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FRAMES
OPTOM FASLU MUHAMMED
History
 The earliest historical reference
to magnification dates back to ancient
Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 5th
century BC, which depict "simple
glass meniscal lenses
 The first eyeglasses were made in Italy
at about 1286, according to a sermon
delivered on February 23, 1306 by the
Dominican friar Giordano da Pisa
1580–1645 Current
Frames
Frame Types and Parts
 A frame generally consists of the
front, which in one form
 Temples ,which attach to the front
and hook over the ears to help hold
the spectacles in place.
Parts
Frame Fronts
 That area of the frame front between
the lenses that rests on the nose is
the bridge.
 The hinges hold the temples to the
front.
 Nose pads ,which are plastic pieces
that rest on the nose to support the
frame.
The frame front
Parts of a temple.
Frames
 Frames without an eyewire going
completely around the lens are called
mountings.
 Lenses are “inserted” into frames, but
“mounted” into mountings.
 Frames themselves can be classified
in a simplified manner by one of the
following categories of frames or
mountings.
TYPES OF FRAMES
Plastics
Metal
Plastics
 Plastic frames were occasionally
referred to as shell frames, dating
back to the time when eyeglass
frames were made of tortoise shell.
 Another general term that many still
use for certain plastic frames is zyl,
since at one time zylonite (cellulose
nitrate) was a commonly used
material.
• Made up of plastic materials
• Commonly used plastic material
cellulose acetate
• Inexpensive
Plastics
Plastics
 Thermoplastic
 Thermosetting
 Thermoplastic materials can be
heated & cooled with out losing
their plasticity.
Metal
 Metal frames are those made of all
metal parts, except for the nose pads
and the posterior temple sections,
which are plastic covered.
 The eyewire runs completely around
the lens.
Nylon cord frames
 Nylon cord frames, sometimes called
string mounted frames or nylon
supras hold the lenses in place by
means of a nylon cord that fits
around the edge of the lens.
 This gives the glasses the appearance
of being rimless.
 Usually the top of the lens is fitted
into the upper rim of the frames.
 The rest of the lens has a small
groove cut into an otherwise fl at
edge.
Combination
 Combination frames are commonly
frames having a metal chassis and
plastic top rims and temples.
 Although this is the most common
construction, technically any frame
with a combination of metal and
plastic could be included in this
category.
Half-eye
 Half-eyes are frames made especially
for those who need a reading
correction.
Rimless mountings
 Rimless mountings hold the lenses in place
by some method other than eyewires or
nylon cords.
 Often screws are used, but cement,
clamps, and plastic posts have been used.
 Most rimless mountings have two areas of
attachment per lens, one nasally and one
temporally.
 Rimless mountings are sometimes referred
to as 3-piece mountings.
3-piece mounting
Semi rimless
 It similar to the rimless except for a
metal reinforcing arm, which follows
the upper posterior surface of the lens
and joins the centerpiece of the frame
to the endpiece.
 The centerpiece of a mounting consists
of bridge, pad arms, and pads.
Numont mountings
BRIDGE AREA
BRIDGE
 Plastic Bridges
Saddle bridge
Modified Saddle bridge
Keyhole
 Metal Bridges
pad bridge
Comfort bridge.
Saddle bridge
 It is shaped like a saddle in a smooth
curve and follows the bridge of the
nose
 This spreads the weight of the frame
evenly over the sides and crest of the
nose.
Modified saddle,
 Modified saddle, same as the saddle
bridge does when viewed from the
front.
 The difference is that there are nose
pads that are part of the back of the
bridge.
 These pads help to carry some of the
weight of the frame
Modified saddle
Keyhole
 Is shaped like an old-fashioned
keyhole.
 At the top, the bridge flare out
slightly. The bridge rests on the sides
of the nose, but not on the crest
Keyhole
 Metal frame is equipped with a clear
plastic saddle-type bridge, the bridge
type is referred to as a comfort
bridge.
Metal frame bridge
Endpiece Construction
Plastic end piece
Three types
Butt types
Mitre
Turn back
Plastic Endpiece Construction
(B) butt
(C) turn-back
(A) Mitre
Metal Endpiece Construction
•This traditional metal endpiece has a turn-back
“wrap” endpiece
Some metal end pieces
are not really end
pieces at all. The end
piece and temple are
one continuous piece of
material as in this
“wrap” end piece design
Temple Construction
TEMPLE
 Five major categories
1.Skull temples
 Thebent-down portion isnarrower at thetop
of theear & widenstowardstheend.
Library temples
An average width at the butt & increases
in width posteriorly.
Straight – back temples.
Convertible temples
1. Variety of temple, the temple may
be easily straightened out & then re-
bent to the wearer.
Riding bow
1. Used in children’s & safety frames.
Comfort cable
1. Same as riding bow temples
2. Metal construction behind the ear
portion.
Coloration
 Plastic frames may be partially
classified by coloration.
 A solid frame is all one color. A
vertically gradient frame
 A horizontally gradient
The multitude of color combinations
ENDPIECE
Plastic end piece
Metal end piece
FRAME MATERIALS
 Plastic Frame Materials
 Metal Frame Materials
Plastic Frame Materials
 Cellulose Acetate
 Propionate
 Optyl
 Polycarbonate
 Nylon and Nylon-Based Materials
Nylon
Polyamide/Copolyamide
Grilamid
 Rubber
 Carbon Fiber
 Combinations of Plastic Materials
Metal Frame Materials
 Nickel-Based Materials
Pure Nickel
Nickel Silvers
Monel Metal
Aluminum
Stainless Steel
Titanium
Bronze
Magnesium & Other Materials and
Alloys.
