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Module 10 Resource Pack 2009


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Module 10 Resource Pack 2009

  1. 1. Wider professional Practice Resource Pack 2009. Course: DTLLS. Tutors: Chris Rowell. Trudie McNeill. Jon Brown. Eric Nash. Feb. 09 1
  2. 2. Contents Page No. Session 1 – Introduction, Professionalism 3 Session 2 – Code of Professional Practice 11 Session 3 – Quality Assurance 21 Session 4 – CPD Plan 27 Session 5 – Assignment workshop 36 End of Course!!!!!!! 2
  3. 3. Session 1 Introduction. Professionalism. Michael Eraut ‘Developing Professional Knowledge Within a Client Centred Orientation’ In ‘Professional Development in Education’ Guskey, Thomas and Huberman, Michael Eraut focuses on what professionalism is and what constitutes it. He argues that the ideology of professionalism holds three main features: 3
  4. 4. • A knowledge base • Autonomy • Service Teaching is ‘unique’ in that it looks at subject knowledge as well as pedagogy, teaching or practical knowledge. Unlike some, teaching also represents a number of different clients. He points out that the measurement of quality is a difficult one as what constitutes good teaching is often subjective and also ongoing in terms of training and development. Success is based on results however, within the teaching ‘profession’, and this has affected confidence due to many unattainable ideals. It is suggested that teachers prefer to be considered as ‘responsible’ rather than ‘accountable’ due to the implications, even though they consider themselves to be accountable to students, colleagues and quality of work. Eraut identifies a model for the benefit of public and teachers alike and has three concepts. • A professional practitioner • A professional ‘school’ • A framework for determining client needs Relating to the first concept he believes teachers possessing four types of knowledge; acquiring information (students), skilled behaviour, planning (subject), and ‘meta processes’ such as assessment and evaluation. He points out that only through experience can we utilise and interpret theory and that many today consider the teacher more of a ‘reflective practitioner’. Largely this is based on areas of experience, planning, peer observations, repertoire, knowledge gathering and so on. He suggests that this evolves and should do and is in some ways ‘dialectic’ as it looks at developing ideas and strategies. What makes the reflective practitioner a professional practitioner implies moral commitment, professional obligation to review practice and to develop ones own practice. The ‘school’ serves clients interests and should value quality, including nourishing its staff, with a quality of information. All staff, moreover, should be involved and need to participate on processes and to be allowed to develop – so staff should be allowed and encouraged to contribute to the body as a whole. Teachers knowledge is both at once practical and theoretical and also includes areas of management and development abilities. He believes that ‘societal knowledge’ is also important and sometimes lacking. This is essential if we are to understand the motives of our client group. Updating knowledge has always been seen as important but not the only requirement for good teaching. Think of the example of a new teacher with excellent knowledge who possesses a Phd. They may have excellent subject knowledge but this doesn’t mean that 4
  5. 5. they present the information appropriately! Thus subject skills are ‘job related’ rather than ‘job embedded’ until the other skills are learned. He also states that in acquiring information we have to interpret ‘after the event’ and based on our own encounters or experiences rather than other teachers perspectives. Problems arise however as Nisbett and Ross illustrate that when we recall information we tend to be selective with the salient points…this is apparent as teachers are constantly on the move so cannot or do not make notes of situations as they happen. In other words we need regular information gathering about progress and well being. Our ‘skilled behaviour’ is brought about by experience and becomes ‘routinised’ in time. This often results in a ‘diminution’ of self consciousness in order to get the job done or to get through the day. Knowledge becomes tacit and therefore our ‘skills’ become difficult to explain. Pearson notes that the difference of ‘habitual skills knowledge’ such as tying ones shoelaces, is different from ‘intelligent skills knowledge’ such as teaching, though Eraut finds this explanation too simplistic. He points out that over time routines can become short cuts and even dysfunctional and they can become mere coping mechanisms, unfortunately at the expense of our clients. Processing decisions and evaluations depend on knowledge of the systems, protocols and processes themselves as well as the perception and interpretation. We are sometimes timebound or asked to evaluate or implement new ideas with little time or information. These processes may also seem irrelevant or simply outdated. When learning from experience we should give time to reflect on our actions. We need time to review or to get feedback. We need to monitor our practice, observe others, and expand our repertoire all in an environment that allows us to be empowered. As far as new teachers are concerned he believes that theories of teaching should be developed after certification, after they have time to reflect and reinterpret, to be developed through meaningful CPD. All of these things are ‘school’ responsibilities. There should be time and ‘stimuli’ allowed for improvement if necessary and CPD shouldn’t be ‘post hoc’. It should involve recognising individual needs, with agreement and planning for evaluation. He suggests that targets in the way of reports would give an air of professionalism and good for confidence and that all post probationary staff should be involved in support roles. Schools should also share their expertise. However, Griffin (1987) noted that, mandated changes rarely provides adequate resources – resources have to be redirected. So there are limits. 5
