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Textile Fiber & Yarn

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Textile Fiber & Yarn

  1. 1. Fiber :Kinds of Fiber : 1. Natural Fiber 2. Synthetic Fiber Natural Fiber : 1. Vegetable Fiber 2. Animal Fiber 1. Vegetable Fiber: Cotton , Linen , Jut etc. 2. Animal Fiber: Wool, Silk etc. Synthetic Fiber / Man Made Fiber: Viscose Rayon, Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic etc.Cotton:Cotton staple is usually between 3/8 inch and 2-1/4 inch long. For making yarn ,Cotton staple of less than ½ inch long is not for spinning into yarn. Long staple isHigh quality yarn. Short Staple is low quality yarn.Cotton is Divided into 4 groups: 1. Sea Island Cotton ( Staple length – 2-1/4 inch , Country: Island ) 2. Pima Cotton (Staple Length-1-3/4 inch , Peru & Egyptian) 3. U.S. Cotton ( Staple Length-1-1/2 inch) 4. Asian Cotton ( Staple Length-1-1/8 inch, Country- Japan, China, Pakistan, India)Characteristics of Textile Fiber: 1. Cotton : Soft, Very absorbent, Shrinks when washed , easy to crease. 2. Ramie & Linen: Compared to cotton , not soft , Less absorbent, shrinks when washed, but to a less extent, easy to crease. 3. Rayon: Compared to cotton, softer than cotton, equally absorbent, shrinks more than cotton , very easy to crease, has a luster like silk. 4. Polyester: Compared to cotton, not soft, not absorbent at all, does ton shrink in normal wash , not easy to crease.
  2. 2. 5. Wool: Compared to cotton, not very soft, not absorbent. The staple is slightly crimpy which can lead to a bulky effect when finally made into a fabric. It shrinks seriously when washed in hot water. Not easy to crease. 6. Nylon: Can be soft or firm dependent on the finish applied, not absorbent, does not shrink when washed, not easy to crease, very strong. 7. Silk: Finer and softer than cotton , equally absorbent, shrinks more than cotton easy to crease , has a smooth surface with luster when it is made into fabric. 8. Acrylic: Not soft, not absorbent, does not shrink in normal wash. The staple is slightly crimpy which can make the final product, the fabric, bulky or beefy, not easy to crease.Yarn: 1. Spun yarn 2. Filament YarnRing Spun yarn : Spun yarn is spun by spindles it is called ring spun yarn.20/2 – 20 count 2 ply20/3 – 20 count 3 ply60 / 4 – 60 count 4 plyCarded Yarn : Without combing produced the carded yarn . Such as: 3s, 40s , 60setc.Combed yarn: Produced the yarn with combing process. Cost is high. Such as:76sRotor yarn : Produced the lower count yarn. Such as: 7s to 20s .Filament yarn: 70 Denier.OE yarn ( open end yarn) : OE yarn is spun by means by air current and not byspindles.Polyester Cotton Blended: In the trade , we call this blend, “TC”. TC stands forTetron & Cotton. Tetoron is also Called Polyester.“ TC” Fabric usually means 65% Polyester, 35% cotton, but strictly speaking itmeans 51% or more of polyester with balance in cotton.
  3. 3. Other Blended:Polyester-WoolAcrylic –WoolPolyester-RayonSilk – cottonRayon-cottonT-R-C (Polyester, rayon & cotton)Popular Textile yarn Sizes:Most Popular Sizes Less Popular sizesCotton CottonTC/CVC TC/CVC 6s7s 8s 8s10s10s 12s 13s14s14s16s16s 17s20s20s21s21s 24s 24s 30s 30s32s32s 33s40s 42s
