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Renewable energy in Japan

Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard FasolMember Board of Directors at GMO CLOUD K.K.

The March 11, 2011 disaster created the need to review Japan’s energy architecture. We believe that it will take about 10 years for Japan to fully decide on a new energy and electricity architecture, and it will take about 3 years to reach decisions on the future of Japan’s nuclear power generation. Japan has taken a careful approach towards the development of renewable power, and renewable power - except for hydropower - is substantially lower than in most other advanced countries. Japan’s potential for renewable energy is very high, especially wind and geo-thermal power, and will required substantial changes in laws and regulations, and a decentralized and democratic approach to grid management. Necessary liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets is in preparation, and we will see a rapid development of renewable energy. This report reviews the current situation and the future potential of renewable electrical power in Japan.

Renewable energy in Japan

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(c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014
RENEWABLE ENERGY JAPAN
9th edition of July 8, 2014
by Gerhard Fasol, PhD, Eurotechnology Japan KK
http://www.eurotechnology.com/
fasol@eurotechnology.com
Preview version - download full report here:
http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_renewable/
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(c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014
RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN
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Version Date Content added, updates
first report, environmental techn. 1996-1997 environmental bus. strategy work
... 1997 - 2012 updates, and projects
pre-versions 2012-2013 energy strategy work, research
1 March 26, 2013 first version
2 March 28, 2013 updates and corrections
3 April 17, 2013 FIT updates (January 2013)
4 May 31, 2013 Fit updates (Jan+ Feb 2013)
5 August 24, 2013 Fit updates (March-May 2013)
6 August 27, 2013 online FIT capacity added
7 June 3, 2014 updates, reformat, new policy
8 July 7, 2014 FIT approvals to March 2014
9 July 8, 2014 updates and corrections
(c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014
REPORTS ON JAPAN’S ENERGY SECTOR
3
•Japan’s energy landscape
•approx. 277 pages, 94 Figures, 55 tables, frequent updates
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•Renewable energy in Japan
•approx. 188 pages, 94 Figures, 32 tables, frequent updates
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•Solid state lighting, GaN LEDs and lasers
•approx. 122 pages, 25 Figures, 21 photographs, 9 tables, frequent updates
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(c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014
LICENSE
Thank you for purchasing licenses to our reports, and for your cooperation with our licensing conditions.
Only through your purchases can we continue to produce high-quality market reports from Japan
INTHE CASE OF SINGLE LICENSE: If you have purchased a single copy license of this report, you are not permitted to copy this report except for a single back-up copy
INTHE CASE OF CORPORATE LICENSE: in the case that your company has purchased a corporate license, you may distribute this report inside your company including
protected corporate information servers locked to the outside, but you cannot distribute this report outside your company
ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: we offer annual subscriptions for a particular report, and also for all our reports in one single transaction at a great discount - please contact us
for details. Corporations subscribing will receive all updates at the time of publication, so that you can be sure to have the latest up-to-date information
This research report comes without any warranty of any kind.The authors and Eurotechnology Japan K. K. do not warrant that the information in this report is without error,
nor that the information serves any particular purpose. For legal advice please consult properly licensed legal professionals, for investment advice please consult properly
licensed financial advisors.Trademarks mentioned are the property of their owners.

Eurotechnology is a trademark or registered trademark in Japan and other countries.
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(c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN
5
Before the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan had settled on a traditional top-down national
energy architecture including about 30% electricity from nuclear power, which was to be increased to
50%, where electricity is produced by large centralized power stations and then distributed down to
customers. Renewable energy - except for water power - was kept below 1%.The March 11, 2011
disaster caused a total review of this architecture, and opened opportunities for a new approach in
Japan to renewable energies, and a liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets.
Japan has substantial installed hydropower capacity, however only about 50% of possible capacity has
been developed. Geo-Thermal, wind power, and bio-mass are all at the early stage of development in
Japan. Especially geo-thermal and wind power have very excellent development potential in Japan,
however lead times are long, both because of the necessary technology development and planning,
and also because of the current legal and regulatory restrictions, and because of the necessity to
reach cooperation of stake holders such as onsen (hot spring) resort operators and fishermen in the
case of wind. Solar energy is quickest to deploy, and has been emphasized because of the perceived
advantage of Japan’s electronics industry, however capacity long-term is limited compared to wind and
other renewable energies.
The report gives detailed statistics of installed generation capacity, and produced power, and
development scenarios, as well as information on important market participants.