  6. 6. Support should come from the school itself and research suggests that INSET should be relevant for the school and the local area itself. Schools also need to know the bigger picture of INSET for strategy purposes rather than providing ‘one off’ training days. He makes the point towards the end of the chapter that every 5 or 6 years there should be a special focus on the teacher/manager with a view for time to be released for further study or support which would improve efficacy and professionalism. Christine Butterworth ‘Reflective Practice’ from Hall, l and Marsh, Ken ‘Professionalism, Policies and Values’, (2000) Greenwich, University of Greenwich Press 6
  7. 7. Butterworth notes that there has been a rapid change in knowledge and ‘theories’ of learning since the 1980’s since the first use of the tem’ reflective practice’ by Donald Schon to ideas of different meanings of reflection. In hi 1982 paper Schon began by explaining that the public had lost the confidence of ‘professionals’ due to the crises in society in general and professionals were no longer considered the ‘experts’. He notes that ‘experts’ could no longer find straight answers and a ‘panacea’ for the ills of society. He calls this ‘discredited’ model of professional knowledge as a ‘technical rational model’ – similar to a scientific answer, rather like a doctor. He noted ‘…practitioners function as researchers…real world problems do not come well formed…’ He invented the phrase ‘reflection in action’ and applies it to his new model of professional knowledge. He points out that ‘our knowing is in our action…the workaday life of the professional practitioner reveals…a pattern of tacit knowledge in action…’. In other words we react on the spot according to experience. He offers 6 moments or stages of reflection resulting in us not necessarily reacting intuitively but by rethinking it through, maybe through all 6 stages. This is what he calls ‘reflection in action’, that is, how we think whilst we do things. We also need to look back…to reflect…he calls this ‘reflection on action’. Schon sees that in time, with experience, our practice becomes intuitive ‘…rich, efficient, tacit and automatic…’. This is where the danger is however, as we can become repetitive and conservative, even cutting corners and becoming ‘unreflective’. There are temptations to follow unreflective practice, it is safe, it saves time and so on. From Schon’s work, learning theorists set about establishing models on how we learn through experience. Kolb’s learning cycle is a significant example and illustrates how we move through concrete, reflective, abstract and action phases. Gibbs contributes an appreciation of Kolb in a practical sense, supporting experiential learning through reflection. Gibbs suggests we should not simply accept experience but reflect upon it critically, this is when we can learn and create new processes. Reflective writing especially for the new teacher, can address development issues and can help at any level. A portfolio or diary becomes part of an essential toolkit in becoming a more critical and accomplished practitioner. 7
  8. 8. Usher looks at what is termed as ‘informal theory’, or experience and tacit knowledge about a certain context and, ‘formal theory’ which is more formal knowledge taught. The former is learned through experience and more implicit. Jarvis (1994) makes the point that this reflection may be inflexible unless it is challenged (maybe we can see this in context of inspections?). By producing portfolios and reflective writing students in this setting can make ‘informal theory’ more explicit and therefore relate it to more ‘formal theory’. Agyris and Schon suggest that students’ need to reflect on their practice to generate their ‘espoused theory’. Whereas learning theorists and psychologists see ‘reflection’ as central to development, sociologists and critical theorists tend to see reflection as a measure for personal ‘assessment’. In other words as a measurement of expectation under increased college bureaucracy. What is certain is that it is an increasingly used phenomena and considered as a ‘good thing’ by educationalists and college authorities alike, though what it actually is and what it can actually achieve is unclear. After all even with critical reflection can we act upon our results? What is also certain is that it has coincided with the increased use of internal CPD as a way of ‘updating professionalism’. There are problems. Schon has been criticised for his work for not being empirically sound and for not having, according to Eraut, not one ‘single coherent view’ of reflection. 8
