INDEXDiscussion Points Introduction Wh y Hydroelect ric Power? Development over the ages Hydropower in Pakistan Facts and Figures Completed and ongoing Projects Political Issues Consequences Future Prospects Comparison with other renewable resources Conclusion
INTRODUCTIONIdeaThe idea behind this researchpresentation is to bring to light themost efficient, pragmatic andrational source of energy inPakistan taking into considerationthe down to earth realities ofPakistan and the escalating oilsprices.
INTRODUCTIONIntroduction The presentation will throw light on the present Hydroelectric production in Pakistan and explore the ways and means to properly exploit the true potential of this promising and fully developed resource. We will compare the full potential from hydroelectricity with that of present.
INTRODUCTIONIntro to Hydropower Hydroelectric energy uses the potential energy of water to generate electricity. Sources of this conversion ---- dams, canals, barrage etc. Electricity ---- Most Important Element of our lives. Our lives ---- electronics driven.
INTRODUCTIONWhy Hydropower??? Itis the only form of energy that has been fully developed and not much research is required to exploit it. All that it requires is: Proper attention Political Stability
INTRODUCTIONWhy Hydropower??? Geography of Pakistan supports Hydropower generation at massive scale. This flow can be generated through dams built on rivers, barrages etc. We can exploit the natural flow of water in mountainous regions. Most Important--- Renewable
INTRODUCTIONChoosing the Topic Current Situation of Pakistan: Power Shortage High Cost of Generation Dependence on Foreign Oil Economic Drawbacks
INTRODUCTIONCurrent Situation of Pakistan Power Outages: Frequent Power Shutdowns (Load Shedding) High Demand, Low Generation Need more generation capacity (Mega Projects)
INTRODUCTIONCurrent Situation of Pakistan Economic Drawbacks Increased Import Bill Dependence on Foreign Oil Stunted Industrial Growth Increased Unemployment
FACTS & FIGURESPower production in PakistanPakistan meets its energy requirementaround 29% by indigenous gas 35% by oil (approx.) 35% by hydro electricity (approx.) Coal and nuclear contribution to energy supply is limited to 0.16% and 2.84% respectively with a vast potential for growth
Completed P r o j e c t sTARBELA Dam Largest land filled Dam in World and Pakistan Built on Indus River at TARBELA 60 km North of Islamabad Capacity: 3500MW Turbines: 10 x 150MW, 4 x 432MW 16.6 Billion kWh / annum
Completed P r o j e c t sMANGLA Dam Built on River Jhelum near Town of Mirpur, Azad Kashmir Installed Capacity 1000MW 10 Turbines – 10 x 100MW MANGLA Dam Raising Project Completed 2010 Additional 644MW capacity and more storage capacity
Completed P r o j e c t s Ghazi Barotha Run of the river project 7 km downstream of Tarbela Installed Capacity – 1450 MW Turbines – 5 x 290MW
Ongoing ProjectsNEELUM-JHELUM Project Near Muzaffarabad on conjunction River Neelum and River Jhelum Installed Capacity – 969MW Turbines – 4 x 242MW Completion Date : October 2015 Status: 22% Completed Maybe completed earlier due to Indian Project of Kashan Ganga Dam Project Cost: Rs 130 Billion
Ongoing ProjectsDiamer Bhasha Dam Located on Indus River (Gilgit Baltistan) Installed Capacity – 4500 MW Turbines – 12 x 375 MW Completion Date : By 2016 Project Cost: $ 12.6 Billion
Ongoing ProjectsBunji Dam River Indus in Gilgit (Karakoram Highway) Installed Capacity – 7100 MW Consultancy Work ongoing Starting date : 2012 Project Cost: $ 7 Billion Once completed will be Pakistan’s largest dam
Ongoing ProjectsDasu HydropowerProject Located on River Indus, 74 Km downstream of Diamer Bhasha Dam Run of the River project Installed Capacity – 4320 MW Completion Period – 8-14 years Project Cost - $5.28 Billion
A look backwardsM ajor electricity shortages.H igh cost of electricity.I ndustrial losses.L oss of foreign exchange.
Cause There is no major increment in energy production. Reason being that the new projects initiated will require at least 20 to 30 years for completion. If the same action had been initiated by our ancestors we would not be facing these difficult times.
Effect The effect being that our economy continues to go down. Pakistan that was once a developing country has lost its standards. People are forced to resort to independent power productions. We continue to loose capital due to lack of foreign exchange.
EffectsIf this situation continues to proceed as it is thenin the end there would be a generator in eachand every house. WAPDA will cease to exist.
Hydroelectric P o t e n t i a l Main energy source in Pakistan. Northern areas promises much potential. High topography areas in Pakistan. Abundance of natural and controllable waterfalls.
Hydroelectric P o t e n t i a l The b i g g e s t advantages --- Residents are isolated from these areas. No need for renovation and displacement of residents.
Hydroelectric P o t e n t i a l Total potential exploited until now --- 6600MW. Potential not utilized --- 41,000MW. Factors affecting Growth: Funding Investing companies.
FutureThe development of hydroelectric energydepends upon the attitude of governments,their full sincerity and transparency withoutkeeping any concerned party in dark. Ifsuch a devotion is maintained.
Efficiency Efficiencyof Hydro- electric power is nearly 80% SolarEnergy is only nearly 20-25 % Wind Energy is nearly 60% Coal Energy is nearly 55%
Maintenance Hydro-electric power has a nominal repair and maintenance cost Solarenergy power has high repair and maintenance cost Windenergy power has high repair cost Coalenergy has also nominal repair and maintenance cost
Environmental Hydro-electricpower has no harmful effect on environment Other energy sources such as Coal, Nuclear and gas energy affects the environment badly by the emission of dangerous gases and chemicals Radioactive waste from Nuclear power plant is dangerous for life.
Renewable Hydro-electric power is renewable Solar energy is renewable Wind energy is renewable Coal, gas , Nuclear and other energy sources are not renewable( NOTE: Pakistan current scenario, the only economical renewable potential resource is hydro-electric power)
Life Span Hydro-electric Dams have nearly 100 years life Solar power has nearly 50 years of life Wind power has nearly 20 years of life Coal and gas power has 40 years of life NOTE: coal power is also dependant on the availability of resources in the specific area
Availability Hydro-electric power uses the most abundant resource on earth i.e Water Solar energy is sunlight dependant. The countries near the equator can utilize maximum of it. Wind energy is Wind dependant. Coal and gas energy is resources dependant.
Energy Crisis i n Pakistan Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last few years. This energy crisis is increasing day by day regardless of the Government promises of ending it. According to statistics, the energy demand after 10 years will be more than double of the present demand.
During the peak load there is a power shortage of 8 to 12 hours every day. What can be the solutions to meet the required demand of Energy ?? Solar energy? Wind Energy? Coal Energy?
Conclusion Considering all the energy resources, hydro- electric energy is the only solution to the current problem of energy crisis Because: Solar energy has less efficiency and very high initial cost Wind energy has high initial cost but can’t provide much energy to meet the demand coal can fulfill the demand but it is non- renewable.
ConclusionThe only solution to meet such a high demand and considering the renewable source as water, Hydro- electric power can be the best solution of the current problem as well as the future energy crisis problem