Benchmark 1 study guide


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Review of scientific method, water, biomolecules, enzymes, vitamins and minerals

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Benchmark 1 study guide

  1. 1. Benchmark 1 Study Guide Honors Biology
  2. 2. Lab Safety <ul><li>When working with chemicals, heat, or glassware, safety goggles and an apron should always be worn </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to use all safety equipment and where it is located in case of an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Never place a stopper in a test tube before heating </li></ul>
  3. 3. Metric Measurements <ul><li>Time = Seconds (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Distance/Length = Meters (m) </li></ul><ul><li>Volume/Liquids = Liters (L) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature = Celsius (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass = Grams (g) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Biology Measurements <ul><li>Small measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>Milli = 0.001 </li></ul><ul><li>Micro = 0.00001 </li></ul><ul><li>Nano = 0.000000001 </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic organisms = micro or nanometers in length </li></ul><ul><li>Short distance = mm </li></ul><ul><li>Small liquid dosage = mL </li></ul><ul><li>Common Lab Measurement Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>A graduated cylinder is used for precise mL measurements </li></ul><ul><li>A beaker is used for L measurements </li></ul><ul><li>A meter stick with cm/mm is used for precise short lengths </li></ul>
  5. 5. Experimental Design <ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>What “I” set up (CAUSE) </li></ul><ul><li>Always plotted on the X-axis </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>What “I” measure (EFFECT) </li></ul><ul><li>Always plotted on the Y-axis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Practice #1. . . <ul><li>What is the IV of this experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>In what unit is the IV measured? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the DV of this experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>In what unit is the DV measured? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Practice #2. . . <ul><li>What is the IV of this experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the DV of this experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of three constants that would be appropriate? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Practice. . . <ul><li>Based upon the data table, what question do you think this experiment was trying to answer ? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain. . . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Practice #3. . . <ul><li>The table below shows the number of species of different types of simple land plants. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the table, approximately what proportion of all simple plant species are bryophytes?     </li></ul><ul><li>A     1/3   B     1/2   C     2/3   D     3/4 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Which of these is an accurate statement about the data?   <ul><li>A    The beginning and the end of the song sparrow's sound pattern are identical.   </li></ul><ul><li>B     The swamp sparrow's sound pattern is similar to the white-crowned sparrow's sound pattern.   </li></ul><ul><li>C     The end of the white-crowned sparrow's sound pattern is very different from its beginning.   </li></ul><ul><li>D     The end of the swamp sparrow's sound pattern is identical to the end of the song sparrow's sound pattern. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bias <ul><li>Placebos are used to set up control groups when human beings are test subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo = sugar pill – It is identical in shape, size, and color to medication but it contains no medicine. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bias <ul><li>Unintentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental sources of bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be the result of not setting up enough constants OR forgetting to set up a control group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposely skewing data, omitting trials, or falsifying test results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually done to make your hypothesis appear correct </li></ul></ul>Remember: GOOD SCIENTIFIC DESIGN IS REPEATABLE BY ANYONE WITH SIMILAR RESULTS
  13. 13. Important Properties of Water <ul><li>High Heat Capacity: Allows for temperature homeostasis in living things and keeps bodies of water at a relatively stable temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Polarity: Causes cohesion of water molecules and adhesion of water to other substances </li></ul><ul><li>High Surface Tension: Gives small insects the ability to skim across water/due to cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Solvent: Many substances are able to dissolve in to water forming solutions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Fluoride dissolves into drinking water because it is attracted to polar water molecules </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Water and pH <ul><li>Water is neutral with a pH of 7. </li></ul><ul><li>All substances below 7 = acids </li></ul><ul><li>All substances above 7 = bases </li></ul><ul><li>The further from 7 a substance is, the STRONGER it is considered on the pH scale </li></ul>
  15. 15. pH Scale Remember: BOTTOM of the pH scale = acids TOP of the pH scale = bases (It is not based upon orientation of a particular picture)
  16. 16. Inorganic Vs. Organic <ul><li>Inorganic = no carbon </li></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul><ul><li>MINERALS </li></ul><ul><li>Organic = containing carbon bonded to hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>LIPIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEIC ACIDS VITAMINS </li></ul>
  17. 17. Building Blocks <ul><li>Carbohydrates. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids. . . </li></ul><ul><li>. . .monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>. . .fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>. . .amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>. . .nucleotides (1 sugar + 1 phosphate + 1 base) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Important Examples <ul><li>Carbohydrates = Quick energy source!!! </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULOSE: source of dietary fiber/makes up cell walls in plants and bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>GLUCOSE: molecule created during photosynthesis and used for cellular energy </li></ul><ul><li>STARCH: used in plants to store energy/digested by animals because it contains lots of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids = long-term energy storage </li></ul><ul><li>FATS: molecule used for energy storage in animals </li></ul><ul><li>--Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>--Saturated fats are solid at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>PHOSPHOLIPIDS: makes up cell membranes for all organisms </li></ul>
  19. 19. Important Examples <ul><li>Proteins: Raw materials for structure </li></ul><ul><li>ENZYMES: Special proteins that catalyze important metabolic activities/chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids: Storage and transmission of genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>DNA: Holds genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>RNA: oversees protein production </li></ul>
  20. 20. Important Examples <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>D – Bone growth </li></ul><ul><li>C – Heals wounds </li></ul><ul><li>K – Muscle movement and regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Iron – moves oxygen through blood </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium – Muscle regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium – strong bones and teeth </li></ul>
  21. 21. Enzyme-Substrate Complex <ul><li>Enzyme Function is Specific: the shape of the enzyme’s active site determines which substrate can fit </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes lower activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme reactions keep our metabolic activity functioning properly </li></ul>
  22. 22. Factors Affecting Enzyme Function <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Low temps slow enzyme function </li></ul><ul><li>As temperature increases, enzyme function first increases, then stops (denatured) </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Too high OR too low from optimal range denatures enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: Denatured enzymes are permanently destroyed </li></ul>