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Themes of Research on eGovernment in Developing Countries: Current Map and Future Roadmap

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2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, Hawaii, 7-10 January 2013

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Themes of Research on eGovernment in Developing Countries: Current Map and Future Roadmap

  1. 1. Themes of Research on eGovernmentin Developing Countries:Current Map and Future RoadmapFathul WahidDepartment of Information Systems, University of Agder, Kristiansand, NorwayDepartment of Informatics, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesiafathul.wahid@uia.noPresented at HICSS 2013Hawaii, 7-10 January 2013
  2. 2. Introduction• No comprehensive literature review focusing on eGovernment in developing countries • Exceptions include Dada (2006) and Hedström & Grönlund (2008)• Research questions: • What is the themes of current research on eGovernment in developing countries? • What possible future research direction can be proposed?Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 2
  3. 3. Selection of literature• Limits to prominent journals and or conference proceedings portals: • ScienceDirect • Ebsco • IEEE Xplore • ACM Digital Library • SpringerLink • EJISDC• Searching keywords • electronic government and developing country; eGovernment and developing country; digital government and developing countryFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 3
  4. 4. Literature in the pool• 108 papers • 39 journal + 69 conference papers • 95 empirical + 13 conceptual papers • 2005: 7; 2006: 8; 2007: 19; 2008: 23; 2009: 35; 2010: 16 papers• Countries reported in the papers • India (11 papers); South Africa (7); China, Kenya, Nigeria (6); Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan (5); Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (4); Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, Iran (3); Turkey, Colombia, Ghana, Thailand, Uganda (2); Cape Verde, Chile, Ethiopia, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Taiwan, Tanzania, UAE, Uzbekistan, Zambia (1)Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 4
  5. 5. Method of analysis: research themesFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 5
  6. 6. Method of analysis: research approach• Research paradigm: positivist; interpretive; critical (Chen & Hirscheim, 2004; Myers, 1997)• Focus of research: techno-centric; government-centric; citizen-centric (Grönlund, 2010; Sahroui, 2007)• Knowledge framework: theory-based; framework-based; model-based; schema-based; concept-based; category- based (Heeks and Bailur, 2007)Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 6
  7. 7. Research themesFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 7
  8. 8. Findings: research themes x paradigm Theme Positivist Interpretive Critical Unclear n % n % n % n %Design/implementation 15 71.4 2 9.5 0 0.0 4 19.0Adoption 12 66.7 3 16.7 0 0.0 3 16.7Impact 5 45.5 4 36.4 0 0.0 2 18.2Evaluation 11 35.5 11 35.5 2 6.5 7 22.6Context 3 11.1 6 22.2 1 3.7 17 63.0All 46 42.6 26 24.1 3 2.8 33 30.6Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 8
  9. 9. Findings: research themes x focus Theme Techno- Government- Citizen- centric centric centric n % n % n %Design/implementation 14 66.7 2 9.5 5 23.8Adoption 10 55.6 2 11.1 6 33.3Impact 4 36.4 2 18.2 5 45.5Evaluation 17 54.8 9 29.0 5 16.1Context 12 44.4 12 44.4 3 11.1All 57 52.8 27 25.0 24 22.2Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 9
  10. 10. Findings: themes x knowledge framework Theme Theory Frame Model Scheme Concept Category Unclear work % % % % % % %Design/implementation 0.0 4.8 0.0 28.6 38.1 14.3 14.3Adoption 33.3 16.7 5.6 0.0 38.9 0.0 5.3Impact 27.3 9.1 18.2 0.0 36.4 0.0 9.1Evaluation 19.4 3.2 12.9 3.2 41.9 12.9 6.5Context 3.7 7.4 7.4 0.0 29.6 29.6 22.2All 14.8 7.4 8.3 6.5 37.0 13.9 12.0Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 10
  11. 11. Findings: sub-themesMain theme Sub-themeDesign/implementation - IT/IS artefacts - IT/IS development frameworksAdoption - Determinants - Processes - ProblemsImpact - Instruments/frameworks - AssessmentsEvaluation - Technical - Organisational - Social - Success/failure factorsContext - Technical/resources - Organisational/institutional - Social/cultural - Opportunities/prospects - Challenges/barriers/threatsFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 11
  12. 12. Design/implementation• Current map • Positivist approach is dominant (71.4%) • Mainly techno-centric (66.7%) • Lack of user involvement • Separated from the evaluation process • None uses a theory• Future roadmap • Considering the specificity of the context (such as by involving end- users/stakeholders and local readiness) – solution-oriented? • Incorporating evaluation in the design/implementation phase – action research? • Bringing in relevant theoriesFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 12
  13. 13. Adoption• Current map • Positivist approach is dominant (66.7%) – answering what questions • Lack of research from an organizational perspective • Various adoption models exist• Future roadmap • Paying more attention to the adoption process (i.e., decision making, resource mobilisation, strategy, role of key actors/stakeholders) • Addressing how and why questions in addition to what questions (e.g., by adopting interpretive research paradigms) • Identifying conditions/circumstances in which certain factors are determining or specific problems are emerging (e.g., by synthesizing studies on adoption)Fathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 13
  14. 14. Impact• Current map • Limited studies on impact • Very few papers report the real impact (versus the expected impact)• Future roadmap • Theorising impact (such as tangibility, measurability, and magnitude) • Taking the specificity (such as scale and time-space) of the context into account when developing instruments to assess impactFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 14
  15. 15. Evaluation• Current map • Tended to be techno-centric (54.8%) • Separated from design/implementation phase • Lack of longitudinal studies (or historical approach) • Limited uses of theories• Future roadmap • Conducting a more comprehensive evaluation, beyond a techno- centric approach • Integrating evaluation with the design/implementation phase • Conducting longitudinal studies • Bringing in relevant theoriesFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 15
  16. 16. Context• Current map • Lack of studies that adopt a citizen-centric approach (11.1%) • Various lists of contextual issues • Many papers use ‘unclear’ research paradigm (63.0%) • Only one study that uses a theory• Future roadmap • Paying more attention to social contextual issues • Identifying conditions/circumstances in which certain contextual issues are more determining than others (by taking the diversities of developing countries/contextual issues into account) • Using the research paradigms appropriately and properly • Bringing in relevant theoriesFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 16
  17. 17. Limitations• Possible bias due to limited number of the papers under review• Single coderFathul Wahid | HICSS 2013 17
  18. 18. Thanks for your attentionComments or questions?Fathul Wahidfathul.wahid@uia.no 18

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