  4. 4. 45s60s60sFlow chart of Carded Yarn:Blow Room ………………………………………….LapCarding ………………………………… ……….Carded SliverPre comb Drawing Frame …………………….Drawing sliver /drawn sliverPost comb Drawing Frame …………………….Drawing sliver /drawn sliverSpeed Frame / Simplex …………………………RovingRing Frame ……………………………………..Yarn (ring bobbin)Winding ………………………………………. Cone or other PackageReeling………………………………………….HankBundling ……………………………………….BundleBaling …………………………………………..BaleYarn in Hank Form ……………………………..Finished Hank baleFlow chart of Carded Yarn:Blow Room ………………………………………….LapCarding ………………………………… ……….Carded Sliver
  5. 5. Pre comb Drawing Frame …………………….Drawing sliver /drawn sliverLap former ……………………………………….Mini LapCombing ………………………………………….Combed sliverPost comb Drawing Frame …………………….Drawing sliver /drawn sliverSpeed Frame / Simplex …………………………RovingRing Frame ……………………………………..Yarn (ring bobbin)Winding ………………………………………. Cone or other PackageReeling………………………………………….HankBundling ……………………………………….BundleBaling …………………………………………..BaleYarn in Hank Form ……………………………..Finished Hank balePrice of Cotton & Cotton Mixed Yarn :SL. Yarn Count Price $ /Lbs01 100% Cotton (Carded) 2/20 “NE” 2.10/ Lbs02 100% Cotton ( Combed 2/20 “NE” 2.40/ Lbs with soft Quality)03 100% Cotton (Carded) 2/30, 2/32 “NE” 2.45/ Lbs04 100% Cotton ( Combed) 2/30 “NE” 2.65/ Lbs05 100% Cotton ( Combed) 2/32 “NE” 2.60/ Lbs06 100% Cotton ( Combed) 2/40 “NE” 3.60/ Lbs07 100% Cotton SLUB Yarn 2/32 “NE” 3.60/ Lbs08 50% Cotton 50% Acrylic 2/20 “NE” 2.75/ Lbs09 50% Cotton 50% Acrylic 2/30 “NE” 3.00/ Lbs10 55% Cotton 45% Acrylic 2/20 “NE” 2.90/ Lbs11 55% Cotton 45% Acrylic 2/30 “NE” 3.25/ Lbs12 60% Cotton 40% Acrylic 2/16 ‘s 3.00/ Lbs
  6. 6. (Roving yarn )13 60% Cotton 40% Acrylic 2/16 ‘s 3.10/ Lbs (Roving yarn )14 60% Cotton 40% Acrylic 2/16 ‘s 2.90/ Lbs15 80% Cotton 20% Wool 2/32 Nm Not Available16 100% Cotton mélange 2/20 & 2/32 “NE” Not AvailableViscose Rayon:SL. Yarn Count Price $ /Lbs01 100% Viscose Rayon 2/30 “NM” 2.80 /Lbs02 70% Viscose Rayon 30% 2/30 “NM” 3.60 / Lbs Acrylic (Solid & mélange )Nylon / Spandex / Lacra : Yarn Count Price $ /Lbs01 Nylon / Spandex / Lacra 70% / 20% 4.60 /Lbs02 100% Nylon / Polimaed 70 D/2 (Double) 3.70 /Lbs03 100% Nylon / Polimaed 70 D/1 (Single) 3.90 /LbsPrice Quotation of Knit YarnFrom: BF Textiles Ltd. Dhaka , BangladeshSub : Price Quotation for Knit Yarn.Dear Sir,We would like to give very special offer for you, please give us the order so thatwe can arrange as per your requirement. Please find below the price. SL/no Description of Yarn Price in US$ 01 24/1-26/1 Carded 100% cotton auto cone $3.55 Yarn Usterized and Electronically cleaned.
  7. 7. 02 28/1-30/1 Carded 100% cotton auto cone $3.60 Yarn Usterized and Electronically cleaned. 03 32/1 Carded 100% cotton auto cone Yarn $3.70 Usterized and Electronically cleaned. 04 34/1 Carded 100% cotton auto cone Yarn $3.80 Usterized and Electronically cleaned. 05 36/1 Carded 100% cotton auto cone Yarn $3.90 Usterized and Electronically cleaned. 06 40/1 Carded 100% cotton auto cone Yarn $4.10 Usterized and Electronically cleaned.Offer Validity: This offer is valid up to: 01.01.2011We hope, your honor would find our offer suitable and favor us with your valuedorder. Your kind Cooperation will be highly appreciatedThanking you.Senior ExecutiveBusiness DevelopmentBF Textile Ltd.Cell: 01725-425906Email: …………..Measurement of Yarn Count:We have followed a different way to find out the count of the yarn. At first weunravel a considerable no yarn form the fabric. Then we measured the total lengthof the yarn and measured the weight of that no of yarn. From these weights, wefind out the Count of the yarn.The equation we followed is as follow:Count = (N x L x 453.6 ) / ( Wt. x 36 x 840)Where,N = number of yarn in bundleL = length of yarnWt. = weight of yarn.