  9. 9. Lynda Hall ‘Learning From Experience’ from Hall, l and Marsh, Ken ‘Professionalism, Policies and Values’, (2000) Greenwich, University of Greenwich Press Hall suggests that the process of professional development is described as; ‘a continuous cycle of reflection on experience’. On a daily basis we need to look at Lesson Plans, consider evaluation, self assessment, feedback and observations. Though many teachers, especially the experienced staff members, complain that autonomy has gone, in fact it still largely exists especially within the classroom. This fact, should make us more responsible for our practice. She suggests that we do this reflection regularly and systematically…don’t wait and don’t just do it when something goes well or wrong! There are ‘five’ main areas of benefit that she suggests will help us. • Confidence • Self satisfaction • a greater knowledge of teaching and learning • Awareness • Target areas for development Hall also suggests that we remain as pragmatic as possible and we should focus on one area at a time. For example, focus on management areas or techniques of question and answer. A useful tool to help is a SWOT or SWAIN analysis…strengths, weaknesses, aspirations, interests and needs. In the main, thoughts, views and feelings are what are important to your teaching experiences and we should all write these down as soon as possible after the event…we can often be selective or forget about our experiences. She suggests that we do the following. • Identify one area for improvement • Plan how to improve • Carry out the plan • Observe or record the effects • Reflect and decide on future action This is rather like a ‘dialectical’ approach. Techniques that may help are numerous and shouldn’t be viewed as threatening…easier said than done! 9
  10. 10. Use checklists like questionnaires such as quick closed questionnaires. Useful but don’t offer solutions. We can also use ‘self evaluations’ that are more ‘open ended’ for this. Also get used to the idea of observations. Peer observations are excellent for confidence, opportunities to share practice and to talk with colleagues and of course to prepare for observations! Feedback must be given as soon as possible and must be confidential. Ask for recipients feedback first and give good points. Be specific and give examples as it is easier to remember and to prepare for next time. If you are the observee then try not to be defensive and listen first to the observers view! 10
  11. 11. Characteristics of a profession The list of characteristics that follows is extensive, but does not claim to include every characteristic that has ever been attributed to professions, nor do all of these features apply to every profession: 1. Skill based on theoretical knowledge: Professionals are assumed to have extensive theoretical knowledge (e.g. medicine, law, scripture or engineering) and to possess skills based on that knowledge that they are able to apply in practice. 2. Professional association: Professions usually have professional bodies organized by their members, which are intended to enhance the status of their members and have carefully controlled entrance requirements. 3. Extensive period of education: The most prestigious professions usually require at least three years at university. Undertaking doctoral research can add a further 4-5 years to this period of education. 4. Testing of competence: Before being admitted to membership of a professional body, there is a requirement to pass prescribed examinations that are based on mainly theoretical knowledge. 5. Institutional training: In addition to examinations, there is usually a requirement for a long period of institutionalized training where aspiring professionals acquire specified practical experience in some sort of trainee role before being recognized as a full member of a professional body. Continuous upgrading of skills through professional development is also mandatory these days. 6. Licensed practitioners: Professions seek to establish a register or membership so that only those individuals so licensed are recognized as bona fide. 7. Work autonomy: Professionals tend to retain control over their work, even when they are employed outside the profession in commercial or public organizations. They have also gained control over their own theoretical knowledge. 8. Code of professional conduct or ethics: Professional bodies usually have codes of conduct or ethics for their members and disciplinary procedures for those who infringe the rules. 9. Self-regulation: Professional bodies tend to insist that they should be self-regulating and independent from government. Professions tend to be policed and regulated by senior, respected practitioners and the most highly qualified members of the profession. 10. Public service and altruism: The earning of fees for services rendered can be defended because they are provided in the public interest, e.g. the work of doctors contributes to public health. 11. Exclusion, monopoly and legal recognition: Professions tend to exclude those who have not met their requirements and joined the appropriate professional body. This is often termed professional closure, and seeks to bar entry for the unqualified and to sanction or expel incompetent members. 12. Control of remuneration and advertising: Where levels of remuneration are determined by government, professional bodies are active in negotiating (usually advantageous) remuneration packages for their members. Some professions set standard scale fees, but government advocacy of competition means that these are no longer generally enforced. 11
