A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO
     CLASSROOM DESIGN
Why?
from                  to                   =
       kindergarten        twelfth grade
children spend around


six hours a day = over 1000 hours a year



    most of these school hours children spend in the c...
The classroom environment is one of the most important environments that
             affect children’s health, performanc...
teachers and students are using the
physical classroom environment as a tool
for enhancing learning outcomes (Fisher, 2008)
A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO
     CLASSROOM DESIGN
The Evelyn Grace Academy
to help break the cycle of underachievement in
   schools in the UK’s most challenging urban
 are...
Lee-on-the-Solent School
  Established in 1999




                                                 Pinewood Infant School...
Sinarmas World Academy
 Design Patterns for
 21st Century Schools




                                               Georg...
This project has been applied into 100
                                                  schools projects and workshops. I...
“In 2001 the Guardian launched a competition
  called ‘The School I’d Like’, in which young
   people were asked to imagin...
Westborough Cardboard School by
                                                the Buro Happold




The Docks School by M...
1. Mossbrook Special School
                                                Designed by Sarah Wigglesworth
               ...
Teachers       Together
                          Classroom Users
                                                    stud...
Classroom Purpose

Learning              Socializing

Curriculum            Classroom
                      Psychology
Survival needs
                                                                                      Judith said
         ...
Aleeman School   Alflah School in Muharrq
Alflah school in Rufaa   Alnaseem International School
Kawla School   Umar Ben Alktab School
Notes




        Affinity
        Diagram
           2
What is missing?
Until recently school environment researches focused on two main issues
  which are generalizations about school building ...
Therefore a very strong literature have been established about
 educational buildings specifications, design guidelines an...
such literature is important and functional for designing and building learning
   environment, but it does not tell how t...
In addition, a lot of
  the case studies are
    concentrating on
 school building design
  and the facilities it
     pro...
according to Chiles (2003) in typical primary classrooms the curriculum needs are
diverse and heavily dependent on the dif...
• Classroom environments stop being designed after architecture finish his
job.

• Decorating elements in classroom enviro...
This research intends to maintain primary classroom
environment motivating, stimulating and fresh after
   architecture fi...
Influence and inspire classroom users (teachers and
     students) to continue designing classroom
   environment after ar...
How could designers influence and inspire primary
    classroom users to continue designing their
environment after archit...
For who?
Teachers and students
Co-designers
Architecture
Thank You



            Fatema Qaed
       Northumbria University
References
ARK (2004) EDUCATION-ARK Schools. Available at: www.arkonline.org (Accessed: 12-11-2010).
Beard, A. (2009) Prim...
References
Ghaziani, R. (2008) 'Children's voices: raised issues for school design', CoDesign: International
Journal of Co...
References
Fisher, E. S. (2008) The Effect of the Physical Classroom Environment on Literacy
Outcomes: How 3rd Grade Teach...
A  P A R T I C I P A T O R Y  A P P R O A C H  T O  C L A S S R O O M  D E S I G N
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A P A R T I C I P A T O R Y A P P R O A C H T O C L A S S R O O M D E S I G N