(c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014
AGENDA - LIST OF CONTENTS
6
•Executive summary: Renewable energy in Japan
•Japan’s renewable energy situation, summary
•Japan’s national energy strategy plan:The “innovative energy and environmental strategy” of Sept 14, 2012
•Japan’s primary energy supply and self-sufficiency,
•Electricity generation: installed generation capacity, electricity generated, renewable energy contributions
•Japan’s present electrical architecture
•The 10 regional electrical operators and J-Power, renewable energy contributions
•The grid,The 50Hz/60Hz issue
•JEPX - Japan Electrical Power ExchangeTokyo
•Impact of the Fukushima disaster
•Renewable energy
•Feed-inTariffs (FIT) for renewable energy
•Water power
•Geo-thermal
•Solar energy
•Wind power, on-shore, off-shore, installed capacity, off-shore wind map
•Bio-mass power
•Ocean power
•Renewable energy investment funds
•Glossary
•Summary

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Renewable energy in Japan

  • 1. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 RENEWABLE ENERGY JAPAN 9th edition of July 8, 2014 by Gerhard Fasol, PhD, Eurotechnology Japan KK http://www.eurotechnology.com/ fasol@eurotechnology.com Preview version - download full report here: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_renewable/ 1
  • 2. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN 2 Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU24934888016 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU30316666940 Version Date Content added, updates first report, environmental techn. 1996-1997 environmental bus. strategy work ... 1997 - 2012 updates, and projects pre-versions 2012-2013 energy strategy work, research 1 March 26, 2013 first version 2 March 28, 2013 updates and corrections 3 April 17, 2013 FIT updates (January 2013) 4 May 31, 2013 Fit updates (Jan+ Feb 2013) 5 August 24, 2013 Fit updates (March-May 2013) 6 August 27, 2013 online FIT capacity added 7 June 3, 2014 updates, reformat, new policy 8 July 7, 2014 FIT approvals to March 2014 9 July 8, 2014 updates and corrections
  • 3. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 REPORTS ON JAPAN’S ENERGY SECTOR 3 •Japan’s energy landscape •approx. 277 pages, 94 Figures, 55 tables, frequent updates •information: •http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_energy/ •purchase current edition: •http://store.esellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU44952975839 •subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 •subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886 •Renewable energy in Japan •approx. 188 pages, 94 Figures, 32 tables, frequent updates •information: •http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_renewable/ •purchase current edition: •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU72243111298 •subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU24934888016 •subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): •http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU30316666940 •Solid state lighting, GaN LEDs and lasers •approx. 122 pages, 25 Figures, 21 photographs, 9 tables, frequent updates •information: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/solidstatelighting/ •purchase current edition (single copy license): http://store.esellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR651896906&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU6322569155 •purchase current edition (corporate license): http://store.esellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU05361071140
  • 4. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 LICENSE Thank you for purchasing licenses to our reports, and for your cooperation with our licensing conditions. Only through your purchases can we continue to produce high-quality market reports from Japan INTHE CASE OF SINGLE LICENSE: If you have purchased a single copy license of this report, you are not permitted to copy this report except for a single back-up copy INTHE CASE OF CORPORATE LICENSE: in the case that your company has purchased a corporate license, you may distribute this report inside your company including protected corporate information servers locked to the outside, but you cannot distribute this report outside your company ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: we offer annual subscriptions for a particular report, and also for all our reports in one single transaction at a great discount - please contact us for details. Corporations subscribing will receive all updates at the time of publication, so that you can be sure to have the latest up-to-date information This research report comes without any warranty of any kind.The authors and Eurotechnology Japan K. K. do not warrant that the information in this report is without error, nor that the information serves any particular purpose. For legal advice please consult properly licensed legal professionals, for investment advice please consult properly licensed financial advisors.Trademarks mentioned are the property of their owners.
 Eurotechnology is a trademark or registered trademark in Japan and other countries. 4
  • 5. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN 5 Before the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan had settled on a traditional top-down national energy architecture including about 30% electricity from nuclear power, which was to be increased to 50%, where electricity is produced by large centralized power stations and then distributed down to customers. Renewable energy - except for water power - was kept below 1%.The March 11, 2011 disaster caused a total review of this architecture, and opened opportunities for a new approach in Japan to renewable energies, and a liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets. Japan has substantial installed hydropower capacity, however only about 50% of possible capacity has been developed. Geo-Thermal, wind power, and bio-mass are all at the early stage of development in Japan. Especially geo-thermal and wind power have very excellent development potential in Japan, however lead times are long, both because of the necessary technology development and planning, and also because of the current legal and regulatory restrictions, and because of the necessity to reach cooperation of stake holders such as onsen (hot spring) resort operators and fishermen in the case of wind. Solar energy is quickest to deploy, and has been emphasized because of the perceived advantage of Japan’s electronics industry, however capacity long-term is limited compared to wind and other renewable energies. The report gives detailed statistics of installed generation capacity, and produced power, and development scenarios, as well as information on important market participants.
  • 6. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 AGENDA - LIST OF CONTENTS 6 •Executive summary: Renewable energy in Japan •Japan’s renewable energy situation, summary •Japan’s national energy strategy plan:The “innovative energy and environmental strategy” of Sept 14, 2012 •Japan’s primary energy supply and self-sufficiency, •Electricity generation: installed generation capacity, electricity generated, renewable energy contributions •Japan’s present electrical architecture •The 10 regional electrical operators and J-Power, renewable energy contributions •The grid,The 50Hz/60Hz issue •JEPX - Japan Electrical Power ExchangeTokyo •Impact of the Fukushima disaster •Renewable energy •Feed-inTariffs (FIT) for renewable energy •Water power •Geo-thermal •Solar energy •Wind power, on-shore, off-shore, installed capacity, off-shore wind map •Bio-mass power •Ocean power •Renewable energy investment funds •Glossary •Summary
  • 7. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JAPAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY SITUATION 7
  • 8. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JAPAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY SITUATION 8 Renewable energy type Installed generation capacity before July 2012 FIT as of March 31, 2014 Potential estimated capacity Comment Water power 27.56 GigaWatt + 22.3 GigaWatt pump- storage approved=0.3GW operating=0.006GW 47.35 GigaWatt limited returns on smaller installations Geo-Thermal 0.533 GigaWatt approved=0.014GW operating=0.00014GW 23 GigaWatt limited by nature park laws, and onsen resort cooperation Wind 2.6 GigaWatt approved=1.04GW operating=0.11GW scenarios: 52 to 3420 GigaWatt today’s grid capacity limit: 10 GW Solar 10 GigaWatt approved=65.7GW operating=8.7GW limited by available space Bio-Mass 2.1 GigaWatt approved=1.56GW operating=0.122GW Ocean salinity gradient, rivers: 0.5 GW sub-total renewable 42.8 GigaWatt approved=68.6GW operating=8.9GW Total energy generation capacity 250 GigaWatt
  • 9. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 CABINET DECISION (“KAKUGIKETTEI”) OF SEPT. 19, 2012 22
  • 10. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 CABINET DECISION (“KAKUGIKETTEI”) OF SEPT. 19, 2012 23 Sept. 19, the Cabinet released a "Kakugikettei" (Cabinet Decision) which is 4 and 1/2 lines long, which says:   We will carry out our energy and environmental policy based on the "Innovative Energy and Environmental Strategy" as decided by the Energy and Environment Council on Sept 14, however we will hold responsible discussions with concerned self-governing regional bodies of Japan and with concerned international organizations, and we will continuously and flexibly verify and adjust our policy. (Kakugikettei, Cabinet decision of Sept 19, 2012, our unofficial translation from bureaucratic official complex Japanese into simplified English, attempting to keep the same meaning).   Note, that this "step back" is not uniquely Japanese.... Sweden decided in the 1980s to go zero-nuclear with a Parliament approved schedule, and Sweden's parliament reversed the earlier zero-nuclear decision, and went back to continue nuclear power in 2010 and renewing or building new nuclear power stations.
