Atatürk was born in 1881 in Salonika. His mother's name
was Zübeyde Hanım, his father' name was Ali Rıza Efendi.
Firstly he went to the religious school reluctantly for a short
time and then he registered to Şemsi Efendi School.
Without telling his parents, Atatürk attended to the
military exam and he went on his school life in military
In 1893, his mathematics teacher gave him a second
name, Kemal (meaning perfection and maturity).
After graduated from military school, he began to his
job carrier in Damascus.
In the times of Ottoman Empire, he attended to the
Tripoli War, Balkan Wars and First World War.
After defeated in First World War, Ottoman Empire
signed Armistice of Mudros.
As a result of this armistice, national territory was
begun to occupy, thus in 19 May 1919, Mustafa Kemal
began to his journey to Samsun to start national
After issuing Hamza and Amasya Circulars, he gathered
Erzurum and Sivas Congress. In Sivas Congress, he
gathered together all national associations in one union
and assembled Defense of Rights for Anatolia and
After Sivas Congress, he had a conference with Istanbul
Government about Amasya Negotiation.
Thus, Istanbul Government recognized formally the
name of Representation Committee.
Mustafa Kemal was selected as a president of the
assembly and government on 23 April 1920 with
establishing of the Grand National Assembly.
On 5 August 1921, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to
Commander in chief of the forces by the Grand National
After Battle of Sakarya victory, on 19 September 1921,
Mustafa Kemal Pasha was graced by the Grand
National Assembly the rank of “Marshal” and the title of
Ghazi Mustafa Kemal who rescued the country from the
enemies began the first president of the Republic of
Turkey with the establishment of republic on 29 October
In 1934, the surname of “Atatürk” was given to Ghazi
Mustafa Kemal by the assembly.
Atatürk made the Republic of Turkey to reach the status
of civilized countries with his revolutions.
Ghazi Mustafa Kemal, the founder of the Republic of
Turkey, died on 10 November 1938 in Dolmabahçe