  12. 12. 13. High status and rewards: The most successful professions achieve high status, public prestige and rewards for their members. Some of the factors included in this list contribute to such success. 14. Individual clients: Many professions have individual fee-paying clients. For example, in accountancy, "the profession" usually refers to accountants who have individual and corporate clients, rather than accountants who are employees of organizations. 15. Middle-class occupations: Traditionally, many professions have been viewed as 'respectable' occupations for middle and upper classes 16. Male-dominated: The highest status professions have tended to be male dominated although females are closing this gender gap. Women are now being admitted to the priesthood while its status has declined relative to other professions. Similar arguments apply to race and class: ethnic groups and working-class people are no less disadvantaged in most professions than they are in society generally. 17. Offer reassurance: Professionals are able to offer reassurance to their clients that although there appear to be problems, everything is normal or being dealt with properly, and this reassurance may be offered rather than solutions to particular problems. For example, sick people may be reassured that they will probably get better in a few days. 18. Ritual: Church ritual and the Court procedure are obviously ritualistic. 19. Legitimacy: Professions have clear legal authority over some activities (e.g. certifying the insane) but are also seen as adding legitimacy to a wide range of related activities. 20. Inaccessible body of knowledge: In some professions, the body of knowledge is relatively inaccessible to the uninitiated. Medicine and law are typically not school subjects and have separate faculties and even separate libraries at universities. 21. Indeterminacy of knowledge: Professional knowledge contains elements that escape being mastered and communicated in the form of rules and can only be acquired through experience. 22. Mobility: The skill knowledge and authority of professionals belongs to the professionals as individuals, not the organizations for which they work. Professionals are therefore relatively mobile in employment opportunities as they can move to other employers and take their talents with them. Standardization of professional training and procedures enhances this mobility. Reflective Log – 1 6-700 words 12
  13. 13. 1. What is a professional? 2. Do you consider yourself to be a professional? Explain your answer. 3. What tensions exist between your professional expectations and the expectations of your institution where you work? 13
  14. 14. Leaning outcome 1: Discuss the concept of professionalism and core professional values for teachers in the lifelong learning sector. Complete  Signature………………………………… Date………………………….. 14
  15. 15. Session 2 Professional Conduct and accountability 15
  16. 16. The Code of Professional Practice Behaviour 1: PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY The members shall: 1. meet their professional responsibilities consistent with the Institute’s Professional Values; 2. use reasonable professional judgement when discharging differing responsibilities and obligations to learners, colleagues, institution and the wider profession; 3. uphold the reputation of the profession by never unjustly or knowingly damaging the professional reputation of another or furthering their own position unfairly at the expense of another; 4. comply with all reasonable assessment and quality procedures and obligations; 5. uphold the standing and reputation of the Institute and not knowingly undermine or misrepresent its views nor their Institute membership, any qualification or professional status. Behaviour 2: RESPECT The members shall at all times: 1. respect the rights of learners and colleagues in accordance with relevant legislation and organisation requirements; 2. act in a manner which recognises diversity as an asset and does not discriminate in respect of race, gender, disability and/or learning difficulty, age, sexual orientation or religion and belief. 16
  17. 17. Behaviour 3: REASONABLE CARE The members shall take reasonable care to ensure the safety and welfare of learners and comply with relevant statutory provisions to support their well- being and development. Behaviour 4: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE The members shall provide evidence to the Institute that they have complied with the current Institute CPD policy and guidelines. Behaviour 5: CRIMINAL OFFENCE DISCLOSURE Any member shall notify the Institute as soon as practicable after cautioning or conviction for a criminal offence. The Institute reserves the right to act on such information through its disciplinary process. Behaviour 6: RESPONSIBILITY DURING INSTITUTE INVESTIGATIONS A member shall use their best endeavours to assist in any investigation and shall not seek to dissuade, penalise or discourage a person from bringing a complaint against any member, interfere with or otherwise compromise due process. Behaviour 7: RESPONSIBILITY TO THE INSTITUTE The members shall at all times act in accordance with the Institute’s conditions of membership which will be subject to change from time to time. 17
  18. 18. Reflective Log – 2 6-700 words 1. Briefly explain what the Life Long Learning Sector is and who is included/excluded from it. 2. What do you consider to be the key points of the IFL code of conduct? 3. What are the limitations of the IFL code of conduct? 4. What changes would you make to it? 18