  • 11. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY 24
  • 12. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PRIMARY ENERGY SELF-SUFFICIENCY RATIOS TRADITIONALVIEW, DOES NOT INCLUDE RENEWABLES AND NEW FORMS OF GAS DEPOSITS 25 Note that this figure shows the traditional view of energy self-sufficiency, and typically does not include the full renewable energy potential, nor new types of recently found gas sources. Viewed in this traditional way, Japan has one of the lowest primary energy self-sufficiency ratios globally: •Japan has to import about 82% of primary energy, if nuclear energy is included. •however, at present with two exceptions, all nuclear power stations out of service, so that 96% of Japan’s primary energy needs to be imported. •however, with full development of renewable energy sources, especially off-shore wind energy, Japan could be self-sufficient in energy. Countries with self-sufficiency ratios larger than 100% export primary energy including electricity, while countries with self-sufficiency ratios lower than 100% need to import primary energy and electricity Italy Japan S Korea Germany France US India UK China Canada Russia 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Energyselfsufficiencyratio Energy self sufficiency ratio IEA, OECD, 2006 2007 15 15 18 4 19 2 41 30 51 8 71 62 76 75 83 76 92 91 153 144 183 incl. nuclear 177 excl. nuclear c2012EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 13. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY 26 Japan’s primary energy supply is approximately 25 x 1018 Joule/year. Japan’s electricity production corresponds to about 14% of primary energy supply. Some of the primary energy is used for other purposes, e.g. raw materials for the chemical industry, fuel for heating or transportation, but an appreciable amount is lost during the electricity generation process.The nuclear energy supply (in red above) has been eliminated by the shut-down of all 50 nuclear power stations (except for the Oi plant which has been restarted again), and needs to be replaced by savings, natural gas, oil or renewable energies. Renewable energy supply corresponds to about 1.5 x 1018 Joule/year out of Japan’s total primary energy supply of 25 x 1018 Joule/ year. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 energy1018 Jouleyear Japan's domestic primary energy supply 1018 Joule year Oil Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Water Renewable c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 energy1018 Jouleyear Japan's renewable energy supply 1018 Joule year Water power Renewable except water power c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 14. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY 27 Over the last 45 years since 1965, water power energy supply has been constant in Japan, while non-water power renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, geo-thermal and others) have increased very slowly. In financial years 2010 (April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011) water power and other renewable energy sources together added up to about 7% of Japan’s primary energy supply, according to Japan’s economic ministry sources. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 energy1018 Jouleyear Japan's renewable energy supply 1018 Joule year Water power Renewable except water power c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 5 10 percentoftotal primaryenergysupply renewable energy as percentage of total primary energy supply Water power Renewable except water power c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 15. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 ELECTRICITY GENERATION - INSTALLED CAPACITY 28
  • 16. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 INSTALLED ELECTRIC GENERATION CAPACITY (EXCLUDING FIT PROGRAM FOR RENEWABLES) 32 Japan’s Government energy plan describes a scenario where renewable energy contribution is to rise substantially towards 2030. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 electricitygenerationcapacityGigaWatt Japan's installed renewable electric generation capacity GigaWatt Water Pump Storage Renewable except water power c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 50 100 150 200 electricitygenerationcapacityGigaWatt Japan's installed renewable electric generation capacity GigaWatt Water Pump Storage Renewable except water power c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 17. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 ELECTRICITY GENERATION - GENERATED ELECTRICAL POWER 35
  • 18. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GENERATED ELECTRIC POWER 37 This figure shows Japan’s generated electrical power measured inTeraWatt hours/year.This figure shows the same data as the figure on the previous page, just presented in different physics units. Global average electric power is 20,261TWh/year (2008), thus Japan generated electrical power corresponds approx. 5% of global electrical power. The figure on the right hand side shows power generated from renewable sources: •traditional water power •pump-storage power •non-water renewable sources 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Japan'sgenerated powerTeraWatthoursyear Japan's generated power TeraWatt hours year Oil Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Water Pump Storage Renewable 1 x 10^18 Joule year 2 x 10^18 Joule year 3 x 10^18 Joule year 4 x 10^18 Joule year y c2012EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Japan'sgenerated powerTeraWatthoursyear Japan's generated power TeraWatt hours year Water Pump Storage Renewable except water power .1 x 10^18 Joule year .2 x 10^18 Joule year .3 x 10^18 Joule year .4 x 10^18 Joule year
  • 19. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 RENEWABLE ENERGY STATISTICS 51 Electricity production from non-water renewable sources contributes approximately 0.3% to total electricity production, and consists predominantly of geo-thermal energy. Bio-mass generation is also shown on the right hand side - bio-mass is used in thermal power plants, and therefore not strictly renewable, since it causes CO2 emission. Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 percent Operators' generated & purchased renewable power as percentage of total Jan 2007 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 percent Japan's non water renewable electricity as percentage of total source: METI wind green solar yellow geothermal biomass thermal waste thermal c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 20. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JAPAN’S PRESENT ELECTRICAL ARCHITECTURE 52
  • 21. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 STRUCTURE OF JAPAN’S ELECTRICITY LANDSCAPE 53 The Figure on the following page shows the structure of Japan’s electricity markets, which has been liberalized to a very small degree, compared to the far more advanced liberalization in the US and most European countries. Japan’s electricity markets are dominated by 10 regional electricity operating monopoly companies, which operate: •generation, •transmission/grid and •distribution/retail. There is no unbundling. In addition there are different types of independent electricity producers, which are practically of two types: •internal electricity production, e.g. in large office buildings, or in factories, for immediate local use.As an example the famous Mori-Roppongi-HillsTower has its own electricity plant in the basement of the building. •independent commercial production of electricity. Such independent electricity producers have essentially no other choice than to sell to the single local and extremely powerful monopoly operator. Electricity sales can be direct under contract to the local monopoly operator, or via the JEPX exchange. However, the JEPX exchange only handles about 0.5% of all electrical power.