  8. 8. Another formula is the following :GSM = (Ks x Tex ) / Stitch length (mm )Where,Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type.Ks is calculated and estimated as below:Ks = ( GSM x Stitch length) / Tex Fabric Type Color Value of KsSingle Jersey Average 19.55Single lacoste Average 22.4Double Lacoste Average 22.75Polo pique Average 25Plain Interlock Average 39.31 x 1 Rib Average 24.51 x 1 Rib Average 26.52 x 1 Rib Average 28.3Flat back Rib - 813 Thread fleece - 40.92Yarn count numbering system : Yarn Count conversion Unit Symbols Type Constant Unit Ne, NeC, 840 Cotton Count fixed weight 1 pound NeB yards Tex TEX, T fixed length 1,000 meter 1 gram 1,000 Metric Count Nm fixed weight 1,000 gram meter 333 Metric Ticket Tkt fixed weight 1,000 gram meter Denier Td, d fixed length 9,000 meter 1 gram 300 Linen Count NeL fixed weight 1 pound yards 256 Wool Count NeW fixed weight 1 pound yards
  9. 9. fixed weight, Silk Machine A=900 yards, 100 1 ounce Twist B=800 yards, yards F=300 yards, etc.Some Common Yarn Count.List of some most used yarn countThe following counts of yarn that are widely used for knitting process are given:YARN COUNT:a) Cotton: 20/1, 24/1, 26/1, 28/1, 30/1, 34/1, 40/1 Ne.b) Terylene cotton: 20/1, 24/1, 26/1, 28/1, 30/1 Ne.c) CVC: 26/1, 28/1, 30/1, 34/1 Ne.d) Melange: 20/1, 22/1, 26/1, 30/1 Ne.e) Spandex: 20D, 40D, 70D.f) Polyester: 75D, 150D.g) Sewing thread: 50/2, 40/2, 75D, 150D etc.Basic knowledge of knit Fabric 1. Plain /Single/Jersey knit: People call it jersey knit . a weft knit process producing a plain , flat surfaced knitted fabric formed with a distinct face and back. Smooth side are called Face. Produced T-shirt, under-wear, sports wear etc by Single jersey fabric. 2. Interlock Fabric: A weft knit process producing a compound fabric. It is less elasticity fabric. Actually it is Double faced knitted fabric which face &
  10. 10. Back side looks same and smooth. Produced Polo-Shirt , T-shirt , under- wear by Interlock fabric. 3. Rib Fabric: A weft knit process producing a double faced fabric. Distinct effect looks at lengthwise and more elasticity in fabric width. Examples: 1x1 rib, 2x 1 rib, 2x 2 rib , 3x1 rib , 3 x 3 rib , 5 x 2 rib etc. Produced T- shirt, Polo-shirt by Rib fabric. 4. Fleece Fabric: One side looks like Jersey , the other side heavely brushed. 5. Flat knit: Flat knit is a weft knit fabric but do not produced tube fabric as circular knitting. Produced the knit collar , Cuff etc. 6. Yarn Dyed fabric: At first , dyeing the yarn then produced the fabric by color yarn that is called yarn dyed fabric. 7. Piece dyed fabric: when produced the fabric by Natural color yarn that is called Raw Fabric. For produced the Piece dyed fabric at first bleaching the raw fabric then dyeing .so that is called Piece dyed or Solid dyed fabric. 8. Feeder Stripe: More color yarns are used in the Feeder stripe but Repeat size will be 2 inch. 9. Engineering stripe: More color yarns are used in the Feeder stripe but Repeat size are not fixed.TC Fabric / PC Fabric Analysis: Polyester CottonWarp (TC) = 65% 35 %Weft 100% Cotton = 100% 0%Total = 165% 35%165% divided by 2 = 82.5% Polyester35 divided by 2 = 17.5% cottonTherefore, The fabric is TC 82.5% polyester , 17.5% cotton.However , if you change the weft from 100% polyester to 100% cotton, thenthis fabric is CVC. See following calculation:
