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AP Ming Dynasty Powerpoint


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  • Li Zicheng is NOT a Manchu rebel, but an enemy of them. He is the leader of peasant rebels, a short-time Emperor of the Shun Dynasty (1643-1645), who captured Beijing in Apr 1644 and forced the last Ming Emperor Chongzhen to commit suicide. However, he was defeated by the Manchu (Qing) in just 2 months.
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AP Ming Dynasty Powerpoint

  1. 1. Ming China 1368- 1644
  2. 2. Yuan Mandate of Heaven lost <ul><li>1351 legend has it that farmers digging along the Huang-he River dug up a statue with only one eye and the inscription &quot;Do not despise this oneeyed statue: it will be the herald of rebellion all throughout the empire.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Famine, floods, rebellions all made the inscription ring true: the Mongols had lost the Mandate of Heaven, the t'ien ming </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution had begun </li></ul><ul><li>The Hongjinjun peasant army(army with red scarf in the head) was one of the important powers in overthrowing the Yuan Emperor </li></ul>
  3. 3. Geography
  4. 4. Politics <ul><li>Capital moved to Beijing in 1421. </li></ul><ul><li>Time of greatest wealth in chinese history </li></ul><ul><li>last native Emperors in Chinese history. </li></ul><ul><li>first to deal with Europeans arriving </li></ul><ul><li>Population of about 100 million </li></ul><ul><li>Very prosporous time </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Forbidden City: China’s New Capital
  6. 7. Centralized authority <ul><li>Emperor made himself directly the ruler rather than use chief ministers as Mongols had </li></ul><ul><li>New code of laws written </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service exam re-instated to ensure that Chinese scholarship and merit played a role in advancement. </li></ul><ul><li>Careful records kept (census, heriditary social hierarchy) and used to control peasants and strengthen kingdom </li></ul>
  7. 8. Chinese Naval Power <ul><li>expeditions sailed to East Asia, Southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Asia, southern India, Ceylon, the Persian Gulf, the </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East and Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>China the world's greatest commercial naval power in the world at the time, far superior to any European power. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Admiral Zheng He (1371-1435) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>From 1405 to 1433, Emperor Chengzu sent a Muslim eunuch named Zheng He to lead Ming's fleets across the Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1435 court scholars convinced the emperor that the voyages were wateful, encouraged foreign ideas, and would ruin China </li></ul><ul><li>The Emperor China ended Naval exploration and tribute and destroyed the records of the voyages </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IF.. the Chinese had continued exploring and controlled the Americas, Africa, the Indies and Australia before the Europeans??? </li></ul>
  9. 10. Admiral Zheng He <ul><li>Ming “Treasure Fleet” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide </li></ul></ul>1371-1435
  10. 12. Tribute System
  11. 13. Zheng He’s expeditions
  12. 14. Economy <ul><li>China continued its shift from agricultural and rural to commercial and urban </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain production and painting (China) became VERY important </li></ul><ul><li>China , marked by the Ming style of blue painting on a white ceramic background,became all the rage in Europe in the 17th century </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial port cities including Beijing, Nanjing, Yangzhou, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Xian and Chengdu formed to trade with Japan and Europe </li></ul>
  13. 15. Ming Silver Market <ul><ul><ul><li>Causes devaluation of currency & recession </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps fund conquest of New World  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Rice <ul><li>The Ming introduced the use of Champa rice from southeast Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>grown in a little over half the growing season of regular rice and </li></ul><ul><li>produced much larger harvests. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important innovation introduced in the Ming period was the practice of crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>– fields could be kept continuously in cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>– while still maintaining their fertility </li></ul>
  15. 17. Agricultural Developments <ul><li>food production and new farming tools improved nutrition for peasants and city dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>stocking the rice paddies with fish ,which fertilized the rice . </li></ul><ul><li>peasants grew cash crops, such as cotton for clothing , indigo for clothing dyes, and cane . </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic population growth , largely due to theincreased food supply on account of the agricultural revolution. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Reforestation of China <ul><li>Hong-wu's most aggressive agricultural projecinvolved reforestation beginning in the 1390's. </li></ul><ul><li>• Nanjing was reforested with 50 million trees in1391; these trees became the lumber that built thnaval fleet put together by Yung-lo in the early1400's.• All in all, over one billion trees were planted inthis decade in a reforestation project that greatlyreplenished both the timber and the food supply. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Ming Industrial Development <ul><li>textiles, paper, silk, and porcelain traded with Japan, Europe (especially Spain), India, SE Asia and Indonesian islands for </li></ul><ul><li>firearms, and American goods such as sugar,potatoes, and tobacco. </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange for raw goods such as silver — probably half the silver mined in the Americas from the mid-1500's to 1800 ended up in China— </li></ul><ul><li>technological boom in every area from silk looms to paper manufacture to the development of new machines for planting, growing, and harvesting crops. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Tea Time <ul><li>The Dutch imported tea from China and started the English and European love of tea </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch East India Tea Company and later the British East India Tea Company become powerful and wealthy from this trade </li></ul><ul><li>Trading tea to China was more profitable than trading silver to China as the Spanish had done </li></ul>
  19. 21. Religion/Philosophy <ul><li>Neo-Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Matteo Ricci the first Christian missionary started nearly 300 Catholic churches but Christian influence condemned in late Ming and early Qing </li></ul>
  20. 22. Social Life <ul><li>Cultural Renaissance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New art, literature and musical styles especially in opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GREAT china dishes sold for huge profit to Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Still emphasizes landscape and nature scenes </li></ul>
  21. 23. How to Handle Corrupt Government Officials <ul><li>adopted the Sui and Yuan practice of publicly beating incompetent or corrupt bureaucratic officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly beaten on the buttocks by more than a hundred soldiers with clubs, almost nobody who was punished survived </li></ul><ul><li>Not a bad idea for today?!? </li></ul>
  22. 24. Intellectual Life <ul><li>Literacy increased and books became cheaper because of the printing press and a stable govt </li></ul><ul><li>Yongle Dadian was regarded as the biggest and earliest encyclopedia in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>a man named Wan Hoo even tried to fly to the sky by sitting in a chair propelled by gunpowder sticks. Unfortunately, he failed. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Ming Great Wall <ul><li>Great Walls had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watch towers were redesigned and cannons were placed along the wall </li></ul>
  24. 27. Art <ul><li>Terrific art </li></ul><ul><li>China and sculpture important </li></ul><ul><li>Painting and other visual arts </li></ul><ul><li>Drama and poetry </li></ul>
  25. 28. Ming Vases note the blue and white design that is common for Ming china
  26. 29. <ul><li>corruption of the court officials and the domination of the eunuchs. In that period, both the exploitation from the ruling class and natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>the rebellions that racked the country in the 17th </li></ul><ul><li>century and </li></ul><ul><li>– the aggressive military expansion of the Manchus . </li></ul><ul><li>By 1643 the government was bankrupt from fighting and the peasants were broke because of the constant taxes imposed to pay the armies to fight </li></ul>
  27. 30. The Ming ends <ul><li>Northern Chinese Manchu slowly grew in power until they threatened the Ming Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Ming military grew weak so Ming often used Manchu to stop the “barbarians” from taking China </li></ul><ul><li>One leader, Manchu rebel Li Zicheng, eventually decided to take China rather than protecting it. He entered Beijing in 1644 </li></ul><ul><li>as he did so the last Ming emperor, Chongzhen, hanged himself on a tree overlookiing the forbidden palace </li></ul>