Dna and rna


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Dna and rna

  1. 1. DNA & Protein Synthesis
  2. 2. History <ul><li>Before the 1940’s scientists didn’t know what material caused inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>They suspected it was either DNA or proteins. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>A series of experiments proved that DNA was the genetic material responsible for inheritance. </li></ul>
  4. 5. DNA O O=P-O O Phosphate Group N Nitrogenous base (A, T , G, C) CH2 O C 1 C 4 C 3 C 2 5 Sugar (deoxyribose)
  5. 6. DNA - double helix P P P O O O 1 2 3 4 5 5 3 3 5 P P P O O O 1 2 3 4 5 5 3 5 3 G C T A T A
  6. 7. DNA <ul><li>The genetic code is a sequence of DNA nucleotides in the nucleus of cells. </li></ul>
  7. 8. DNA <ul><li>DNA is complementary </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary: bases on one strand match up with the bases on the other strand (A-T and G-C) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Strand 1- ATG GGC CTA </li></ul><ul><li>Strand 2- TAC CCG GAT </li></ul>
  8. 9. DNA Replication <ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which DNA copies itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens when chromosomes copy themselves before mitosis and meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-conservative replication: Each new piece of DNA is made up of 1 old strand and 1 new strand </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Original DNA DNA unzips Each original strand grows a new strand
  10. 11. <ul><li>DNA never ever leaves the nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is the master copy of the directions a cell needs to live so it needs to be protected </li></ul></ul>DNA in the nucleus is safe But DNA in the cytoplasm can be destroyed
  11. 12. DNA <ul><li>Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>A gene is a stretch of DNA. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>RNA is a copy of DNA that goes out into the cytoplasm to tell the cell what to do in order to stay alive </li></ul><ul><li>RNA: ribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>You can always make more RNA so it’s ok if it gets destroyed (You can’t make more DNA!!!) </li></ul>
  13. 14. RNA O O=P-O O Phosphate Group N Nitrogenous base (A, U , G, C ) CH2 O C 1 C 4 C 3 C 2 5 Sugar (ribose)
  14. 15. T – A G – C U – A G – C Phos-phate Group Deoxyribose Sugar Nitro-gen Base Phos-phate Group Ribose Sugar Nitro-gen Base DNA RNA How many strands? 2 1 Nucleotide subunit Deoxyribose sugar Ribose sugar Bases ______ (T) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) ______ (U) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C)
  15. 16. RNA <ul><li>Function: obtain information from DNA & synthesizes proteins </li></ul>
  16. 17. 3 differences from DNA <ul><li>Single strand instead of double strand </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose instead of deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Uracil instead of thymine </li></ul>
  17. 18. 3 types of RNA <ul><li>Messenger RNA (mRNA)- copies information from DNA for protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Codon - 3 base pairs that </li></ul><ul><li>code for a single amino </li></ul><ul><li>acid. </li></ul>codon
  18. 19. 3 types of RNA <ul><li>2. Transfer RNA (tRNA)- collects amino acids for protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Anticodon -a sequence of 3 bases that are complementary base pairs to a codon in the mRNA </li></ul>
  19. 20. 3 types of RNA <ul><li>3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- combines with proteins to form ribosomes </li></ul>
  20. 21. Amino Acids <ul><li>Amino acids- the building blocks of protein </li></ul><ul><li>At least one kind of tRNA is present for each of the 20 amino acids used in protein synthesis. </li></ul>