  • 22. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 STRUCTURE OF JAPAN’S ELECTRICITY LANDSCAPE 54 Structure of Japan’s electricity landscape. 10 regional monopoly operators, each combine generation, transmission and grid, and distribution in their local monopoly region and dominate Japan’s electricity industry. Currently only about 0.5% of Japan’s electricity is traded via the JEPX electricity exchange. 10 regional monopoly electricity operators generation distribution/retail transmission/grid households SMEs regional monopoly large size customers factories JEPX (0.5% of electricity volume) specified power producers (1.7%) PPS (1.8%) in-house generation (10.6%) renewable energy producers FITFIT
  • 23. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE 10 REGIONAL ELECTRICITY COMPANIES 55 for an analysis of Japan’s non-renewable energy sector including financial data for Japan’s regional electricity operators, see: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_energy/
  • 24. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 NEW ENERGY CONTRIBUTIONTOTHE POWER MIX 58 Before March 11, 2011, Japan’s regional power monopolies had an unwritten rule to keep “new energy” (ie. renewable energies such as wind, solar, geo-thermal, wave power, bio-mass, but excepting water power) below 1% of the power mix.Water power was excepted, and Japan’s water power contribution is on the order of 10% overall. Hokkaido Tohoku Tepco Chubu Hokuriku Kansai Chugoku Shikoku Kyushu Okinawa J Power 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1. 1.2 1.4 newenergygenerationcapacity new energy generation capacity before March 11, 2011 0.7 1.3 0.05 0.1 0.9 0.03 0.02 0.03 1.1 0 0.09 c2012EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 25. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 J-POWER (ELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION EDPC) 59
  • 26. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 J-POWER 60 J-Power (Electrical Power Development Company EDPC) was founded on September 16, 1952 with 66.69% capital from the Ministry of Finance, and the remaining capital from the then 9 regional electricity operators. Purpose of the company is mainly to develop new sources of electric power, and the operation of transmission lines. In April 1, 2004 J-Power was reorganized into the following divisions: •JPHYTEC CO. Ltd: hydro-power and transmission system company •JPec Co Ltd: thermal power company •JP Business Service Corporation •KEC Corporation
  • 27. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 J-POWER -TRANSMISSION LINES,AND SUBSTATIONS 63 J-Power number AC transmission lines 2140.5 km DC transmission lines 267.2 km substations 3 4,292,000 kVA frequency converter stations 1 300,000 kiloWatt AC/DC converter stations 4 2,000,000 kiloWatt wireless communications circuit 5952 km
  • 28. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE GRID 64
  • 29. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 REGIONAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND GRID CONNECTIONS BETWEEN OPERATORS 65 Japan’s electricity infrastructure consists of ten regional monopolies (installed electricity generation capacity is shown as the area of circles, and written in GigaWatt (GW)). The width of link lines between the power monopolies show the capacity of lines connecting the regional monopolies. Japan has no true national grid, but two essentially disconnected regional grids, and relatively weak links between local power monopolies. Several proposals for national grids are under discussion, potentially competing with each other. (note that the generation capacities shown above are those of the regional electrical monopolies.Actual regional generation capacities are actually about 30%-40% higher, because of in- house production of electricity of manufacturing companies and building companies, and because of independent electricity producers). Hokkaido generating capacity= 7 GigaWatt Tohoku 17 GW Hokuriku 8 GW Chugoku 12 GW Shikoku 7 GW Kyushu 20 GW Okinawa 2 GigaWatt Tokyo 65 GW Kansai 35 GW Chubu 33 GW Japan’s total electricy generation capacity = approx. 250 GW 600MW DC line 6310MW AC line 5570MW 5570MW 5570MW AC line 2400 MW 16600MW 1000MW DC line 1400MW 300MW (c) 2012 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 30. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GLOBALTREND: REDESIGN ELECTRICITY GRIDS 66 特別高圧 (1) 500kV, 270kV, 140kV (2) 60kV (3) 20kV 高圧 6kV 低圧 200V, 100V Power stations: (1) generate power (2) stabilize grid frequency 特別高圧 (1) 500kV, 270kV, 140kV (2) 60kV (3) 20kV 高圧 6kV 低圧 200V, 100V Power stations: (1) generate power (2) stabilize grid frequency The electricity grids have evolved over 100 years or longer, and are currently mainly top-down, distributing power from large central power stations to consumers. The figure above is a schematic ofTEPCO’s grid architecture to supplyTokyo with electricity. Electricity grids are evolving to a distributed architecture, where electricity is also injected at the periphery, including also energy storage in addition to traditional pump-storage hydropower, locally produced renewables, and “smart” management becomes necessary.
  • 31. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GRID LIMITS RENEWABLE ENERGY 67 Japan’s electricity grids have been designed by the regional monopoly companies to transport electricity from large central power plants, nuclear power stations to the networks supplying end customers. Renewable energy plants, such as mega solar plants, wind farms, geothermal plants, and water power stations, and biomass based generators, tend to be smaller and distributed over larger areas, for which the current grid has not been designed. It will be necessary to invest and expand Japan’s electricity grid to accommodate new decentralized renewable and smaller energy plants.
  • 32. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE 50HZ/60HZ ISSUE 68
  • 33. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE 50HZ/60HZ ISSUE 69 Electrification of Japan started on March 25, 1878 at the Institute ofTechnology inTokyo/Toranomon, and in 1886 theTokyo Electric Light Company was founded. Electrification started independently inTokyo and in Osaka: •Tokyo Electric Light Company imported equipment from German AEG with the German 50Hz frequency standard, •Osaka Electric Lamp Company imported equipment from General Electric (USA) with the 60Hz frequency standard. Until today Western Japan uses 60Hz, while Eastern Japan used 50Hz. Only three frequency converter facilities (FCF) connect the western 60Hz area with the easter 50Hz area: •Shin-Shinano FCF (600MWatt) •Sakuma Dam FCF (300MWatt) •Higashi Shimizu FCF (135MWatt, from Autumn 2014: 300MWatt) It is not practically possible to change one of the areas’ frequency standard, so this 50Hz/60Hz split of Japan’s electricity system is likely to continue forever. However, in the future true national grids are likely to be built.At the moment there is no true national grid in Japan, only relatively weak connections between the regional monopoly operators, and other local links.
