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Ecology notes ppt


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Ecology notes ppt

  1. 1. Ecology Unit Biology
  2. 2. Key concepts include:• interactions within and among populations• nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems• the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems
  3. 3. What is ecology?Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer• It is a science of relationships.
  4. 4. What do you mean by environment?The environment is made up of two factors:Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the EarthAbiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)
  5. 5. BiosphereEcosystem Community Population Organism
  6. 6. Organism- any unicellular ormulticellular form exhibiting all of thecharacteristics of life, an individual.•The lowest level of organization
  7. 7. Population-a group of organisms ofone species living in the same placeat the same time that interbreedand compete with each other forresources (ex. food, mates, shelter)
  8. 8. Community- several interactingpopulations that inhabit a commonenvironment and are interdependent.
  9. 9. Ecosystem- populations in acommunity and the abiotic factorswith which they interact (ex.marine, terrestrial)
  10. 10. Biosphere- life supporting portionsof Earth composed of air, land,fresh water, and salt water.•The highest level of organization
  11. 11. “The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organisms ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.”Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology
  12. 12. Habitat vs. NicheNiche - the role a species plays ina community (job)Habitat- the place in which anorganism lives out its life(address)
  13. 13. Habitat vs. NicheA niche is determined by thetolerance limitations of anorganism, or a limiting factor.Limiting factor- any biotic orabiotic factor that restricts theexistence of organisms in aspecific environment.
  14. 14. Feeding Relationships• There are 3 main types of feeding relationships 1. Producer- Consumer 2. Predator- Prey 3. Parasite- Host
  15. 15. Feeding RelationshipsProducer- all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun• Bottom of the food chain
  16. 16. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers
  17. 17. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Herbivores – Eat plants• Primary consumers• Prey animals
  18. 18. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer-Carnivores-eat meat• Predators – Hunt prey animals for food.
  19. 19. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Carnivores- eat meat• Scavengers – Feed on carrion, dead animals
  20. 20. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Omnivores -eat both plants and animals
  21. 21. Feeding RelationshipsConsumer- Decomposers • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed
  22. 22. Symbiotic RelationshipsSymbiosis- two species living together 3 Types of symbiosis: 1. Commensalism 2. Parasitism 3. Mutualism
  23. 23. Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. orchids on a treeEpiphytes: A plant, such as atropical orchid or a bromeliad,that grows on another plantupon which it depends formechanical support but not fornutrients. Also calledaerophyte, air plant.
  24. 24. Symbiotic RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. polar bears and cyanobacteria
  25. 25. Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism-one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)• Parasite-Host relationship
  26. 26. Symbiotic RelationshipsParasitism- parasite-hostEx. lampreys,leeches, fleas,ticks,tapeworm
  27. 27. Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
  28. 28. Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both speciesEx. lichen
  29. 29. Type of Species Species Speciesrelationship harmed benefits neutralCommensalismParasitismMutualism = 1 species
  30. 30. Trophic Levels• Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level.• Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
  31. 31. Trophic LevelsBiomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat.• As you move up a food chain, both available energy and biomass decrease.• Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished with each transfer.
  32. 32. Trophic LevelsE Tertiary consumers- top carnivoresN Secondary consumers-E small carnivoresR Primary consumers- HerbivoresG Producers- AutotrophsY
  33. 33. Trophic LevelsFood chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
  34. 34. Trophic LevelsFood web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level• Represents a network of interconnected food chains
  35. 35. Food chain Food web(just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)
  36. 36. Nutrient CyclesCycling maintains homeostasis(balance) in the environment. •3 cycles to investigate: 1. Water cycle 2. Carbon cycle 3. Nitrogen cycle
  37. 37. Water cycle- •Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation
  38. 38. Water cycle-
  39. 39. Carbon cycle- •Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through the environment.
  40. 40. Carbon cycle-
  41. 41. Nitrogen cycle-Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly78%-80% of air.Organisms can not use it in that form.Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen intousable forms.
  42. 42. Nitrogen cycle-Only in certain bacteria and industrialtechnologies can fix nitrogen.Nitrogen fixation-convert atmosphericnitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+)which can be used to make organiccompounds like amino acids. N2 NH4+
  43. 43. Nitrogen cycle-Nitrogen-fixingbacteria:Some live in asymbioticrelationship withplants of the legumefamily (e.g.,soybeans, clover,peanuts).
  44. 44. Nitrogen cycle-•Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria livefree in the soil.•Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria areessential to maintaining the fertilityof semi-aquatic environments like ricepaddies.
  45. 45. Atmospheric Nitrogen CycleLightning nitrogen Denitrification by bacteria Animals Nitrogen fixing bacteria Plants Decomposers Nitrification Nitrites NitratesAmmonium by bacteria
  46. 46. Toxins in food chains-While energy decreases as it moves upthe food chain, toxins increase inpotency.•This is called biological magnificationEx: DDT & Bald Eagles