  1. 1. A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO CLASSROOM DESIGN
  2. 2. Why?
  3. 3. from to = kindergarten twelfth grade
  4. 4. children spend around six hours a day = over 1000 hours a year most of these school hours children spend in the classroom interacting constantly with the people and physical elements of this environment (Ghaziani, 2008)
  5. 5. The classroom environment is one of the most important environments that affect children’s health, performance, and emotions (Ghaziani, 2008).
  6. 6. teachers and students are using the physical classroom environment as a tool for enhancing learning outcomes (Fisher, 2008)
  7. 7. A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO CLASSROOM DESIGN
  8. 8. The Evelyn Grace Academy to help break the cycle of underachievement in schools in the UK’s most challenging urban areas, by designing an outstanding schools for children ARK now runs eight academies, six in London, one in Portsmouth and one in Birmingham The Evelyn Grace Academy is one of them which was designed by Zaha Hadid. (ARK, 2004)
  9. 9. Lee-on-the-Solent School Established in 1999 Pinewood Infant School CABE stands for an improvement in people’s quality of life through good design. CABE influences and inspires the people making decisions about our built environment, so that they choose good design (CABE, 2007) - Lee-on-the-Solent School - Pinewood Infant School CABE working side by side with RIBA
  10. 10. Sinarmas World Academy Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools George Town Primary School Fielding Nair International firm has designed more than more than 500 case studies from 30 countries (FNI, 2005). Architectures Randall Fielding Prakash Nair Sinarmas World Academy - Indonesia George Town Primary School - Cayman Islands
  11. 11. This project has been applied into 100 schools projects and workshops. It has involved 700 pupils in client teams, 10,000 pupils indirectly and 54 design businesses, 150 individual designers, 100 head teachers and 175 teachers and 170 visits by client teams The Sorrell (Ghaziani, 2008) Foundation project that brought some of the UK’s top designers into schools with the initial aim of building confidence and self-esteem in the pupils and helping to unlock their creativity (Ghaziani, 2008)
  12. 12. “In 2001 the Guardian launched a competition called ‘The School I’d Like’, in which young people were asked to imagine their ideal school (Burke and Grosvenor, 2003).”
  13. 13. Westborough Cardboard School by the Buro Happold The Docks School by Mikou Design Studio Zero Energy School and Sports Complex, France
  14. 14. 1. Mossbrook Special School Designed by Sarah Wigglesworth “At Mossbrook, a primary special school for children with severe disabilities and autism, Sarah developed an environment to encourage learning and sensory stimulation for visual learners (Chiles, in Sheffield 2003).” 2. Ballifield Community Primary School Designed by Prue Chiles “Ballifield Community Primary School is a “It encouraged both a design-led approach and successful school in a residential suburb on an exploration of where the theory of the the edge of Sheffield (Chiles, 2003)”. classroom design meets teaching practice (Chiles, 2003).” 3. Brunswick Primary School Designed by Robert Evans 4. Yewlands Secondary School Designed by Mark Dudek Ballifield Community Primary School
  15. 15. Teachers Together Classroom Users students Individual Communication and relationship Teaching method Students’ behaviour students Teachers Social interaction Student different learning styles mood age Social class Personality culture Identity
  16. 16. Classroom Purpose Learning Socializing Curriculum Classroom Psychology
  17. 17. Survival needs Judith said The Physical Elements of that there Classroom Environment are Wellbeing needs The physical environment of classroom- physical and visual The built environment of classroom - physical comfort comfort The interaction of different elements are as important as the consideration of single elements. Temperature Furniture and equipment flooring Ceiling Wall Air quality (technology is part of it) Noise Designing the physical environment of the classroom Lighting Circulation / Arrangement Display and Elements of Principles of traffic and Acoustical issues path and layout storage design design Colour Scale (size of classroom)
  18. 18. Aleeman School Alflah School in Muharrq
  19. 19. Alflah school in Rufaa Alnaseem International School
  20. 20. Kawla School Umar Ben Alktab School
  21. 21. Notes Affinity Diagram 2
  22. 22. What is missing?
  23. 23. Until recently school environment researches focused on two main issues which are generalizations about school building effect (Cash, 1996, Branham, 2004), and specific problems such as acoustics and lighting (Luckiesh and Moss, 1940, Siebein et al., 2000).
  24. 24. Therefore a very strong literature have been established about educational buildings specifications, design guidelines and prototypes of school design, this leaves little room for real creativity in designing this important environment (Nair et al., 2009).
  25. 25. such literature is important and functional for designing and building learning environment, but it does not tell how teachers and students respond to the classroom physical environment (Sanoff, 2001). Although some efforts have been made to assess the classroom environment, how teachers and students perceive classroom environment is a missing factor (Sanoff, 2001).
  26. 26. In addition, a lot of the case studies are concentrating on school building design and the facilities it provides, while classrooms which are a core element of the school building their potential is often overlooked (Gee, 2006).