  • 34. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE 50HZ/60HZ ISSUE 70 Only three frequency converter facilities (FCF) connect the western 60Hz area with the easter 50Hz area: •Shin-Shinano FCF (600MWatt) •Sakuma Dam FCF (300MWatt) •Higashi Shimizu FCF (135MWatt, from Autumn 2014: 300MWatt) 50Hz (historically German AEG supplied Tokyo Electric Light Co) 60Hz (historically US General Electric supplied Osaka Electric Lamp Co.) Shin-Shinano FCF 600MW Sakuma Dam FCF 300MW Higashi-Shimizu FCF (=Frequency Converter Facility) 135MW (from Autumn 2014: 300MW) (c) 2012 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 35. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JEPX JAPAN ELECTRIC POWER EXCHANGETOKYO 71
  • 36. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JEPX JAPAN ELECTRIC POWER EXCHANGE 72 The Japan Electric Power ExchangeTokyo trades about 0.5% of Japan’s electricity. Requires sellers to sell at leasts 1 MegaWatt History: •November 2003: constituted •April 1, 2005: starts trading •November 2008: starts Green Electricity trading •as of April 2011: 56 member companies
  • 37. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE ROLE OF JAPAN’S TRADING COMPANIES INTHE ENERGY DOMAIN 80
  • 38. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 THE ROLE OF JAPAN’STRADING COMPANIES INTHE ENERGY SECTOR 81 This section will be included and updated in future versions of this report. Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. We are also planning an analysis report on Japan’s trading companies - contact us for information. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886
  • 39. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 RENEWABLE ENERGY 82
  • 40. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 FEED INTARIFFS (FIT) FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY 83
  • 41. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 LEGAL BASIS FOR JAPAN’S FEED-INTARIFFS 84 Feed-inTariffs (FIT) were introduced to Japan first for private residential customers who can sell surplus renewable energy back to electricity operators. On July 1, 2012 a law with a second set of regulations came into force which establishes feed-in tariffs (FITs) for renewable energy from large scale, non-residential plants: •“Special Measures Concerning Renewable Energy Electric Procurement by Operators of Electric Utilities Law”
  • 42. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 APPLICATIONS GRANTED UNDERTHE FIT PROGRAM 94 This figure shows new renewable energy projects approved under the FIT program up and until May 2014. This figure above shows that capacity approx. equal 70,000 MWatt was approved by end March 2014. The Government target was to achieve 2500 MWatt by March 31, 2013, the approvals achieved by March 31, 2013 were almost 10 times higher than this target. Most approved projects are for solar energy.
  • 43. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JAPAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY MIX 103 Before Feed-in-Tariffs: Japan’s renewable energy mix up until 2012 has been predominantly large scale (> 1 MegaWatt) water power stations Out[1195]= Japan's Renewable energy mix before 2012 res. solar 9.5 non residential solar 84.3 wind 4.8 water 1MW 0.2 water 1M .004 Biomass 1.1 Geo .03 c 2013 Eurotechnology.com Out[1184]= Renewable energy projects approved up to February 28, 2013 res. solar 9.5 non residential solar 84.3 wind 4.8 water 1MW 0.2 water 1M .004 Biomass 1.1 Geo .03 c 2013 Eurotechnology.com Approved under Feed-in-Tariffs up until February 2013: applications approved under the feed-in-tariff program have been 93.8% for solar power plants, of which 84.3% were non- residential/industrial solar plants.
  • 44. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WATER POWER 104
  • 45. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GENERATED WATER POWER PROJECTIONS 111 Japan Governments energy plan of September 14, 2012 provides only a modest increase of water power generation over the period 2012-2030 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Japan'sgenerated powerTeraWatthoursyear Japan's generated power TeraWatt hours year Water Pump Storage Renewable except water power .1 x 10^18 Joule year .2 x 10^18 Joule year .3 x 10^18 Joule year .4 x 10^18 Joule year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Japan'sgenerated powerTeraWatthoursyear Japan's generated power TeraWatt hours year Water Pump Storage Renewable except water power 0.5 x 10^18 Joule year 1 x 10^18 Joule year c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com
  • 46. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 HYDRO POWER FIT APPROVALS 117 FIT approved hydro power capacity. Shown is accumulated total approved capacity (approved, and including already operating, as well as capacity still in preparation). New capacity under the FIT program is about 1.4% of total water generation capacity. Up to March 2014 approximately 300 MegaWatt projects have been approved under the FIT program.
  • 47. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PUMP STORAGE POWER STATIONS 118
  • 48. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WORLD’S FIRST SEA WATER PUMP STORAGE POWER STATIONS 122
  • 49. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WORLD FIRST SEAWATER PUMP STORAGE PLANT 123 J-Power operates the world first sea-water pump-storage plant in Okinawa, theYanbaru Seawater pump storage plant.The major data are: maximum water flow 26 m3/second head 136 meter maximum power generation 30 MegaWatt water reservoir volume 590,000 m3 generated voltage 66 kiloVolt start of construction: March 1990 completion and start of test operation: March 16, 1999 completion of test operation and start of full commercial operation 2004
  • 50. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GEO-THERMAL 124
  • 51. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GEO-THERMAL POWER FIT APPROVALS 132 FIT approved geo-thermal electric power capacity. Shown is accumulated total approved capacity (approved, and including already operating, as well as capacity still in preparation). New capacity under the FIT program is about 2.4% of total geo-thermal generation capacity. FIT applications are possible in the categories below 15 MW and above 15 MW. Sofar all applications have been for geo-thermal power stations less then 15 MW.
  • 52. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GEO-THERMAL EQUIPMENT 133
  • 53. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GEO-THERMAL EQUIPMENT 134 Japanese companies have approximately a 70% marketshare of geo-thermal equipment globally Main equipment makers are: • Fuji Electric • Toshiba • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
  • 54. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOLAR ENERGY 135
  • 55. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOLAR ENERGY 136 Until the introduction on July 1, 2012 of feed-in tariffs (FIT) and compulsory renewable electricity purchases by the regional monopoly operators, Japan’s solar industry was almost exclusively focused on the residential market, where the purchasing of excess electricity by operators was introduced earlier. Industrial scale,“mega solar plants” only started to develop with the announcement of feed-in tariffs in 2011, and the introduction of FIT on July 1, 2012. Therefore the solar industry development in Japan changed dramatically from July 1, 2012 Currently, total installed generation capacity is on the order of 10 GigaWatt. During 2012, solar power contributed up to 0.01% of total electricity generation.
