English literature - 12.11.2013

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English literature - 12.11.2013

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English literature - 12.11.2013

  1. 1. Middle English
  2. 2. Cnut’s Danish-English Empire 1014-1035
  3. 3. Harold Godwin Earl of Wessex William of Normandy
  4. 4. The Norman Invasion 1066
  5. 5. Battle of Hastings • Harold Godwin dies • Normans pillage southern England • Christmas 1066: Enthronement of William of Normandy
  6. 6. After the Norman Conquest 1066-1204 William replaces the old English nobility by a new Norman nobility. Soon, every important position in government, church and at universities was held by a Norman.
  7. 7. Norman property in England and France 1204 Loss of Normandy
  8. 8. English in the 13th century After loss of Normandy: French remains the dominant language of the upper classes. At the end of the 13th century, English is used more commonly by the upper classes. King Henry III 1216-1272
  9. 9. The growing importance of English 1. Upper classes need to communicate with their people. 2. After the loss of the Normandy, French was no longer needed. 3. Speaking French was fashionable in the 13th century, but Norman French had much lower prestige than the French spoken in Paris.
  10. 10. Early French loan words (1066-1250) baron noble servant messenger feast
  11. 11. French loan words: nouns action age bucket carpenter coast cost courage adventure air calendar city comfort country coward number pair person powder river sign opinion
  12. 12. French loan words: nouns ease error noise flower Honor manner damage envy face fault force hour task debt poverty reason season sound use honor people
  13. 13. French loan words: verbs advise approach betray serve conceal count declare desire aim arrange change comfort consider deceive defeat enjoy allow arrive chase complain continue destroy delay enter
  14. 14. French loan words: verbs force inform marry pay praise prove refuse waste form join obey wait prefer push relieve satisfy increase suppose observe please propose receive remember save
  15. 15. French loan words: adjectives able brief clear courageous eager fierce foreign active calm common cruel easy final gentle actual certain contrary curious faint firm hasty
  16. 16. French loan words: adjectives honest large original precious rude second special horrible natural perfect pure safe simple stable innocent nice poor real scarce single usual
  17. 17. Government and administration government empire court traitor liberty prince sir crown realm parliament treason office baron madam state authority assembly exile mayor duke mistress
  18. 18. Church and religion religion prayer chant abbey saint faith sermon lesson sacrifice cloister miracle mercy confess passion chapter virgin mystery pity virtue preach pray
  19. 19. Law justice crime bill evidence ransom award prison blame pledge acquit property entail equity judge petition proof verdict fine accuse arrest condemn fraud estate just judgment attorney complaint bail sentence punishment indict seize convict perjury heir innocent
  20. 20. Army and navy army enemy siege retreat spy navy battle defense soldier captain pace combat ambush guard besiege
  21. 21. Fashion dress robe veil embellish fur habit coat mitten blue jewel fashion collar adorn brown ivory
  22. 22. Meals and food dinner taste beef sausage cream fruits lemon spice supper appetite veal bacon sugar orange cherry mustard boil salmon pork gravy salad roast peach vinegar
  23. 23. Furniture, social life couch lamp recreation fool stable forest chair blanket leisure music retrieve park screen wardrobe dance chess falcon tournament
  24. 24. Art, learning, medicine art color tone tower column rime pen geometry clause stomach painting figure cathedral porch vase story study grammar copy ointment beauty image ceiling bay poet paper logic noun medicine poison
  25. 25. Loss of Germanic words French borrowing Lost English word poor people guilty army warrior air confess praise earm leod scyldig here cempa lyft andettan hearian
  26. 26. Semantic differentiation French loan English word judgment judge cordial power demand desire beef pork veal mutton doom deem hearty might ask wish ox swine calf cheep
  27. 27. Old English verbal prefixes for- (German ver-) forget, forbear, forbid with- (German mit-) withdraw, withhold to- (German zu-) ---
  28. 28. English derivational morphemes -hood childhood, likelihood, manhood -ship friendship, kinship, hardship -dom freedom, wisdom, kingdom
  29. 29. Romans verbal affixes Verbal prefixes inter–, counter–, re–, trans–, anti–, dis–, Verbal suffixes –able, –ible, –ent, –al, –ous, –ive
  30. 30. The 100 Year’s War 1337-1453
  31. 31. Rise of new middle class Craftsmen Merchants
  32. 32. Black Death 1349
  33. 33. Loan words from Latin adjacent custody genius homicide individual infinite conspiracy distract gesture include infancy innate contempt frustrate history incredible suppress intellect
  34. 34. Loan words from Latin interrupt minor necessary polite project reject legal moderate nervous popular submit summary magnify private picture prevent prosody substitute
  35. 35. Loan words from Flemish, Dutch, Low German deck rover easel dock booze etching freight gin landscape
  36. 36. Middle English Grammar The structure of Middle English is radically different from the structure of Old English. Old English is a highly inflectional language. Middle English has very little morphology.
