow along the surface of the soil. Roots grow down from buds on the runners. These develop into a new plant. •E.g. Strawberry
  51. 51. Tubers •A swollen, fleshy, usually underground stem of a plant, such as the potato, bearing buds from which new plant shoots arise. • E.g. Potatoes
  52. 52. Bulbs • A short, modified, underground stem surrounded by usually fleshy modified leaves that contain stored food for the shoot within: an onion bulb. •E.g. Onion
  53. 53. Advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction and their disadvantages Type of reproduction • Sexual • Asexual Advantages •Shows genetic variation •More offspring produce Disadvantages •Few offspring produce •No genetic variation
  54. 54. Artificial Reproduction Artificial Reproduction Grafting Cutting Cloning
  55. 55. Grafting •This method involves making a cut into the stem of a tree. A small stem from another tree which has buds is fitted into the cut.
  56. 56. Cutting •This method involves cutting small piece of the stem which has leaves, the cutting is then placed in water until roots develop. Then this plant is place in the soil and develops into a new plant. •To speed up the process hormone rooting powder can be used.
  57. 57. Thank You!!

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