  • 56. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOLAR IRRADIATION IN JAPAN 137
  • 57. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOLAR ENERGY 140
  • 58. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOLAR ELECTRICITY GENERATION 144 Solar electricity generation contributed approx. 10 GigaWatt hours during the month of August 2012, corresponding to approx. 0.01% of total electricity generated. Solar electricity generation started to become significant from autumn 2010 with the introduction of domestic feed-in-tariffs. Currently until the introduction of FIT in July 2012, about 80% of solar energy were solar cells installed in private residences. Jan 2007 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015 powerpermonthTeraWatthmonth Japan's Solar electricity generation per month TeraWatt h March 11 disaster c2013EurotechnologyJapanKK www.eurotechnology.com Jan 2007 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 percent Japan's wind and solar electricity as percentage of total source: METI wind green solar yellow March, 11 disaster
  • 59. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOLAR PANEL SHIPMENTS 150
  • 60. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WIND POWER 152
  • 61. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WIND GENERATION CAPACITY APPROVED UNDER FIT 157 During the period July 1, 2012 - March 31, 2014, applications for about 1 GigaWatt wind power generation capacity were approved.
  • 62. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 BIO-MASS POWER 165
  • 63. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 MARINE RENEWABLE POWER RESOURCES 168
  • 64. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 MARINE RENEWABLE POWER SOURCES 169 Oceans can be electrical power sources. Power generation is being explored using a variety of powerful forces: •ocean currents •ocean waves •tides •thermal gradient •salinity gradient •off-shore wind power One of the most promising effects is power generation from salinity gradients.At least theoretically the amount of electrical power which can be generated from salinity gradients is equivalent to the total global electrical power consumption. Generation of electrical power from oceans is in the early stages of development, and most methods are being explored experimentally in Japan. Except for off-shore wind, to our knowledge, power generation is currently not covered by feed-in tariffs, however, Japan’s Government and local authorities support, or directly invest in research and development. For a review, see:“Ocean energy: Forms and Prospects” by John D Isaacs and Walter R Schmitt, SCIENCE,Vol. 207, p 265 (1980)
  • 65. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GLOBAL MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES 170 Source:“Ocean energy: Forms and Prospects” by John D Isaacs and Walter R Schmitt, SCIENCE,Vol. 207, p 265 (1980), and other sources.Values are theoretical totals, which cannot be all harnessed. global power (Tera Watt) equivalent number of nuclear power stations energy density (meters of water head) Ocean currents 0.05 50 0.05 Ocean waves 2.7 2700 1.5 Tides 0.03 30 10 Thermal gradient 2 2000 210 Salinity gradient (osmotic power) 1.4 - 2.8 1400 - 2600 240 - 270 Salinity gradient: global river-seawater 1 1000 Salinity gradient: Japan’s rivers 0.0005 5-6 Salinity gradient: global wastewater 0.019 19 average global electric power (2008) 2.3 2300
  • 66. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 OSMOTIC POWER (SALINITY GRADIENT POWER) 171
  • 67. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 OSMOTIC POWER (SALINITY GRADIENT POWER) 172 Mixing river water and sea water releases large amounts of energy, a fact that has been known for a long time. In fact, mixing of solutions with different concentration will release osmotic power. Therefore in principle, the outflow of waste water cleaning plants, outflow from desalination plants and many other liquids can in principle be used for generation of salinity gradient power. There are several methods in which power stations could convert osmotic power into electric power. Two methods being developed currently are: Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) (S. Loeb: Osmotic power plants. Science, 1975; 189:654-655). PRO is currently developed by the Norwegian Power company Statkraft, in cooperation with the Japanese membrane and filter company Nitto-Denko/Hydranautics (for analysis of Nitto-Denko, see: http:// www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_electric/ ). In Japan a PRO osmotic power research system is operated for research purpose as part of the Mega-Ton-Water System (Mega-ton WS) project in Fukuoka, near a sewage treatment plant. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) (R. E. Pattle RE. Electricity from fresh and salt water—without fuel. Chem. Proc. Eng., 1955; 35:351–354.) RED is currently being developed in Holland
  • 68. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 OSMOSIS 173 Upper figure: when the impenetrable wall is removed, the river water (low salt concentration) and the ocean water (high salt concentration) mix, and quickly move to a state of highest possible entropy. Lower figure: if a semipermeable membrane (water molecules can pass, salt molecules cannot pass), is used, water molecules are pulled through the membrane to establish a new equilibrium, where the pressure on the ocean water side corresponds to the osmotic pressure. For 0.5 molar seawater, the osmotic pressure is about 22.4 atm, corresponding to a water head of about 225 meters. river water low salt concentration impenetrablewall impenetrablewall sea water high salt concentration mixture river water low salt concentration sea water high salt concentration semipermeable membrane osmosis pressure head 225 meters 22.4 atm pressure
  • 69. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 MIXING ENERGY 174 When a clearwater river mixes into seawater with high salt concentration, very large amounts of free energy are released. This energy can be visualized by a corresponding 225 meter high waterfall: osmotic energy corresponds to each river ending with a 225 meter waterfall at the point where the river mixes into the salty ocean. This energy can in principle converted into electric power with suitable engines, which are currently under development. This mixing energy is fundamentally solar energy: solar energy evaporates (low salt concentration) water from oceans, which comes back down to earth as rain with low salt concentration, and then is collected in rivers. Therefore osmotic energy won from rivers mixing into oceans is renewable energy, and produces no CO2. river water low salt concentration sea water high salt concentration osmotic power equivalent water head 225 meters river ocean
  • 70. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SCHEMATIC OF AN OSMOTIC POWER STATION 175 Nature maximizes entropy: forces will equalize the concentration of salts on both sides of the membrane.The semi-permeable membrane lets water molecules pass, but stops salt ions.Therefore nature’s aim to maximize entropy will drive water from the low-salt concentration side into the the high-salt concentration side, driving up pressure on the saltwater side. An osmotic power station uses the osmotic pressure difference between the low salt river water side and the high salt concentration ocean water side of a semi-permeable membrane into electric power. Norman proposed this type of osmotic power station first in 1974 (R.S. Norman,Water salination: a source of energy, Science 186 (1974) 350–352) sea water high salt concentration osmotic power water head river ocean high sssalt concentration g river water low salt concentration sea water controls and inlet pressure difference drives a turbine for power generation turbine river water low salt concentration semi-permeable membrane river water inlet and controls river water outlet osmosis