  37. 37. Spelling <þ> and <ð> were gradually replaced by <th> <k> for [k] <sh> for [S] <ch> for [tS] Old Engl. Middle E. Old Engl. Middle E. Old Engl. Middle E. cyssan cneow cene kiss knee keen scamu scearp shame sharp cild ceap cinn child cheap chinn
  38. 38. Spelling [u] <ou> or <ow> [x] <gh> OE OE þoht riht ME thought right OE hwæt hwil ME what while hu thu hus brun ME hour round how thou house brown
  39. 39. Consonants Bilabial Labiodental Stop Interdental p b Alveola Alveola Velar r -palatal t d Affricate Fricative Nasal f v m Lateral Retroflex Glide w T D s z n l r k g tS dZ S Z y h
  40. 40. Phonological changes vine (Fr.) fine (Fr.) view (Fr.) few (Engl.) vile (Fr.) file (Engl.)
  41. 41. Phonological changes [hu:zian] > [hu:zia] > [hu:z] ‘to house’ V [hu:s] [hu:s] ‘a house’ N bath breath bathe breathe life knife live knives
  42. 42. Vowels Long vowels Short vowels i: u: e: o: a: i u e @ a o
  43. 43. Diphthongs [iu] [Eu] [au] [Ou] [ai] [Ui] [Oi] trewe fewe clawe bowe dai point chois ‘true’ ‘few’ ‘claw’ ‘bow’ ‘day’ ‘point’ ‘choice’
  44. 44. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) Chaucer.aiff
  45. 45. Morphosyntactic changes 1. Simplification of inflection/morphology 2. Emergence of new grammatical devices: a. analytical verb forms b. rigid word order
  46. 46. Noun declension Old English SG SG NOM stan stan-as GEN stan-es stan-a DAT stan-e stan-um ACC stan stan-as
  47. 47. Noun declension Old English Middle English SG SG SG PL NOM stan stan-as stan stan-es GEN stan-es stan-a stan-es stan-es DAT stan-e stan-um stan stan-es ACC stan stan-as stan stan-es
  48. 48. Function of morphological case markers (1) Peter’s car (2) Der Mann gibt dem Jungen den Stift.
  49. 49. Noun declension Old English Middle English SG SG SG PL NOM stan stan-as stan stan-es GEN stan-es stan-a stan-es stan-es DAT stan-e stan-um stan stan-es ACC stan stan-as stan stan-es
  50. 50. Noun declension South Old English Middle English SG SG PL SG PL NOM eag-a eag-an eye eye-n GEN eag-an stan-ena eye-s eye-n DAT eag-an stan-um eye eye-n ACC eag-an stan-an eye eye-n
  51. 51. Relics of the -en plural in EME EME eyen shoon hosen housen peasen PDE ‘eyes’ ‘shoes’ ‘hose’ ‘houses’ ‘peas’
  52. 52. Relics of the -en plural in ME oxen children brethren
  53. 53. Gender NEUT Þæt scip ‘that.N ship’ MASC se sta:n ‘that.M stone’ FEM seo giefu ‘that.F gift’
  54. 54. Demonstratives that/the Masc Neut NOM se þæt GEN þæs þæs DAT þæm þæ:m ACC þone þæt INST þy: þy: SG proximal distal PL this that these those
  55. 55. Third person pronouns 3SG M Subj Obj Poss 3SG F 3 SG N 3 PL he him his heo, sche hit, it he, hi, thei hire, her hit, it, him hem, them hir(e), her(e) his here, thair
  56. 56. First and second person pronouns 1. person 2. person SG Subj Obj Poss PL SG PL ich, I me mine, mi we us ure, our þu, thou þe, thee þin(e), i ye, ye you, eu, you yur(e), your
  57. 57. Adjectives OE SG MASC NOM ACC GEN DAT INSTR NEUT FEM til til-ne til-es til-um til-e til til til-es til-um til-e til-u til-e til-re til-re
  58. 58. Verbal inflection OE Indicative 1. Sg 2. Sg 3. Sg Pl. Subjunctive Sg. Pl. Present Past sing-e sing-est sing-eð sing-að sang sang-e sang sung-on sing-e sing-en sung-e sung-en
  59. 59. Verbal inflection in Middle English Person: -s (3rd person) Number lost Tense -ed / Ablaut Mood lost
  60. 60. Grammatical innovations Morphological cases were replaced by new word order patterns. Tense and mood affixes were replaced by new analytical verb forms.
  61. 61. Word order in main clauses Old English (1) Þa eode se biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church ‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’ Middle English (2) In the contre of Ethyop they slen here childeryn byforn here goddys. ‘In the country of Ethiopia they slay their children in front of their gods.’
  62. 62. Word order in main clauses Nowe haue ye herde þe vertues & þe significacouns. ‘Now have you heard the virtues and the meanings.’ (1) (2) (3) Never has Peter talked to him. Under no circumstance would she talk to him. Only on the weekend does he have time to cook dinner.