  11. 11. Polyester CottonWarp (TC) = 65% 35 %Weft 100% Cotton = 0% 100%Total = 65% 135%65% divided by 2 = 32.5% Polyester135 divided by 2 = 67.5% cottonTherefore, The fabric is CVC 32.5% polyester , 67.5% cotton.Fabric , GSM, & Yarn Count Fabric Name Weight /GSM Yarn CountSingle Jersey 200-230 20sSingle Jersey 180-190 24sSingle Jersey 165-175 26sSingle Jersey 150/155-165 28sSingle Jersey 135-145 30sSingle Jersey 125-135 32s Fabric Name Weight / GSM Yarn CountPique 235-240 24sPique 220-225 26sPique 190-210 28sPique 180-190 30sPique 160-170 32s Fabric Name Weight / GSM Yarn CountInterlock Fabric 260-270 30sInterlock Fabric 240-250 32sInterlock Fabric 220-230 34sInterlock Fabric 200-210 36sInterlock Fabric 190-200 40s Fabric Name Weight / GSM Yarn CountRib Fabric 280-300 20s
  12. 12. Rib Fabric 240-260 24sRib Fabric 220-230 26sRib Fabric 200-210/215 28sRib Fabric 180-200 30sRib Fabric 160-180 32s Fabric Name Weight / GSM Yarn CountFleece Fabric 310 26/20sFleece Fabric 280 30/16sFleece Fabric 260 30/24sFleece Fabric 240 30/26sFabric knitting costSl. Machine Yarn Knitting charge Fabric TypeNo. Gauge Count Per Kg in Taka 20/s- 1 Single Jersey (M/C Dia 19-38) 24 10 30/s 20/s- 2 Single Jersey (M/C Dia 40-48) 24 11 30/s 26/s- 3 Single Jersey 28 13 30/s 34/s- 4 Single Jersey 24 14-16 40/s 16/s- 5 Single Jersey 20 16-25 18/s 6 Single Jersey Slub Yarn 24 15-20 7 Single Jersey Slub Yarn 20 18-20 S/J D/Yarn F/ Stripe(M/C Dia 8 24 20-30 18-40) S/J D/Yarn F/ Stripe(M/C Dia 9 24 28-30 42-48) S/J D/Yarn F/ Stripe(M/C Dia 10 20 25-30 18-40) S/J D/Yarn F/ Stripe(M/C Dia 11 20 35-40 42-48) 40/2- 12 Heavy Jersey (2 ply) 20 15-18 26/2 30/s- 13 Half Feeder Lycra S/Jersey 24 22-24 40/s
  13. 13. H.F.Lycra S/J Yarn Dyed Stripe14 24 30-35 (M/C Dia 18-40) H.F.Lycra S/J Yarn Dyed Stripe15 24 40-45 (M/C Dia 42-48) 30/s-16 Full Feeder Lycra S/Jersey 24/28 28 34/s 36/s-17 Full Feeder Lycra S/Jersey 24/28 30 40/s F.F.Lycra S/J Yarn Dyed Stripe18 24 38-40 (M/C Dia 18-40) F.F.Lycra S/J Yarn Dyed Stripe19 24 48-50 (M/C Dia 42-48) 30/s-20 P.K / Lacost 24 15 24/s 30/s-21 P.K / Lacost 20 18 20/s 34/s-22 P.K / Lacost 28 20 26/s23 P.K F/Stripe (M/C Dia 18-40) 24 25-3024 P.K F/Stripe (M/C Dia 18-40) 20 30-3525 P.K F/Stripe (M/C Dia 42-48) 24 30-4026 P.K F/Stripe (M/C Dia 42-48) 20 45-50 30/s-27 1X1 Normal RIB 18 15 20/s 32/s-28 1X1 Normal RIB 18 18 36/s 30/s-29 Yarn Dyed (1X1) Stripe Rib 18 25-30 20/s 30/s-30 Lycra RIB (Half Feeder) 18 25-30 26/s 30/s-31 Lycra RIB (Full Feeder) 18 35-40 40/s 30/s-32 (2X1) RIB 18 25-28 20/s 30/s-33 (2X2) RIB 18 28-30 20/s 30/s-34 (2X1) H. Feeder Lycra Rib 18 35 24/s 30/s-35 (2X1) H. Feeder Lycra Rib 18 45 24/s36 Plain Interlock 22/24 UP TO 18
  14. 14. 32/s 34/s-37 Plain Interlock 22/24 20 40/s 40/s-38 Plain Interlock 28 28-36 50/s39 Interlock Feeder Stripe 24 35-4040 Interlock H.F Ly. Attachement 24 35-40 30/s-41 Interlock D / Needle 24 25-30 40/s42 Mash/Flat Back Rib 60-80 Three Thread Fleece (French43 18 Terry)44 Cross Terry 20-22 Three Thread Lycra Fleece (45 35-40 French Terry)46 Two Thread Fleece 20-2247 Two Thread Lycra Terry 35-4048 Engineering Stripe (4 Color) S/J 24 100-11049 Engineering Stripe (6 Color) S/J 24 120-13050 Engineering Stripe 2Ply 20 130-15051 Engineering Stripe 2Ply 16 160-170 Engineering Stripe (4 Color)52 24 120-125 P.K/Lacost Engineering Stripe (6 Color)53 24 130-140 P.K/Lacost Eng. Stripe (4&6 Color) (H/54 24 220-230 Feeder Lycra S/J.P.K) Eng. Stripe (4&6 Color) (F/55 24 240-250 Feeder Lycra S/J.P.K)56 Eng. Stripe Flat Back Rib 30057 Eng. Stripe Terry 24/20 180-220 Engineering Stripe (6 Color)58 170-180 RIB Engineering Stripe (6 Color)59 180-190 Interlock Engineering Stripe (6 Color)60 250-300 Lycra RIB / Interlock Engineering Stripe 2X1 F.61 350-400 Feeder Lycra Rib Engineering Stripe 2X1 H.62 350 Feeder Lycra Rib
  15. 15. 63 Pointal Rib (Normal) 70-100

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