  • 71. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PROSPECTS FOR OSMOTIC POWER 176 Osmotic power has very large promise, and can in principle cover a substantial part of electricity consumption, however is in early stages of development at the moment. Currently most advanced is the Norwegian Power company Statkraft, which is operating an osmotic power station based on PRO for development purposes. On the engineering side all technology is well understood, except for the development of suitable semi-permeable membranes.The semi- permeable membranes have to withstand high osmotic pressures, stop penetration by salt ions, while allowing water molecules to pass at low resistance. Statkraft decided not to develop membranes, but to cooperate with external partners for the development of semi-permeable membranes, and selected the Japanese company Nitto-Denko/Hydranautics as partner (for analysis of Nitto-Denko, see: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/j_electric/ ) (Nitto-Denko acquired Hydranautics, based in Oceanside CA, USA, in 1987) Open issues are: •develop semi-permeable membranes to enable higher generation power density •resistance against impurities in the water taken into the power station •environmental impact on the natural habitat surrounding the osmotic power station •optimization to achieve high electricity generation efficiency at low cost
  • 72. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 OSMOTIC POWER 177 This section will be expanded and updated in future versions of this report. Subscribe to this report, and we will regularly send you the latest versions. subscription, monthly payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU50334810626 subscription, annual payment, you can end the subscription any time (no refunds): http://store.eSellerate.net/s.asp?s=STR0576176470&Cmd=BUY&SKURefnum=SKU20789254886
  • 73. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WAVE POWER 178
  • 74. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SELECTED COMPANIES IN JAPAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY FIELD 183
  • 75. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 PANASONIC (FORMERLY SANYO) SOLAR ARC 192 •Panasonic (formerly Sanyo) Solar Ark has 5046 single crystal solar cell battery panels, achieves up to 630kW of solar power output and delivers about 530 MegaWh of electricity per year.The Solar Ark is about 315m long and weighs 3000 tons. •Corresponds to a CO2 reduction of 95 tons-CO2/year •You can see Panasonic (formerly Sanyo) Solar Ark from theTokaido-Shinkansen line, if you are seated on the right hand side of the train between Kyoto and Nagoya station, when taking the Tokaido Shinkansen fromTokyo to Osaka (or left hand side seat when traveling from Osaka toTokyo).
  • 76. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 FIRST SOLAR 193
  • 77. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 WEST HOLDINGS 194
  • 78. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EURUS ENERGY HOLDINGS CORPORATION 195
  • 79. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014196 Eurus Energy Holdings Corporation Euros, Eurus = greek goddess of east wind, thought to bring warmth and rain Founded November 1, 2001, founded asTomen Power Holdings. Founder Headquarters Tokyo Stock Exchange - Consolidated sales Number of employees 191 (as of April 1, 2012) Major share holders ToyotaTsusho (60%) TEPCO (40%) Major business areas clean energy, especially solar and wind power generation in Japan and overseas
  • 80. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EURUS ENERGY HOLDINGS CORPORATION 197 Location Generation capacity Japan 556.56 MegaWatt USA 732.76 MegaWatt Asia/Oceania 194.468 MegaWatt Europe 833.84 MegaWatt Total 2317.628 MegaWatt
  • 81. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EURUS ENERGY HOLDINGS CORPORATION 198 Type Generation capacity in operation Generation capacity under construction wind 2268.66 MegaWatt 18 MegaWatt solar 48.968 MegaWatt 40 MegaWatt Total 2317.628 MegaWatt 58 MegaWatt
  • 82. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JAPAN WIND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 199
  • 83. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014200 Japan Wind Development Corporation Founded July 26, 1999 Founder Headquarters Tokyo Stock Exchange TSE 2766 (market capitalizationYEN 13.4 Billion = US$250 million, as of December 26, 2013) Consolidated sales YEN 5986 million (FY ending March 2012) (approx. US$ 70 million) Number of employees 117 Major share holders Torishima Pump Manufacturing, Idemitsu Kosan, Japan Steel Works, Maeda Corporation, MasayukiTsukawaki, Mitsui Engineering and Shipb. Major business areas wind power generation in Japan and overseas
  • 84. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 REGIONAL SUBSIDIARIES,WIND FARMS 201 In Japan: 1.EOS Engineering & Service Co., Ltd. 2.EOS Energy Management Co., Ltd. 3.The Energy Strategy Institute Co., Ltd. 4.Rokkasho-mura Wind Development Co., Ltd. 5.Futamata Wind Development Co., Ltd. 6.Suzu Wind Development Co., Ltd. 7.Choshi Byobugaura Wind Development Co., Ltd. 8.Minami Boso Wind Development Co., Ltd. 9.MJ Wind Power Ichihara Co., Ltd. 10.Miura Wind Park Co., Ltd. 11.Atsumi Wind Development Co., Ltd. 12.Daisen Wind Farm Co., Ltd. 13.Tainai Wind Development Co., Ltd. 14.Erimo Wind Development Co., Ltd. 15.Zenibako Wind Development Co., Ltd. 16.Matsumae Wind Development Co., Ltd. 17.Fukkoshidaichi Wind Development Co., Ltd. 18.Kakegawa Wind Development Co., Ltd. Overseas: 19.EOS Energy Ltd. (England) 20.EOS Energy Singapore Pte. Ltd. (Singapore) 21.JWD Rees Windpark GmbH (Germany) 22.JWDTill-Moyland Windpark GmbH (Germany) 23.MITOS Windpark GmbH (Germany)
  • 85. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SOJITZ 202
  • 86. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JX NIPPON OIL AND ENERGY CORPORATION (JX ENERGY) 207
  • 87. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 JX-ENERGY SOLAR PLANTS 208 Capacity start of operations comments Akita 4MW August 2014 disused JX Energy oil and gas refinery land, combined investment US$ 52 million Fukushima 1MW August 2014 disused JX Energy oil and gas refinery land, combined investment US$ 52 million Okinawa 12MW March 2015 disused JX Energy oil and gas refinery land, combined investment US$ 52 million Yamaguchi ...combined 5MW Miyagi ...combined 5MW Ibaraki ...combined 5MW Total (August 2013) 22MW
  • 88. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GLOSSARY 209
  • 89. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GLOSSARY 210 Mega-solar Solar plants larger than 1 MegaWatt capacity, corresponding to the electricity needs of about 300 family homes 1 Joule SI-Unit for Energy. 3,600,000 Joule = 1 kilo Watt hour (= 1 kWh) 1 Joule = 2.778 x 10-7 kWh 1 Watt SI-Unit for Power. Measures energy transfer or energy conversion. 1 Watt = 1 Joule / second 1 GW = 1 Giga-Watt 1 GW = 1 Billion Watt = 109 Watt The power generation capacity of a nuclear power station is typically on the order of 1 GW
  • 90. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SUMMARY 211
  • 91. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 SUMMARY: RENEWABLE ENERGY IN JAPAN 212 The March 11, 2011 disaster created the need to review Japan’s energy architecture.We believe that it will take about 10 years for Japan to fully decide on a new energy and electricity architecture, and it will take about 3 years or longer to reach decisions on the future of Japan’s nuclear power generation. Japan has taken a careful approach towards the development of renewable power, and renewable power - except for hydropower - is substantially lower than in most other advanced countries. Japan’s potential for renewable energy is very high, especially wind and geo-thermal power, and will required substantial changes in laws and regulations, and a decentralized and democratic approach to grid management. Necessary liberalization of Japan’s electricity markets is in preparation, and we will see a rapid development of renewable energy. This report reviews the current situation and the future potential of renewable electrical power in Japan.