Frame

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Frame

  • 2. History  The earliest historical reference to magnification dates back to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 5th century BC, which depict "simple glass meniscal lenses
  • 3.  The first eyeglasses were made in Italy at about 1286, according to a sermon delivered on February 23, 1306 by the Dominican friar Giordano da Pisa
  • 6. Frame Types and Parts  A frame generally consists of the front, which in one form  Temples ,which attach to the front and hook over the ears to help hold the spectacles in place.
  • 7. Parts Frame Fronts  That area of the frame front between the lenses that rests on the nose is the bridge.  The hinges hold the temples to the front.  Nose pads ,which are plastic pieces that rest on the nose to support the frame.
  • 9. Parts of a temple.
  • 10. Frames  Frames without an eyewire going completely around the lens are called mountings.  Lenses are “inserted” into frames, but “mounted” into mountings.  Frames themselves can be classified in a simplified manner by one of the following categories of frames or mountings.
  • 12. Plastics  Plastic frames were occasionally referred to as shell frames, dating back to the time when eyeglass frames were made of tortoise shell.  Another general term that many still use for certain plastic frames is zyl, since at one time zylonite (cellulose nitrate) was a commonly used material.
  • 13. • Made up of plastic materials • Commonly used plastic material cellulose acetate • Inexpensive Plastics
  • 14. Plastics  Thermoplastic  Thermosetting  Thermoplastic materials can be heated & cooled with out losing their plasticity.
  • 15. Metal  Metal frames are those made of all metal parts, except for the nose pads and the posterior temple sections, which are plastic covered.  The eyewire runs completely around the lens.
  • 16. Nylon cord frames  Nylon cord frames, sometimes called string mounted frames or nylon supras hold the lenses in place by means of a nylon cord that fits around the edge of the lens.  This gives the glasses the appearance of being rimless.
  • 17.  Usually the top of the lens is fitted into the upper rim of the frames.  The rest of the lens has a small groove cut into an otherwise fl at edge.
  • 18. Combination  Combination frames are commonly frames having a metal chassis and plastic top rims and temples.  Although this is the most common construction, technically any frame with a combination of metal and plastic could be included in this category.
  • 19. Half-eye  Half-eyes are frames made especially for those who need a reading correction.
  • 20. Rimless mountings  Rimless mountings hold the lenses in place by some method other than eyewires or nylon cords.  Often screws are used, but cement, clamps, and plastic posts have been used.  Most rimless mountings have two areas of attachment per lens, one nasally and one temporally.  Rimless mountings are sometimes referred to as 3-piece mountings.
  • 22. Semi rimless  It similar to the rimless except for a metal reinforcing arm, which follows the upper posterior surface of the lens and joins the centerpiece of the frame to the endpiece.  The centerpiece of a mounting consists of bridge, pad arms, and pads.
  • 25. BRIDGE  Plastic Bridges Saddle bridge Modified Saddle bridge Keyhole  Metal Bridges pad bridge Comfort bridge.
  • 26. Saddle bridge  It is shaped like a saddle in a smooth curve and follows the bridge of the nose  This spreads the weight of the frame evenly over the sides and crest of the nose.
  • 27. Modified saddle,  Modified saddle, same as the saddle bridge does when viewed from the front.  The difference is that there are nose pads that are part of the back of the bridge.  These pads help to carry some of the weight of the frame
  • 29. Keyhole  Is shaped like an old-fashioned keyhole.  At the top, the bridge flare out slightly. The bridge rests on the sides of the nose, but not on the crest
  • 31.  Metal frame is equipped with a clear plastic saddle-type bridge, the bridge type is referred to as a comfort bridge. Metal frame bridge
  • 32.
  • 34. Plastic end piece Three types Butt types Mitre Turn back
  • 35. Plastic Endpiece Construction (B) butt (C) turn-back (A) Mitre
  • 36. Metal Endpiece Construction •This traditional metal endpiece has a turn-back
  • 37. “wrap” endpiece Some metal end pieces are not really end pieces at all. The end piece and temple are one continuous piece of material as in this “wrap” end piece design
  • 39. TEMPLE  Five major categories 1.Skull temples  Thebent-down portion isnarrower at thetop of theear & widenstowardstheend.
  • 40. Library temples An average width at the butt & increases in width posteriorly. Straight – back temples.
  • 41. Convertible temples 1. Variety of temple, the temple may be easily straightened out & then re- bent to the wearer.
  • 42. Riding bow 1. Used in children’s & safety frames.
  • 43. Comfort cable 1. Same as riding bow temples 2. Metal construction behind the ear portion.
  • 44. Coloration  Plastic frames may be partially classified by coloration.  A solid frame is all one color. A vertically gradient frame  A horizontally gradient The multitude of color combinations
  • 46. FRAME MATERIALS  Plastic Frame Materials  Metal Frame Materials
  • 47. Plastic Frame Materials  Cellulose Acetate  Propionate  Optyl  Polycarbonate  Nylon and Nylon-Based Materials Nylon Polyamide/Copolyamide Grilamid
  • 48.  Rubber  Carbon Fiber  Combinations of Plastic Materials
  • 49. Metal Frame Materials  Nickel-Based Materials Pure Nickel Nickel Silvers Monel Metal Aluminum Stainless Steel Titanium Bronze Magnesium & Other Materials and Alloys.