  63. 63. Word order in subordinate clauses (1) … þat ðu þis weork naht ne forlate. ‘… that you this work not (not) neglect.’ (2) If a man will þe harme… ‘If a man wants (to) you harm… .’
  64. 64. Word order in questions (1) Woot ye not where ther stant a litel toun … know you not where there stand a little town ‘Don’t you know where the little town is? (2) Why make ye youreself for to be lyk a fool? Why make you yourself for to be like a fool ‘Why do you make a fool of yourself?’
  65. 65. Analytical verb forms Future Perfect Passive Progressive Modal verbs will catch have caught is caught is catching can / may / must catch
  66. 66. Future and swiche wolle have the kyngdom of helle, and not of hevene. ‘and such will have the kingdom of hell, and not of heaven’
  67. 67. Perfect (1) Ic hæbbe [þo-ne fisc gefange-ne] I have the-ACC fish caught-ACC ‘I have the fish caught’ (=I have the fish in a state of being caught)
  68. 68. Perfect (1) thin geleafa hæfth the gehæled. your faith has you healed ‘Your faith has healed you.’ (2) Ac hie hæfdon þa… hiora mete genotudne. but they had then… their food used-up ‘But they had then used up their food.’
  69. 69. Perfect (1) a. Peter has a fish caught. (Peter has a caught fish) b. Peter has caught a fish.
  70. 70. Perfect (1) þou hauest don oure kunne wo ‘You have done our family woe.’ (2) I am com to myne ende. ‘I have come to my end.’
  71. 71. Passive Vorgangspassive: Zustandspassive wesen weorthan [men] that wol nat be governed by hir wyves. ‘[men] that will not be governed by their wives.’
  72. 72. Progressive Participle (1) For now is gode Gawayn goande ryght here. For now is good Gawain going right here. Gerund (2) I am yn beldyng of a pore hous. ‘I am in (the process of) building a poor house.’
  73. 73. (1) Below you see a summary of Grimm’s law. What does Grimm’s law describe? *p t k > f D x/h *b d g > ptk *bh dh gh > bdg (2) Explain how Latin influenced English in the OE period. (3) Characterize the basic word order of OE. (4) Characterize the vocabulary that English borrowed from Old Norse. (5) What is the historical source of the present perfect in Modern English? (6) Characterize the major developmental changes in the English grammar during the ME period.
  74. 74. Perfect (1) Ic hæbbe [þo-ne fisc gefange-ne] I have the-ACC fish caught-ACC ‘I have the fish caught’ (=I have the fish in a state of being caught)
  75. 75. Grammatical innovations Loss of inflectional morphology. Development of rigid word order. Development of analytical verb forms.
  76. 76. Word order in main clauses Old English (1) Þa eode se biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church ‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’ Middle English (2) In the contre of Ethyop they slen here childeryn byforn here goddys. ‘In the country of Ethiopia they slay their children in front of their gods.’
  77. 77. Word order in main clauses Nowe haue ye herde þe vertues & þe significacouns. ‘Now have you heard the virtues and the meanings.’ (1) (2) (3) Never has Peter talked to him. Under no circumstance would she talk to him. Only on the weekend does he have time to cook dinner.
  78. 78. Future and swiche wolle have the kyngdom of helle, and not of hevene. ‘and such will have the kingdom of hell, and not of heaven’
  79. 79. Passive Vorgangspassive: Zustandspassive wesen weorthan [men] that wol nat be governed by hir wyves. ‘[men] that will not be governed by their wives.’
  80. 80. Modal verbs (1) þat y mowe riche be ‘that I may rich be’ (1) (2) (3) (4) *Do I may go home *I do not may go home. *I may to go. *I am maying go home.
  81. 81. Was Middle English a creole? (Baugh & Cable p.125)
  82. 82. Middle English was not a creole: The development of Middle English was very different from the development of a creole language. Although Middle English has very little morphology, it has complex syntactic structures and an intricate phonological system.
  83. 83. The discussion about the creolization of English demonstrates how radically English changed in Middle English: 1. different vocabulary 2. different grammar
  84. 84. What led to the grammatical changes? The Norman Conquest had a significant effect on the English vocabulary, but did it also affect the English grammar?
  85. 85. Why did English grammar change so much? • The stress pattern • The contact with Old Norse • The loss of an English standard
  86. 86. Middle English Dialects
  87. 87. And one of theym named Sheffelde, a mercer, cam in-to an hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.
  88. 88. Middle English Dialects South North eyr-en egg-es South North –eth –es loveth loves South North –inde –ande lovinde lovande South North hi, here, hem they
  89. 89. Languages and Dialects What distinguishes a language from a dialect?
  90. 90. Scandinavian languages
  91. 91. Chinese Dialects
  92. 92. Dialects vs. Languages The distinction between the terms language and dialect is based on a variety of criteria: 1. linguistic (mutual intelligibility), 2. political, 3. social, 4. cultural.
  93. 93. Regional transitions are fluid

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