  • 92. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN KK 213
  • 93. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN KK FOUNDED: FEBRUARY 1997 INTOKYO 214 Services and products - focus areas are high-technology, telecommunications, software, middle-ware, environmental technology and medical equipment: - Market entry to Japan for European and US high-tech companies, turn-round, reshaping, planning and building of distribution networks - European business development and strategy for Japanese companies - M&A (European and US companies acquiring Japanese companies, Japanese companies acquiring or investing in Europe) - Turn-round preparations and management of foreign business in Japan - Market research and strategy - Due diligence of high-tech companies, environmental due-diligence - Advisory services for investment fund managers and investors in technology fields - we publish a series of market reports for about 10 years, which are purchased world-wide, distributed direct and via distribution partners: http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/
  • 94. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN KK 215 - Leading high-technology business development boutique inTokyo, working globally - Founded in 1996/1997 - 14 years experience, relationships, cooperations and success record. - CEO works with Japan’s high-tech / telecom sector since 1984 - 27 years experience, resources, cooperations. - Wide network of cooperations in Governments, Embassies, trading companies, distributors, finance, VCs, traditional corporations, venture start-ups, industry associations - Experience: market-entry, restructuring, M&A, acquisitions, due-diligence Customers include: - More than 100 investment fund managers - Industrial customers: - NTT-Communications, SIEMENS, DeutscheTelekom, Cubic, Unaxis (now: Oerlikon), CITI Group, CLSA Asian Markets, Genscape, Google, IKEA, Isabellenhuette, Landis+Gyr, National Instruments, Swisscom,TechnoCom, - Government - NewYork Police Department, European Union,TEKES (Technology Research funding organization of the Government of Finland) Deep Japanese technology market knowledge - we publish a series of market reports for about 10 years, which are purchased world-wide.You can purchase our reports on Bloomberg: https:// www.bmart.com/search?&nuts%5B%5D=WIRE%3AEUT, and via eSellerate: http://store.eSellerate.net/ s.aspx?s=STR0576176470 and from http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/
  • 95. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GERHARD FASOL PROFILE: HTTP://WWW.FASOL.COM/PROFILE/ 216 - Worked successfully with Japan’s high-tech sector since 1984 - 27 years. Came first to Japan in 1984 to help build NTT’s first international R&D cooperation on semiconductor lasers - Entrepreneur inTokyo since 1996, Eurotechnology Japan KK worked with many large corporate groups (e.g. SIEMENS, NTT, DeutscheTelekom,Asahi Glass...), more than 100 investment fund managers - Assoc. Professor of Electrical Engineering atTokyo University. Record of Fasol-Laboratory atTokyo University: http://www.fasol.com/tokyo_university/ - Elite “Sakigake” (Pioneer) R&D project on Spin-Electronics of Japanese Government Science and Technology Agency.This work was evaluated by US National Science Foundation and US Department ofTrade: http://www.wtec.org/loyola/erato/ch7_5.htm - Co-initiator of spin-electronics device research in Japan, one of the first to start work on spin- electronics in Japan in 1991 - Tenured Faculty member at Cavendish Laboratory/University of Cambridge. - Assoc. Professor of Electrical Engineering atTokyo University - PhD in Solid-State Physics (Cambridge University,Trinity College, UK) - Diplom-Physiker, Ruhr-University Bochum (Diplom-Thesis on Superconductivity) - Publication list (Books, patents and publications, several publications are specifially concerning electron-spin and spin-electronics): http://www.fasol.com/profile/publications.shtml - Languages: English, German (native), French, Japanese, and some Swedish
  • 96. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 GERHARD FASOL WITHTETSUZO MATSUMOTO, EXECVP OF SOFTBANK MOBILE CORPORATION 217
  • 97. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 “POST GALAPAGOS STUDY GROUP” 25 JAPANESE LEADERS + 1 FOREIGNER (GERHARD FASOL) WORKING FOR ONEYEAR ON CONCEPTSTO OVERCOME JAPAN’S “GALAPAGOS EFFECT” 218 see: http://www.eurotechnology.com/2013/10/07/galapagos/
  • 98. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 “POST GALAPAGOS STUDY GROUP” 25 JAPANESE LEADERS + 1 FOREIGNER (GERHARD FASOL) WORKING FOR ONEYEAR ON CONCEPTSTO OVERCOME JAPAN’S “GALAPAGOS EFFECT” 219 see: http://www.eurotechnology.com/2013/10/07/galapagos/
  • 99. (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK www.eurotechnology.com Renewable energy in Japan (9th edition) July 8 2014 CONTACT AND MORE INFORMATION 220 Contact •Gerhard Fasol PhD •Eurotechnology Japan KK,Tokyo, Japan •http://www.eurotechnology.com/ •Mobile +81-90-8594-6291 •fasol@eurotechnology.com •gfasol@gmail.com More information: •reports:http://www.eurotechnology.com/store/ •twitter: http://twitter.com/gfasol/ •website: http://www.eurotechnology.com/ •personal site: http://fasol.com