  19. 19. Leaning outcome 2: Analyse key issues in relation to professional conduct and accountability in the Life Long Learning sector Complete  Signature………………………………… Date………………………….. 19
  20. 20. Session 3 Quality Improvement 20
  21. 21. Ofsted “The new Ofsted – the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills – came into being on 1 April 2007. It brings together the wide experience of four formerly separate inspectorates. It will inspect and regulate care for children and young people, and inspect education and training for learners of all ages. We want to raise aspirations and contribute to the long term achievement of ambitious standards and better life chances for service users. Their educational, economic and social well-being will in turn promote England's national success To achieve this we will report fairly and truthfully; we will listen to service users and providers; and we will communicate our findings with all who share our vision, from service providers to policy-makers. We do not report to government ministers but directly to Parliament (and to the Lord Chancellor about children and family courts administration). This independence means you can rely on us for impartial information. The Education and Inspections Act, which established the new Ofsted, specifically requires that in everything we do we should: • promote service improvement • ensure services focus on the interests of their users • see that services are efficient, effective and promote value for money. We carry out hundreds of inspections and regulatory visits each week, publishing our findings within the Inspection reports area of this website. Our themed and subject specific findings and recommendations on wider issues within the care, learning, and skills agenda, as well as statistical information, can be found in the Publications and research area. And you can find more detailed explanations of which services we inspect and regulate, and how, and the latest guidance documents in the Forms and guidance area.” 21
  22. 22. Reflective Log – 3 6-700 words 1. What are the different agencies involved in the quality assurance process in your institution? 2. Identify and explain their purpose 3. Do you consider CPD and Quality Issues to be more concerned with accountability or development? Leaning outcome 3: Apply principles of evaluation, quality assurance and quality improvement Complete  Signature………………………………… Date………………………….. 22
  23. 23. Session 4 CPD 23
  24. 24. About CPD As a member of the Institute for Learning (IfL), you commit to recording your continuing professional development (CPD). This demonstrates that you are improving relevant knowledge and skills in your subject area and teaching or training. A wide range of formal and informal activities could count as meaningful professional development. You just need to be able to answer yes to these questions: • Have you undertaken professional development activities this year? • Have you reflected on the learning you have gained from these activities? • Have the activities and the reflection made a difference to how you teach or train? • Can you show evidence of this difference and the impact it has made to learners, colleagues or the organisation in which you work? Recording your CPD Your record will need to show that you have spent at least 30 hours each year (or pro-rata if you are a part-time teacher or trainer with a minimum of 6 hours per year) on professional development. This needs to be declared to the IfL by the 31st August every year. You can record your CPD in any form that suits you and your circumstances although we strongly recommend that you use REfLECT, an on-line personalised learning space that is one of your member benefits. REfLECT is a personal and secure space, designed specifically for the IfL to support you in keeping a log of your CPD activities and reflections. What counts as CPD? Examples include: • Reading relevant journal articles or reviewing books • Training courses or formal development or study • Peer review, mentoring or shadowing • Online learning including engagement in discussion forums and blogs • Viewing and reviewing television programmes, documentaries and the internet • And much more! When do I declare my CPD You will be able to declare your CPD from 1st June, when a self-declaration form will be made available on our website and in REfLECT. From the beginning of September the IfL will begin a monitoring process which might result in your record being chosen as part of a sample for auditing. If your record is chosen, we will contact you and ask you to send us the evidence of the hours you have declared. We will then review your record and give you feedback. A report on the CPD monitoring process will be published in the autumn and we will illustrate this with examples of effective professional development across the sector. 24
  25. 25. CPD plan 500 words Identify at three to six areas of your own professional development you would like to develop. Areas to develop How will you develop this issue? Resources Date 1. 2. 3 4 5 Leaning outcome 4: Demonstrate how to contribute to QA and QI systems and procedures in partnership with others in evaluating and improving own wider professional practice Complete  Signature………………………………… Date………………………….. 25
  26. 26. Session 5 Assignment workshop 26