Impact of the 2001 Agrarian Reform on the Rural Population of Venezuela Case Study on the State of Monagas
History 1960 Agrarian Reform Venezuela’s Transition into a Oil Exporting Country Growing Social Disparity and Inequality in Venezuela Chavez Election
Recent History 2001 Agrarian Reform Intensification of Reform (Alo Presidente 305) Rise in Oil Prices Rise in Agrarian Investment Scarcity of Agrarian Products Subsidies?? MERCAL PDVAL (342 – goal is 1800)
Production Crisis Decrease in Production?? Global Rise in Prices?? Rising consumption?? Withholding of products?? “Pulverize” the mafias – Alo Presidente 302 "tiene un fuerte subsidio de alimentos que beneficia a unas 10 millones de personas, con una inversión que casi alcanza 10s mil millones de dólares al ano" Price controls?? Mismanagement – Rationing Currency controls??
Research Objectives Survey and evaluate the decision making of the cooperatives in Maturin Assess their production and compare their statistics to previous statistical data for the region Evaluate sustainability
General Hypothesis The current agrarian reform has been more extensive than the previous, 1960s agrarian reform and it has primarily benefited the poorest sector of the rural population. Despite the political influence of large landowners, court rulings and the implementation of the agrarian reform have favored poor farmers over the interests of large landowners. The government has directed significant financial support to the agrarian reform, providing training and equipment to rural peasants. There has been a temporary decrease in overall agricultural production levels as a result of the restructuring of the agrarian sector.
Specific Hypothesis The majority of the rural peasants are involved in and support the implementation of the agrarian reform. The majority of lands redistributed to peasants were not expropriated but rather constituted unused state lands; I expect that expropriations have only taken place in cases severe of mismanagement. Agricultural production has not increased in Monagas since the cooperatives are experiencing initial difficulties; potential decreases in production are more likely related to large landowners planting fewer crops and/or withholding sales. The agrarian cooperatives operate with a moderate degree of freedom of action with respect to production decisions. Mission Robinson (the government literacy mission) and Mission Zamora (the government land redistribution mission) are the two most popular government programs, with the greatest success. The reforms have increased political support for President Chavez among the rural population. With the appropriate financial and technical support the agrarian reform can be sustainable.
1961 Unidades de Explotacion por Hectareas 1998Hectareas Unidades de Expotacion Percentage Hectareas Unidades of Expotacion Percentage1 a 20 ha 254,806 1% 1 a 20 ha 386,878 76%20 a 1000 ha 96,615 27% 20 a 1000 ha 119,156 23%1000 a mas ha 4,223 1% 1000 a mas ha 4,945 1%TOTAL 315,477 100% TOTAL 510,979 100% 1961 Superficie Por Unidades de Explotacion, 1998Unidades de Expotacion Total Hectareas Percentage Unidades of Expotacion Total Hectareas Percentage1 a 20 ha 214,884 1% 1 a 20 ha 1,707,674 6%20 a 1000 ha 2,258,003 10% 20 a 1000 ha 14,396,744 48%1000 a mas ha 20,804,673 89% 1000 a mas ha 13,966,744 46%TOTAL 23,277,560 100% TOTAL 30,071,152 100%Fuente: Ministerio de Agricultura y Cria
Balance Comercial Anos Exportaciones No Petroleras Importaciones No Petroleras Balance 1997 1,218 1,980 -772 1998 1,296 3,437 -2,141 1999 929 2,350 -1,421 2000 1,232 2,953 -1,719 2001 1,253 3,200 -1,947Fuente: Banco Central de Venezuela
Total Agricultural Import and Export over2500000 Time20000001500000 Total Agricultural Imports Total Agricultural Exports1000000500000 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 FAO 2008
4500000 Avocados Bananas Beans, dry Beer of Barley Cabbages and other brassicas Cane sugar, raw, centrifugal4000000 Carrots and turnips Cassava Cauliflowers and broccoli Chillies and peppers, green Cocoa beans Coconut (copra) oil Coconuts Coffee, green Copra Cotton lint3500000 Cottonseed Cottonseed oil Cucumbers and gherkins Eggplants (aubergines) Figs Fruit, nec Garlic Grapefruit (inc. pomelos) Grapes Groundnut oil3000000 Groundnuts, with shell Guavas, mangoes, mangosteens Lemons and limes Lettuce and chicory Linseed oil Maize Maize oil Oil palm fruit2500000 Onions (inc. shallots), green Onions, dry Oranges Other melons (inc.cantaloupes) Palm kernel oil Palm kernels Palm oil Papayas Peaches and nectarines Peas, dry2000000 Pigeon peas Pineapples Plantains Potatoes Pumpkins, squash and gourds Rice, paddy Roots and Tubers Nec Seed cotton Sesame oil Sesame seed1500000 Sisal and other agave fibers Sorghum Soybean oil Soybeans Spinach Strawberries String beans Sugar beet Sunflower oil Sunflower seed1000000 Sweet potatoes Tangerines, mandarins, clem. Tobacco, unmanufactured Tomatoes Vegetables, nec Watermelons Wheat Wine Yams Yautia (cocoyam) 500000 Beer and wine + Cereals + Fibres, vegetal origin + Fruits (exc melons) + Oilcrops + Pulses + Roots and Tubers + Stimulants + Sugars + Tobacco + 0 Vegetable oils + Vegetables (inc melons) + 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006