AP World India 3 Mauryan


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AP World India 3 Mauryan

  1. 1. Classical India: Mauryan and Gupta Dynasties
  2. 3. The Mauryan Empire
  3. 4. India begins to Unite c. 400-300BCE <ul><li>Persia first united NW India under Cyrus and Darius </li></ul>
  4. 5. Vedic Age ends with Invasion of Darius and Alexander
  5. 6. When Alexander the Great conquered Persia he continued to unite N. India under one ruler but the Greek generals couldn’t keep the Empire together after his death. Now a native Indian Empire would begin.
  6. 7. Mauryan Dynasty <ul><li>became an important crossroads in a commercial network from the Pacific Rim to Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases centralized government control over Indian regional kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Divided India into provinces ruled by governors for tax assessments and law enforcement </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Mauryan Dynasty 321-180 BCE <ul><li>Founded by Chandragupta Maurya ( 324 to 301 B.C.) who united and conquered N. India when Alexander the Great died. </li></ul><ul><li>large army of 700,000 </li></ul><ul><li>System of secret police to watch for treason and protect the new government and king </li></ul><ul><li>301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain (extreme Buddhism) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Ashoka Maurya
  9. 10. Ashoka <ul><li>268-232 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Brutal military commander and then Emperor who extended the Empire of Chandragupta Maurya throughout Southern and Eastern India </li></ul><ul><li>Kalinga (Orissa) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>260 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 Kalingans died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150,000 Kalingans driven from their home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More died from disease & starvation in the aftermath of the destruction brought on by the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ What have I done? “ </li></ul><ul><li>converted to Buddhism after this battle </li></ul><ul><li>He spent the rest of his life as ruler encouraging non-violence, moderation and Buddhist principles to India </li></ul>
  10. 11. Ashoka Accomplishments <ul><li>He improved roads, built hospitals, and sent teachers throughout the empire King Asoka was religiously tolerant. </li></ul><ul><li>He set up hospitals for people and animals, and a system of shade trees and shelters for travelers </li></ul>
  11. 12. Asoka’s Rock and Pillar Edicts <ul><li>scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal,Pakistan, & Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Written mostly in Sanskrit, but some in Greek and Aramaic. </li></ul><ul><li>Each pillar is 40’-50’ high. </li></ul><ul><li>designed to spread Buddhist principles </li></ul><ul><li>Brought order and unity to India </li></ul>
  12. 13. Ashoka the Buddhist <ul><li>built thousands of Stupas and Viharas for Buddhist followers. </li></ul><ul><li>the unnecessary eating of animals was abolished. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife became protected including the first national parks in the world </li></ul><ul><li>promoted vegetarianism. </li></ul><ul><li>built universities, </li></ul><ul><li>canals and irrigation systems for trade and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>He treated his subjects as equals constructing hospitals for animals and people alike, </li></ul><ul><li>renovated major roads throughout India. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashoka’s empire died out slowly after he died </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Sanchi Stupa by Ashoka
  14. 15. Similarities between Buddhist Stupas and Pagotas <ul><li>Buddhism architecture spread from India when Buddhism spread aver the next 1000 years </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The Mauryan Empire at its Height </li></ul>
  16. 17. Trade/Economy Mauryan empire was driven by agriculture Improved the economy by building centers for spinning & weaving Required a uniform system of currency, weights and measures At first farmers were free of tax and crop collections but later Farmers have to contribute work to government and pay heavy taxes. These high taxes are one reasons why the Mauryan Empire fell Internal trade expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace Chandragupta established single currency across India. Increased trade by uniting India and reducing conflicts between small states India traded silk, cotton, and spices to Mesopotamia, China, Egypt and Rome Silver punch mark coin
  17. 18. Indian Agriculture <ul><li>Mauryan Economy was driven by agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice, Pepper, Wheat, Barley, Mustard, Sugar Cane, Medicinal Roots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huge farms were kept by the state and were operated and cultivated by slaves. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Migration/Population <ul><li>50 million. A third of the world’s population at the time </li></ul><ul><li>Greek populations remained in the NW under Ashoka’s rule </li></ul><ul><li>Ashoka’s Edicts were written in Greek </li></ul>
  19. 20. Women and Family Issues <ul><li>The Caste System limited social opportunities and regulated who people could marry </li></ul><ul><li>• Families are patriarchal —headed by the eldest </li></ul><ul><li>male </li></ul><ul><li>• Families are patriarchical </li></ul><ul><li>women were always submissive </li></ul><ul><li>Laws limited women’s life and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Children also have few rights </li></ul><ul><li>Sati was sometimes practiced </li></ul>“ Even a man in the grip of rage will not be harsh to a woman, remembering that on her depends the joy of love, happiness and virtue” Mahabharata epic
  20. 21. The Arts The Mauryan Empire were the first in India to transition from wood to stone in their architecture and art. Indian Stupa Ashoka's Pillars are one important example of this
  21. 22. Regional Kingdoms and local rule - 185 BCE to CE 300 <ul><li>Northern India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invaders from Central Asia established new small regional kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were tribes from China running from the growingHan Dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greeks in NW India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek invaders from what is now Afghanistan formed Greco-Indian kingdoms that eventually disappear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kush civilizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important of these regional kingdoms because of their influence on trade across the region and along the Silk Road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restored some of grandeur of Mauryan Empire to region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jainism grew in influence during this time of confusion since the leaders pushing Hindu and Buddhism were weakened </li></ul>
  22. 23. After the Mauryans: Regional Rule and the Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
  23. 24. Jainism – like Hindu and Buddhism <ul><li>Everyone is bound within the universe by one's karma (the accumulated good and evil that one has done). </li></ul><ul><li>Moksha (liberation from an endless succession of lives through reincarnation) is achieved by enlightenment, which can be attained only through asceticism. </li></ul><ul><li>expected to follow five principles of living: </li></ul><ul><li>Ahimsa: &quot; non violence in all parts of a person -- mental, verbal and physical. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Satya: speaking truth; avoiding falsehood </li></ul><ul><li>Asteya: to not steal from others </li></ul><ul><li>Brahma-charya: (soul conduct); remaining sexually monogamous to one's spouse only </li></ul><ul><li>Aparigraha: detach from people, places and material things. Avoiding the collection of excessive material possessions, abstaining from over-indulgence, restricting one's needs, </li></ul>