  27. 27. according to Chiles (2003) in typical primary classrooms the curriculum needs are diverse and heavily dependent on the different ways of teaching methods; because these teaching methods change, the need for flexibility in classroom environment is important. Therefore a lot of designer work in classroom environment could start after architecture finish his work.
  28. 28. • Classroom environments stop being designed after architecture finish his job. • Decorating elements in classroom environment is often overlooked by designers and left to be designed and utilized by teachers and students. • Current participatory projects of class environment are collaborating with environment users only while other environment elements in term of curriculum, teaching method and students learning style have not been involved.
  29. 29. This research intends to maintain primary classroom environment motivating, stimulating and fresh after architecture finished his work. The aim of this research attempts to be achieved throw two aims which are:
  30. 30. Influence and inspire classroom users (teachers and students) to continue designing classroom environment after architecture finish his job. Establish an agenda for future research on participatory classroom environment design and continue designing after architecture finish his job, by identifying areas which have not been empirically studied.
  31. 31. How could designers influence and inspire primary classroom users to continue designing their environment after architectures’ finish their work through participative approaches? What are the elements of primary classroom environment that could be redesigned easily by classroom users?
  32. 32. For who?
  33. 33. Teachers and students
  34. 34. Co-designers
  35. 35. Architecture
  36. 36. Thank You Fatema Qaed Northumbria University
  37. 37. References ARK (2004) EDUCATION-ARK Schools. Available at: www.arkonline.org (Accessed: 12-11-2010). Beard, A. (2009) Primary school case study - Pinewood Infant School- Farnborough, Hampshire. London: CABE - Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment Burke, C. and Grosvenor, I. (2003) The School I'd Like: Children and Young People's Reflections on an Education for the 21st Century. RoutledgeFalmer: London. CABE. (2007) Who we are- What we do- Why it matters. London: CABE- Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment - The government’s advisor on architecture, urban design and public space CABE. (2009) Primary school case study Lee-on-the-Solent Infant School Hampshire. London CABE - Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment Chiles, P. (2003) 'Classrooms for the Future: ‘an adventure in design’ and research', design 7. DfES. (2002) Schools Building and Design Unit. London: Classrooms of the Future -innovative designs for schools, The Stationery Office FNI, F. N. I. (2005) Resumes. Available at: http://www.fieldingnair.com/index.php/resume#Prakash_Nair (Accessed: 12-11-2010).
  38. 38. References Ghaziani, R. (2008) 'Children's voices: raised issues for school design', CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 4, (4), pp. 225 - 236. Happold, B. (2001) Westborough Cardboard School. Available at: http://www.burohappold.com/BH/PRJ_BLD_westborough_cardboard_school.aspx (Accessed: 12-11-2010). Higgins, S., Hall, E., Wall, K., Woolner, P. and McCaughey, C. (2005) The Impact of School Environments: A literature review. Newcastle: The Centre for Learning and Teaching School of Education, Communication and Language Science-University of Newcastle Ahrentzen, S. (1983) '"Children and the Built Environment: an Annotated Bibliography of Representative Research of Children and Housing" in School Design and Environmental Stress', Architecture Series, A 764, 2, (53). Barrett, P. and Zhang, Y. (2009) Optimal Learning Spaces Design Implications for Primary Schools. Salford: SCRI Research Report David, T. G. (1975) Environmental Literacy. Learning Environments , The University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Dean, J. ( 2003) Organising learning in the primary school classroom. Routledge: London and New York. Dudek, M. (2000) Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments. Architectural Press: Oxford.
  39. 39. References Fisher, E. S. (2008) The Effect of the Physical Classroom Environment on Literacy Outcomes: How 3rd Grade Teachers Use the Physical Classroom to Implement A Balanced Literacy Curriculum. thesis. University of Missouri. Gump, P. V. (1987) “School and Classroom Environments.” In D. Stokols and I. Altman, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley: New York. Loughlin, C. E. and Suina, J. H. (1982) The Learning Environment: an Instructional Strategy. Teachers College Press: New York. Martin, S. H. (2002) 'THE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PRACTICE OF TEACHERS', Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22, (1-2), pp. 139-156. Parnell, R., Cave, V. and Torrington, J. (2008) 'School design: opportunities through collaboration', CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 4, (4), pp. 211 - 224. Sanoff, H. (1992) 'School design', in Van Nostrand Reinhold: North Carolina State University. New York. Sanoff, H. (1993) 'Designing a Responsive School Environment', Children’s Environments, 10, (2), pp. 62-80. Taylor, A. (2005) 'Silent Curriculum: Learning Through Creative Design', paper presented at the American Architectural Foundation's National Summit on School Design. Washington, D.C., Silent Curriculum: Learning Through Creative Design: pp.

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