7 post reformation scientific rev and exploration


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  • Two important things about him: experiments with motion observations with telescope of the heavens
  • 7 post reformation scientific rev and exploration

    1. 1. Europe after the Reformation
    2. 2. Review Quiz <ul><li>Give two facts for each </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance in Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance in Northern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Reformation in Germany, England, and Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Nation States grow in Spain, England, France and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Art everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism, Individualism, Classicalism everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Counter Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of the power of the Catholic Church in Europe </li></ul>
    3. 3. Preview 1550-1648 <ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration of the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Religious and Civil Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constitutional government in England and Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutist government everywhere else </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Scientific Revolution 1543-1660
    5. 6. Things Aren’t Always What They Seem
    6. 7. Aristotle <ul><li>4 Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Objects move in straight lines </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Gravity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth down, fire up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavens move in perfect circle </li></ul><ul><li>Ether </li></ul><ul><li>Unchanging </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier objects fall faster </li></ul>
    7. 8. Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
    8. 9. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Danish Royal Astrologer
    9. 11. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    10. 12. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    11. 13. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Tests gravity on Tower of Pisa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests on ramp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 ft/sec/sec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telescope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moons of Saturn visible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compatibility of Science & Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo's Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Agrees with Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Puts primacy on sense experience </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are fallible and cannot know God </li></ul><ul><li>Humans can trust senses </li></ul>
    12. 14. Conflict with the Church: Pope Urban VIII
    13. 15. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) The Principia
    14. 16. To sum up: <ul><li>Copernicus “Revolutions” solves the sun/earth problem] </li></ul><ul><li>Tyco Brahe gathers data </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler solves the planet problem </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo “The Starry Messenger” invents the telescope and to solve the investigation problem </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo’s experiments open up the gravity problem </li></ul><ul><li>Newton solves the gravity problem with the </li></ul><ul><li>3 Laws of Motion in “Principia” </li></ul>
    15. 17. Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) <ul><li>Brings everything together </li></ul><ul><li>Ties up the loose ends of Kepler and Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>3 Laws of Motion </li></ul><ul><li>By 25, had invented optics, Calculus, defined gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Spent most of his life after 25 trying to figure out the ultimate question – who is God and what does He want? </li></ul>
    16. 18. Sir Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) <ul><li>Preferred inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Critical of Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Gave primacy to senses & direct experience </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul>
    17. 19. Rene Descartes (1595-1650) <ul><li>Deductive Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Cogito ergo sum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I think, therefore I am </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deduced existence of God </li></ul><ul><li>Invented Cartesian geometry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Points and graphs on xy axis </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>Rise of the “Scientific Community” </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Universe ordered according to Natural Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Laws can be discovered by Human Reason </li></ul><ul><li>“ De-Spiritualized” the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical View of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Deistic View of God </li></ul>IV. Consequences of the Scientific Revolution
    19. 22. Age of Exploration (Western European Expansion) in the late 1400s & early 1500s
    20. 23. Western Europe’s Exploration Motivations <ul><li>“ God,” (Missionary Enterprise) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Glory,” (National & Personal) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gold,” (Spices, Silk, etc from Asia; Gold etc. from the “New World” </li></ul><ul><li>(N. & S.America) </li></ul>
    21. 24. Spain & Portugal <ul><li>Led the Age of Exploration </li></ul>
    22. 25. Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal
    23. 26. New Navigational instruments <ul><li>Cross staff & </li></ul><ul><li>Astrolabe </li></ul><ul><li>Used for determining latitude </li></ul>
    24. 28. Bartholmew Diaz <ul><li>Overcame concerns about sailing around Africa to reach Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Reached the “Cape of Good Hope” (Southern tip of Africa), and then returned to Portugal. </li></ul>
    25. 29. Vasco da Gama <ul><li>Reached India by sailing aroundAfrica. He lost 2 of his ships & 1/3 of his men. </li></ul><ul><li>Returned with a cargo of spices that was sold for an enormous profit (60 times the cost of the trip). </li></ul>
    26. 30. Vasco da Gama
    27. 31. Christopher Columbus
    28. 32. Christopher Columbus’ ships <ul><li>Nina , Pinta , & Santa Maria </li></ul>
    29. 33. Columbus landing in the New World
    30. 34. Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage
    31. 35. Magellan’s death in the Philippines
    32. 36. Conquistadors <ul><li>“ Conquering Christians” who in the 1500s ruthlessly conquered native Americans in the name of Christianity and for the benefit of the Spanish empire. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1600s other Western European countries competed in this kind of empire building. </li></ul>
    33. 37. Hernando Cortez
    34. 38. Mexico City (Tenochtitlan)
    35. 39. Mexico surrenders to Cortez
    36. 40. Battle for Cuzco after the execution of Atahualpa
    37. 41. 185AtlanticExplorerMaP <ul><li>Crossed the Isthmus of Panama & was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul>
    38. 42. Ponce de Leon <ul><li>Explored Florida and made claims for Spain in North America. </li></ul>
    39. 43. John Cabot <ul><li>Sailed for England and made the first British claims in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>Later England would dominate Canada and the Eastern Coast of what is now the USA. </li></ul>
    40. 44. John Cabot <ul><li>Made claims for England in North America. </li></ul>
    41. 45. Sir Francis Drake <ul><li>British Pirate who preyed upon Spanish ship. </li></ul><ul><li>He contributed to the decline of Spain and rise of England in the Age of Exploration. </li></ul>
    42. 47. The Civil Wars over Religion <ul><li>The period from approximately 1560 to 1648 witnessed continuing warfare, primarily between Protestants and Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>Though religion was not the only reason for the wars – occasionally Catholics and Protestants were allies – religion was the dominant cause of the bloodshed. </li></ul><ul><li>The other cause was Lust for Power. Many Princes and Kings used Religion as an Excuse to gain Political Power </li></ul><ul><li>In the latter half of the 16th century, the fighting was along the Atlantic seaboard between Calvinists and Catholics; after 1600, the warfare spread to Germany where Calvinists, Lutherans, and Catholics fought. </li></ul>
    43. 48. The Wars <ul><li>French Civil Wars (War of 3 Henry’s:1556-89) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant Henry VI wins and becomes Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netherlands War for Independence from Spain (1560-90s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant Netherlands win and split from Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Belgium divides from Netherlands and remains part of Catholic Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain ( C) vs. England (E) (Spanish Armada, 1588) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England wins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30 Years War (1618-1648) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 stages Protestants win 3 of 4 but Catholics win the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French fight the least and win the most </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English Civil War (1660s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinists win; Catholic king gets head cut off </li></ul></ul>
    44. 49. How Should We Govern People?
    45. 50. Choice A <ul><li>Total Freedom = Social Anarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Often Called the State of Nature </li></ul><ul><li>No one advocates this until the mid-1800s but many people lived in this environment all over Europe because of the total breakdown of law and political power during the Age of Religious and Civil War </li></ul>
    46. 51. Choice B: Divine Right Absolutism <ul><li>God Rules the World and appoints a King to be His Representative </li></ul><ul><li>The King has Absolute Power over everyone in all ways and can do as He wishes because he is God’s representative </li></ul><ul><li>Bossuet's “Work on Kingship” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hobbes “Leviathan” </li></ul>
    47. 52. Choice C: Constitutionalism <ul><li>Rule by Law: Constitutionalism </li></ul><ul><li>A Social Contract is the foundation for society </li></ul><ul><li>The State creates a set of Laws that all must follow and the penalties are set by the state as well </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke, Jean-Jacque Rousseau, Thomas Jefferson are advocates </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Treatise of Government – Locke </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Contract - Rousseau </li></ul>
    48. 53. <ul><li>Absolutists </li></ul><ul><li>France: Louis XIII, Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>England: James I, Charles I, James II, Charles II </li></ul><ul><li>Russia: Peter the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia: Frederick the Great </li></ul>
    49. 54. <ul><li>Constitutionalists </li></ul><ul><li>England: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oliver Cromwell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Netherlands: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch Merchants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>